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2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 431, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption constitutes a major public health problem as it has negative consequences on the health, social, psychological, and economic outcomes of individuals. Tertiary education presents students with unique challenges and some students resort to the use of alcohol in dealing with their problems. This study, therefore, sought to determine alcohol use, its effects, and associated factors among tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipaility of Ghana. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 418 tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana using a two-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. A binary logistic regression modelling was used to determine the strength of the association between alcohol consumption and the explanatory variables. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Stata version 16.0 was used to perform the analysis. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption was 39.5%. Out of them, 49.1% were still using alcohol, translating to an overall prevalence of 19.4% among the tertiary students. Self-reported perceived effects attributed to alcohol consumption were loss of valuable items (60.6%), excessive vomiting (53.9%), stomach pains/upset (46.1%), accident (40.0%), unprotected sex (35.1%), risk of liver infection (16.4%), depressive feelings (27.3%), diarrhoea (24.2%), debt (15.2%), and petty theft (22.4%). In terms of factors associated with alcohol consumption, students aged 26 years and above were more likely to have consumed alcohol [AOR = 4.4, 95%CI = 1.74, 11.14] than those in 16-20 years group. Muslim students had lower odds of alcohol consumption compared to Christians [AOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.31]. It was also found that students who had peer influence [AOR = 3.7, 95%CI = 2.31, 5.82] and those who had academic adjustment problems [AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.01, 6.46] were more likely to consume alcohol. CONCLUSION: Lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption is high among tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana, with several physical, psychosocial and economic consequences. Alcohol-related education should be intensified in tertiary institutions and counseling units should be equipped with relevant assessment tools to assess and help students who are at risk and those who are already consuming alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudantes , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1644, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to characterize the prevalence of alcohol consumption and further investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We studied 39,259 participants aged 18 to 79 years of the Henan Rural Cohort study. The associations between alcohol consumption and T2DM were examined using the logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline. RESULTS: For men, alcohol abstinence was associated with an increased risk of T2DM (1.491(1.265, 1.758)), whereas current drinkers were not associated with T2DM (1.03(0.91, 1.15)). Further analysis of alcohol drinkers revealed that only high-risk drinkers of WHO drinking risk levels increased the risk of T2DM (1.289(1.061,1.566)) compared to never drinkers. The risk of T2DM increased as the age of starting to consume alcohol decreased and as the number of years of consuming alcohol and the alcohol intake increased only in men. We further found that the risk of T2DM decreased as the number of years of abstinence increases and no association between alcohol abstinence and T2DM was found after more than 10 years of abstinence among men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that reducing the amount of alcohol consumed and adhering to abstinence from alcohol consumption are beneficial in reducing the risk of T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Henan Rural Cohort Study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699). Date of registration: 2015-07-06. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=11375.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3825-3837, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468676

RESUMO

The study aims to describe the consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages according to sociodemographic, health and location variables. Cross-sectional study with ELSA-Brasil data (2008-2010). A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, food, health data and anthropometry. Descriptive analysis and association with variables of interest were carried out. In the sample, 8% of the total caloric value comes from non-alcoholic beverages (5.6%: sugary drinks), and 4% from alcoholic beverages (2.7%: beer). Consumers of unsweetened and artificially sweetened beverages reported moderate/strong physical activity, former smokers and higher education. The opposite was true for sugary drinks. Eutrophic people reported higher consumption of sugary drinks and those obese, artificially sweetened and beer. Alcohol consumption varied with age (young: beer; elderly: wine/spirits) and education (low education: beer/spirits; higher education: wine). Coffee, natural juice and soda were the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and beer was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Consumption variation was observed according to geographic location. The consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages is high in Brazil and public health strategies are required.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Edulcorantes , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 617311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513774

RESUMO

Objectives: To map the alcohol hot spots and understand the Sociodemographic Indices (SDI) affecting alcohol consumption in Indian men and women. Methods: Data from National Family Health Survey-4 carried out from 2015 to 2016 with a sample size of 103,411 men and 699,686 women were used for Geographic Information System mapping, and hot spot identification by spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Gi*). Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze SDI. Results: India has three major alcohol hot spots: (1) North-East (NE) states, (2) Eastern Peninsular states formed by Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, and Telangana, and (3) Southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Hot spot analysis strongly correlated with region-wise analysis of SDI. Respondents who consumed tobacco have higher odds (men adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.42; women aOR: 4.30) of consuming alcohol. Except for religion and social category, other socioeconomic factors have a low to moderate effect on alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Hot spots and high-risk districts of alcohol consumption identified in this study can guide public health policies for targeted intervention. Alcohol use is at the discretion of individual states and union territories, and stringent anti-alcohol policies strictly enforced across India are the keys to control alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 427, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and lifetime criteria profiles of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the transitions from alcohol use to disorder in Chifeng, China. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted using Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 (CIDI-3.0) among 4528 respondents in Chifeng. RESULTS: The weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 AUD were 3.03 and 1.05%, respectively. Mild lifetime AUD was the most prevalent severity level (69.53%). The two most common criteria were "failure to quit/cutdown" and "drinking more or for longer than intended." Lifetime prevalence was 65.59% for alcohol use, and 22.97% for regular drinking. Male and domestic violence were risk factors for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking or AUD and from regular drinking to AUD. Younger age was risk factor for the transition to AUD from alcohol use or regular drinking. Poverty (OR = 2.49) was risk factor for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking. The earlier drinkers were more likely to develop to regular drinking (OR = 2.11). CONCLUSION: AUD prevalence in Chifeng was not as high as that in Western countries. The study revealed that multiple risk factors might contribute to the transition across different stages of alcohol use. Further research should explore the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443679

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is associated with gut dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, and a cascade that leads to persistent systemic inflammation, alcoholic liver disease, and other ailments. Craving for alcohol and its consequences depends, among other things, on the endocannabinoid system. We have analyzed the relative role of central vs. peripheral cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) using a "two-bottle" as well as a "drinking in the dark" paradigm in mice. The globally acting CB1R antagonist rimonabant and the non-brain penetrant CB1R antagonist JD5037 inhibited voluntary alcohol intake upon systemic but not upon intracerebroventricular administration in doses that elicited anxiogenic-like behavior and blocked CB1R-induced hypothermia and catalepsy. The peripherally restricted hybrid CB1R antagonist/iNOS inhibitor S-MRI-1867 was also effective in reducing alcohol consumption after oral gavage, while its R enantiomer (CB1R inactive/iNOS inhibitor) was not. The two MRI-1867 enantiomers were equally effective in inhibiting an alcohol-induced increase in portal blood endotoxin concentration that was caused by increased gut permeability. We conclude that (i) activation of peripheral CB1R plays a dominant role in promoting alcohol intake and (ii) the iNOS inhibitory function of MRI-1867 helps in mitigating the alcohol-induced increase in endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Endotoxemia/patologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Animais , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/complicações , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalepsia/induzido quimicamente , Catalepsia/complicações , Cicloexanóis/administração & dosagem , Teste de Labirinto em Cruz Elevado , Endotoxemia/sangue , Endotoxemia/complicações , Endotoxinas/sangue , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hipotermia Induzida , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Rimonabanto/administração & dosagem , Rimonabanto/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444939

RESUMO

Globally, almost four and a half million people died from injury in 2019. Alcohol's contribution to injury-related premature loss of life, disability and ill-health is pervasive, touching individuals, families and societies throughout the world. We conducted a review of research evidence for alcohol's causal role in injury by focusing on previously published systematic reviews, meta-analyses and where indicated, key studies. The review summarises evidence for pharmacological and physiological effects that support postulated causal pathways, highlights findings and knowledge gaps relevant to specific forms of injury (i.e., violence, suicide and self-harm, road injury, falls, burns, workplace injuries) and lays out options for evidence-based prevention.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-08-05.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54593

RESUMO

This summary report provides a synopsis of the key messages and the agreed set of strategic actions to advance the enactment, implementation, and enforcement of NCD risk factor policies through laws and regulations in the Caribbean at the country and regional levels. It should be read together with the full Subregional Workshop Report available at https://iris.paho.org/handle/10665.2/53821.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Obesidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Rotulagem de Produtos , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Avaliação da Deficiência , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Diabetes Mellitus , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Região do Caribe
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444544

RESUMO

This study classified the changes in alcohol use behavior among Korean adults and explored the related factors. The study used data from the 4th (2009) to 14th (2019) waves of the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The subjects were 8267 adults aged 19-60 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to classify the latent classes of alcohol use behavior among Korean adults, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the specific factors that form the classes. Additionally, the 11-year trajectories of major variables associated with alcohol use behavior for the derived classes were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Four classes were identified according to the trajectories of alcohol use behavior. There were statistically significant differences in the trajectories of depression, self-esteem, satisfaction in family relationships, and satisfaction in leisure activities according to the class of alcohol use behavior. In particular, self-esteem and satisfaction in family relationships indicated distinctly decreasing trajectories in the low- to moderate-risk class, which suggested the need for longitudinal analysis of the factors that influence alcohol use behavior. Moreover, it is recommended that interventions for the prevention of high-risk drinking target not only individuals but also family units.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Satisfação Pessoal , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444571

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of the 'pre-intervention effects' of a community-based intervention. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. The aim was to investigate the contribution of these processes (i.e., pre-intervention effects) to changes in intervention-targeted factors before any actual intervention was implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). A regression analysis showed negative pre-intervention main effects on adolescents' perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Additionally, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but the involvement of and discussions in the community when planning the intervention contribute to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Autorrelato
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444638

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the drinking culture in Korea by sex, age, household type, occupation, and income level to identify demographic groups with prominent drinking behaviors and factors affecting their drinking. Furthermore, we evaluated recent changes, including those due to COVID-19, in drinking behavior, using data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study from 2010 to 2020. Panel analysis was performed to reveal the effects of material deprivation, depression, and sociodemographic factors on drinking behavior. We used the AUDIT 3 scale including frequency of drinking, average amount of drinking, and frequency of excessive drinking. The two characteristics of Korean drinking are consistent with the claim of the ecological system theory that humans, as social beings, drink to facilitate social communication or promote problematic drinking when social communication is difficult. Drinking among Koreans is characterized by a pattern that alternates between social drinking and problem drinking. Our study recognizes drinking as a social problem that should be managed at social as well as national levels.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , COVID-19 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5080, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426574

RESUMO

Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) neurons that synthesize corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) drive binge alcohol drinking and anxiety. Here, we found that female C57BL/6J mice binge drink more than males and have greater basal BNSTCRF neuron excitability and synaptic excitation. We identified a dense VGLUT2 + synaptic input from the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) that releases glutamate directly onto BNSTCRF neurons but also engages a large BNST interneuron population to ultimately inhibit BNSTCRF neurons, and this polysynaptic PVTVGLUT2-BNSTCRF circuit is more robust in females than males. Chemogenetic inhibition of the PVTBNST projection promoted binge alcohol drinking only in female mice, while activation reduced avoidance behavior in both sexes. Lastly, repeated binge drinking produced a female-like phenotype in the male PVT-BNSTCRF excitatory synapse without altering the function of PVTBNST neurons per se. Our data describe a complex, feedforward inhibitory PVTVGLUT2-BNSTCRF circuit that is sex-dependent in its function, behavioral roles, and alcohol-induced plasticity.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Sistema Límbico/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Sinapses/patologia , Tálamo/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores , Integrases/metabolismo , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Núcleos Septais/patologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Tálamo/fisiopatologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444240

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the differences in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, mood and bullying between adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of Northern Spain (one in Galiza and four in central Catalonia) that share similar socioeconomic characteristics and encompass around 10,000 inhabitants each. Students living in Burela, Galiza (N = 71) were compared to those of Central Catalonia (N = 193). The independent variable was the municipality of residence. The dependent variables encompassed: weekly available pocket money, Family Affluence Scale, self-classified academic qualification, place of origin, alcohol consumption, tobacco and cannabis smoking, negative mood and bullying. The mean age and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of participants were similar between the regions (Burela: 15.90 years (15.68-16.13) and Central Catalonia: 15.36 years (15.28-15.44)). More than half of the participants were females (Burela, Galiza (53.5%) and Catalonia (54.9%)). Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression models. In comparison with adolescents from Burela (Galiza), those living in Central Catalonia had higher prevalence of diverse academic levels (adjusted PR = 3.92 (1.78-8.66)), tobacco consumption (adjusted PR = 2.41 (1.47-3.97)) and negative mood (adjusted PR = 5.97 (3.05-11.70)). Even when dealing with regions with similar socioeconomic characteristics and number of inhabitants, differences exist in terms of the socioeconomic level, tobacco consumption, mood and bullying, as reported by adolescents.


Assuntos
Bullying , Cannabis , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research has indicated that area-level income inequality is associated with increased risk in alcohol consumption. However, few studies have been conducted among adolescents living within smaller area units, such as neighborhoods. We investigated whether neighborhood income inequality is associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a sample of 1878 adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to determine the role of neighborhood income inequality and the odds for alcohol consumption and to determine if social cohesion and depressive symptoms were mediators. RESULTS: In comparison to the first tertile of income inequality, or the most equal neighborhood, adolescent participants living in the second tertile (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.61) and third tertile (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.96) were more likely to have consumed alcohol in the last 30 days. Social cohesion and depressive symptoms were not observed to mediate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the distribution of incomes within urban areas may be related to alcohol consumption among adolescents. To prevent alcohol consumption, public health practitioners should prioritize prevention efforts for adolescents living in neighborhoods with large gaps between rich and poor.


Assuntos
Renda , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Massachusetts , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444272

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of various alcohol prevention programs on the drinking behavior of adolescents. There were seven electronic databases used for the literature search. A systematic review and meta-analysis are employed for works published in Korean and English from January 2010 to April 2021, with strict inclusion criteria yielding 12 papers in the review. The type of alcohol prevention interventions included educational and motivational interventions. Six studies had more than 500 participants each, and five studies had more than 10 participating schools. The programs did not effectively reduce the frequency of drinking or binge drinking of adolescents but significantly reduced the amount of alcohol consumed. Based on the results of this study, when planning alcohol prevention programs for adolescents, it is necessary to adopt a multi-level approach, including the engagement of parents and the community.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Alcoolismo , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445006

RESUMO

Evidence for effective government policies to reduce exposure to alcohol's carcinogenic and hepatoxic effects has strengthened in recent decades. Policies with the strongest evidence involve reducing the affordability, availability and cultural acceptability of alcohol. However, policies that reduce population consumption compete with powerful commercial vested interests. This paper draws on the Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation (CAPE), a formal assessment of effective government action on alcohol across Canadian jurisdictions. It also draws on alcohol policy case studies elsewhere involving attempts to introduce minimum unit pricing and cancer warning labels on alcohol containers. Canadian governments collectively received a failing grade (F) for alcohol policy implementation during the most recent CAPE assessment in 2017. However, had the best practices observed in any one jurisdiction been implemented consistently, Canada would have received an A grade. Resistance to effective alcohol policies is due to (1) lack of public awareness of both need and effectiveness, (2) a lack of government regulatory mechanisms to implement effective policies, (3) alcohol industry lobbying, and (4) a failure from the public health community to promote specific and feasible actions as opposed to general principles, e.g., 'increased prices' or 'reduced affordability'. There is enormous untapped potential in most countries for the implementation of proven strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. While alcohol policies have weakened in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, societies may now also be more accepting of public health-inspired policies with proven effectiveness and potential economic benefits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá , Comércio/economia , Comércio/normas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Programas Governamentais , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Pandemias , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210042, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article aims to characterize the heavy drinking behavior in the Brazilian population, using data from the two editions of the "National Health Survey" (PNS), 2013 and 2019. METHODS: The sample sizes in 2013 and 2019 were 60,202 and 88,943 individuals aged 18 years or older, respectively. The prevalence of the habit of heavy drinking (defined as 8 or more doses per week for women, and 15 or more doses for men) was estimated, and the confidence intervals were defined by sex, age group, schooling, skin color/race, marital status and household status (urban/rural). Poisson regression models were used to compare prevalence rates. RESULTS: 6.1% of Brazilians were heavy drinkers in 2013, and 7.3% in 2019. In the two editions of the PNS there was a gradient of reduction in heavy drinking throughout life, being the highest prevalence among young adults, men, with low schooling, single and living in the urban area. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence rates expose the need to consider the habit of heavy drinking as a risk factor for the health of the Brazilian population, and the urgency to adopt strategies to reduce it.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360141

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify changes in the hazardous consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis, due to the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 in a cohort of schooled adolescents from Central Catalonia. We also analyzed the effect of the individual and social factors on risky consumption during confinement. This longitudinal study involved a subsample of 303 adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were attending 4th year of compulsory secondary education (ESO), 2nd year of college preparation (baccalaureate), or Vocational and Educational Training (VET). We collected data before COVID-19 lockdown (October 2019-February 2020) and 2 months after the lockdown ended. We estimated the prevalence of risky substance use in the sample at baseline for each independent variable. We used Poisson regression models with robust variance to compute the Cumulative Incidence (CI) and Relative Risk (RR), with their respective 95% confidence interval. We found that VET students had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher risk of substance use: binge drinking (RR = 3.21 (95%CI: 1.00-10.34)); hazardous drinking of alcohol (RR = 3.75 (95%CI: 1.12-12.54)), hazardous consumption of cannabis (RR = 3.75 (95%CI: 0.65-21.59)) and daily smoking of tobacco (RR = 4.82 (95%CI: 1.74-13.39)). The results showed a general trend of reduction of consumption during COVID-19 confinement period. This study suggests that VET students were more likely to engage in hazardous drinking of alcohol and daily smoking of tobacco. No statistically significant differences were found for the other age groups and variables.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Tabaco
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