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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about risky sexual behavior among young people has been widely acknowledged as a key tool to controlling the spread of HIV. This article aimed at presenting the risk behavior of Brazilian Army conscripts toward HIV infection according to the country's geographic regions. . METHOD: We collected data from 37,282 conscripts, aged 17 to 22, during enlistment in the Brazilian Army in 2016. The prevalence of HIV infection, both self-reported and measured through laboratory results, and risk behavior factors were estimated by region. RESULTS: 75% of the sample of conscripts reported to have already started sexual activity, and the average age of their sexual initiation was 15. Condom use varied according to the type of sexual relationship, being lower among steady partners and greater among less stable relationships. HIV prevalence assessed by laboratory tests was 0.12% across the country and the highest prevalence was observed in the North region (0.24%). Alcohol and illicit drug usage was higher in the South region. DISCUSSION: The study allowed the observation of risk behavior monitoring for HIV infection among young Brazilians. Lower condom usage among steady partners may be contributing to an increase in the number of HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the need to intensify prevention campaigns to disseminate safe sex practices among young people, in addition to the expansion of testing offer to this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
4.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3 Suppl. 1): 145-151, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538461

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common craniofacial anomaly affecting around 1 in 700 live births worldwide. Clefts of the human face can be classified anatomically as cleft palate only (CPO), cleft lip only (CLO), cleft lip and palate (CLP) or a combined group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), based on different in embryologic development. These malformations have some genetic origin, in fact several association studies have been performed to obtain important information about the candidate genes; but more important are gene-environment interactions that play an increasing role in its etiology. Epidemiological studies have shown how environmental factors (alcohol, smoking, drugs), as well as possible gene-environment interactions, play an important role in the onset of the malformation. On the contrary, folic acid intake seems to have a protective effect. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors related to onset of cleft.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
5.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 7-13, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465679

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) affect all nations harshly, however, very little is known about the scope of FASD in Swaziland. Alcohol exposure in utero is one of the leading preventable causes of poor fetal birth outcomes. This study assessed the knowledge and practices of pregnant Swazi women, revealing that most participants had knowledge deficit on the effects of consuming alcohol on both the woman (63.3%, n = 19) and her fetus (83.3%, n = 25). The majority (83.0%, n = 25) of the participants reported that they did not drink alcohol, while 16.7% (n = 5) reported that they did consume alcohol. In health facilities, there is a need to intensify health education concerning the effects of alcohol consumption to both the fetus and the pregnant woman. A policy that enforces screening of pregnant women at risk for giving birth to infants with FASD is essential.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Gravidez , Suazilândia
6.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(10): 655-662, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387501

RESUMO

Alcohol and the Bariatric Patient: When One Drink Becomes Two Drinks Abstract. Moderate consumption of alcohol is a risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Alcohol affects all components of the energy balance. Alcohol consumption is - as in the general population - also a widespread phenomenon in obese and bariatric patients. As a function of the bariatric surgery technique, alcohol metabolism is altered: gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy lead to a faster absorption of alcohol, higher peak alcohol concentration and a longer alcohol persistence in the circulation. Further reward mechanisms for alcohol are changed, so that alcohol consumption is enhanced and promoted, with an increased risk to develop alcohol dependency. It is time to address these issues in the daily practice and to fill the existing research gaps.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Etanol , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Obesidade
7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(7): 487-494, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis is a common surgical emergency. Identifying variations in presentation, incidence and management may assist standardisation and optimisation of care. The objective of the study was to document the current incidence management and outcomes of acute pancreatitis against international guidelines, and to assess temporal trends over the past 20 years. METHODS: A prospective four-month audit of patients with acute pancreatitis was performed across the Wessex region. The Atlanta 2012 classifications were used to define cases, severity and complications. Outcomes were recorded using validated systems and correlated against guideline standards. Case ascertainment was validated with clinical coding and hospital episode statistics data. RESULTS: A total of 283 patient admissions with acute pancreatitis were identified. Aetiology included 153 gallstones (54%), 65 idiopathic (23%), 29 alcohol (10%), 9 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (3%), 6 drug related (2%), 5 tumour (2%) and 16 other (6%). Compliance with guidelines had improved compared with our previous regional audit. Results were 6.5% mortality, 74% severity stratification, 23% idiopathic cases, 65% definitive treatment of gallstones within 2 weeks, 39% computed tomography within 6-10 days of severe pancreatitis presentation and 82% severe pancreatitis critical care admission. The Atlanta 2012 severity criteria significantly correlated with critical care stay, length of stay, development of complications and mortality (2% vs 6% vs 36%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acute pancreatitis in southern England has risen substantially. The Atlanta 2012 classification identifies patients with severe pancreatitis who have a high risk of fatal outcome. Acute pancreatitis management is seen to have evolved in keeping with new evidence and updated clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cálculos Biliares/terapia , Auditoria Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite/terapia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1193: 69-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368098

RESUMO

Despite the role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in the detoxification of endogenous aldehydes, the defective polymorphism (rs671), which is highly prevalent among East Asians, does not show a serious phenotype, such as congenital abnormality. However, unfavorable and favorable impacts of the variant allele, ALDH2*2, on various disease risks have been reported. The underlying mechanisms are often complicated due to the compensatory aldehyde detoxification systems. As the phenotypes emerge due to overlapping environmental factors (e.g., alcohol intake and tobacco smoke) or individual vulnerabilities (e.g., aging and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele), polymorphism is therefore considered to be important in the field of preventative medicine. For example, it is important to recognize that ALDH2*2 carriers are at a high risk of alcohol drinking-related cancers; however, their drinking habit has less adverse effects on physiological indices, such as blood pressure, body mass index, levels of lipids, and hepatic deviation enzymes in the blood, than in non-ALDH2*2 carriers. Therefore, opportunities to reconsider their excessive drinking habit before adverse events occur can be missed. To perform effective disease prevention, the effects of ALDH2*2 on various diseases and the biological mechanisms should be clarified.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos
9.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(2): 61-70, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence of the adverse effects of internet gaming, it has emerged as a popular leisure activity in South Korea and Asia. This is the first study that examines the causal effect of internet gaming on alcohol consumption. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of internet gaming on alcohol consumption while controlling for unobserved individual attributes that are omitted in the alcohol consumption regression but are correlated with internet game usage. METHODS: We use data from a survey of 5,003 men and women who lived in Seoul and the surrounding metropolitan area of South Korea during the year 2014. We use the instrumental variable regressions and partially linear regressions. RESULTS: We first find that the age at which an individual starts internet gaming and being a member of an internet gaming club are significantly associated with the average hours spent internet gaming in adulthood. Using these two instrumental variables, we show that longer hours of internet gaming is associated with less consumption of alcohol among men, but more consumption of alcohol among women. The opposite effects of internet gaming on alcohol consumption for male and female users are robust to alternative specifications and estimation methods. DISCUSSION: We investigate potential channels through which men and women are differently affected by internet gaming on alcohol consumption. We find large disparities in types of gaming devices and playing partners between men and women and that these factors account for part of the different gaming effects by gender. Other gaming preferences contributing to the heterogeneous game effects are not examined due to lack of data, which is the limitation of this study. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: The empirical findings suggest that female users of internet games, in particular those who are vulnerable to social isolation, can reap the most benefit toward reducing the risk of developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) from health interventions that aim to monitor unhealthy use of internet games. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: Understanding the impact of internet gaming on other substance use such as alcohol will be useful for the design of effective clinical treatments and preventative health care provision. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Based on the finding that men are likely to sit for longer periods of time indulging in games, further research may examine how the prolonged sedentary leisure activity of internet gaming affect obesity and other physical health problems.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ásia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 759-764, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357794

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the correlation between alcohol consumption and obesity in adults in China. Methods: The information about alcohol consumption were collected at the baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank. The general obesity and central obesity were defined by BMI and waist circumference (WC) respectively. Logistic regression model was employed to examine the relationship of drinking behavior with general obesity and central obesity. Results: A total of 249 873 adults were included. A J-shaped relationship was observed between alcohol consumption and obesity measurement index (BMI and WC) in men. Compared with non-drinkers, the proportion of general obesity and central obesity were lower in light drinkers (men: OR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.59-0.71 and OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98; women: OR=0.77, 95%CI: 0.65-0.91 and OR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.80-0.99). In men, the proportion of general obesity and central obesity was highest in heavy drinkers (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.12-1.32; OR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.27-1.40). BMI and WC were higher in those with a drinking frequency of 3-5 d/week, with largest of proportion of central obesity (men: OR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.16-1.31; women: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 0.99-1.28). The risk for central obesity in men who began drinking every week before 20 years old was 1.24 times higher than non-drinkers (95%CI: 1.16-1.33). Those who drank beer had lower proportion of general obesity (men: OR=0.74, 95%CI: 0.67-0.82; women: OR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.43-0.68). Conclusion: The proportion of obesity was lower in light drinkers but higher in heavy drinkers; and the earlier drinking started, the higher the risk for obesity was.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 37-42, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ethanol intake can increase the sedative effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (GHB/GBL), although the real clinical impact is unknown. We studied the clinical impact of the co-ingestion of ethanol in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with acute toxicity related to GHB/GBL use. METHOD: We performed a secondary analysis of the Euro-DEN Plus Registry (14 countries, 22 EDs) which includes 17,371 consecutive patients presenting to the ED with acute recreational drug toxicity over 39 consecutive months (October 2013 - December 2016). We compared the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and ED management of patients identified as presenting with acute toxicity related to lone GHB/GBL (Group A) or GHB/GBL combined with ethanol (Group B) without other concomitant drugs. RESULTS: A total of 609 patients were included (age 32 (8) years; 116 women (19%); Group A: 183 patients and Group B: 426). The most common features were reduction in consciousness (defined as Glasgow Coma Score <13 points: 56.1%) and agitation/aggressiveness (33.6%). Those with ethanol co-ingestion were younger patients (Group A/B: 31.5/33.1 years, p = 0.029) and ethanol co-ingestion was associated with a lower frequency of bradycardia (23.5%/15.7%, p = 0.027) and more frequent arrival at the ED by ambulance (68.3/86.6%; p < 0.001), reduction in consciousness (58.9%/49.1%; p = 0.031), need for treatment in the ED (49.2%/60.4%; p = 0.011), use of sedatives (20.1%/12.8%; p = 0.034), admission to critical care units (22.4%/55.3%; p < 0.001), and longer hospital stay (stay longer than 6 h: 16.9%/28.4%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Co-ingestion of ethanol increases the adverse effects of patients intoxicated by GHB/GBL, leading to greater depression of consciousness, need for treatment, admission to the ICU and longer hospital stay.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Oxibato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Consciência/psicologia , Transtornos da Consciência/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(5-6): 304-309, 2019 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206271

RESUMO

Metabolic disturbances associated with chronic alcohol consumption, among which those affecting glucose regulation, lipid profile, uric acid and nutritional status, are described. In fact, alcohol abuse can lead to overweight and obesity, but also to protein-caloric malnutrition. Finally, we will discuss concerns about vitamin and mineral deficiencies that may be observed in alcoholic people and can contribute to aggravate somatic complications.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Desnutrição , Obesidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Ácido Úrico
15.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(5-6): 321-325, 2019 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206274

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is a serious problem in terms of public health because it remains a major cause of illness and premature death. The effects of alcohol on cardiovascular system are particularly complex. Current data report both favourable and adverse effects depending on the level of consumption, the type of alcohol consumed and the pathology considered. The goal of this review is to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular events associated with alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco
16.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(5-6): 342-348, 2019 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206278

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is the main cause of development of chronic pancreatitis and the second etiology of acute pancreatitis. The mortality of acute pancreatitis depends on its necrotic haemorrhagic character and the initial inflammatory response, while pain, malnutrition and diabetes are the main issues in the management of chronic pancreatitis. As medical and endoscopic techniques progress, surgical indications have become increasingly rare but remain indispensable for some patients. The multidisciplinary approach of these patients is the key to the success of care.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pancreatite Crônica , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia , Humanos , Dor , Pâncreas , Pancreatite Crônica/etiologia
17.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(5-6): 349-353, 2019 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206279

RESUMO

Alcohol is often considered as a simple co-factor, potentiating the carcinogenic effect of tobacco, in head and neck cancer. However, its own effect is less clear. It has been recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a risk factor for head and neck cancer for many years. It seems that the risk is a function of the importance of consumption, with certain genetic predispositions. This risk can also decrease if consumption stops, with a prolonged interruption. In addition, alcohol consumption may have a negative influence on the prognosis of patients with this type of cancer. A preventive action is therefore essential, among other things via information to the patient provided by health providers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
18.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(5-6): 354-359, 2019 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206280

RESUMO

Cutaneous manifestations related to alcohol intake and abuse are various. Most frequently, there are vascular lesions and cutaneous alterations secondary to hepatic dysfunction. Alcohol consumption represents also a risk factor for many cutaneous diseases, such as psoriasis, where its prevalence is high. Other cutaneous complications associated with alcohol are also discussed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Psoríase , Dermatopatias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Pele , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente
19.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(5-6): 360-364, 2019 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206281

RESUMO

Perinatal studies over the last ten years report that 3 % of pregnant women have alcohol consumption. The malformative and neurological consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol have been known for more than 50 years. Research has shown that the effects of alcohol during pregnancy and breast-feeding go far beyond visible abnormalities at birth. Neurological consequences, from minor psychomotor retardation to severe behavioural disorders, make all the severity of this intoxication and justify strict instructions to refrain from taking alcohol during pregnancy and breast-feeding.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Aleitamento Materno , Complicações na Gravidez , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
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