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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about risky sexual behavior among young people has been widely acknowledged as a key tool to controlling the spread of HIV. This article aimed at presenting the risk behavior of Brazilian Army conscripts toward HIV infection according to the country's geographic regions. . METHOD: We collected data from 37,282 conscripts, aged 17 to 22, during enlistment in the Brazilian Army in 2016. The prevalence of HIV infection, both self-reported and measured through laboratory results, and risk behavior factors were estimated by region. RESULTS: 75% of the sample of conscripts reported to have already started sexual activity, and the average age of their sexual initiation was 15. Condom use varied according to the type of sexual relationship, being lower among steady partners and greater among less stable relationships. HIV prevalence assessed by laboratory tests was 0.12% across the country and the highest prevalence was observed in the North region (0.24%). Alcohol and illicit drug usage was higher in the South region. DISCUSSION: The study allowed the observation of risk behavior monitoring for HIV infection among young Brazilians. Lower condom usage among steady partners may be contributing to an increase in the number of HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the need to intensify prevention campaigns to disseminate safe sex practices among young people, in addition to the expansion of testing offer to this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMJ ; 366: l5274, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate impact of the introduction of minimum unit pricing in Scotland on household alcohol purchases. DESIGN: Controlled interrupted time series analysis. SETTING: Purchase data from Kantar Worldpanel's household shopping panel for 2015-18. PARTICIPANTS: 5325 Scottish households, 54 807 English households as controls, and 10 040 households in northern England to control for potential cross border effects. INTERVENTIONS: Introduction of a minimum price of 50p (€0.55; $0.61) per UK unit (6.25p per gram) for the sale of alcohol in Scotland on 1 May 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Price per gram of alcohol, number of grams of alcohol purchased from off-trade by households, and weekly household expenditure on alcohol. RESULTS: The introduction of minimum unit pricing in Scotland was associated with an increase in purchase price of 0.64p per gram of alcohol (95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.75), a reduction in weekly purchases of 9.5 g of alcohol per adult per household (5.1 to 13.9), and a non-significant increase in weekly expenditure on alcohol per household of 61p (-5 to 127). The increase in purchase price was higher in lower income households and in households that purchased the largest amount of alcohol. The reduction in purchased grams of alcohol was greater in lower income households and only occurred in the top fifth of households by income that purchased the greatest amount of alcohol, where the reduction was 15 g of alcohol per week (6 to 24). Changes in weekly expenditure were not systematically related to household income but increased with increasing household purchases. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of immediate impact, the introduction of minimum unit pricing appears to have been successful in reducing the amount of alcohol purchased by households in Scotland. The action was targeted, in that reductions of purchased alcohol only occurred in the households that bought the most alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Reino Unido
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16686, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374053

RESUMO

This study provided the baseline for establishing policies for community health promotion programs to propose the clusters of multiple health risk factors and identify the risks of laryngeal disorders according to the clusters by using the national level survey representing the South Korean population. This study targeted 5941 people who completed the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The independent variables were age, sex, smoking, high-risk drinking, education level, occupation, household income, and self-reported voice problems. The identify cluster relationship with laryngeal disorders by conducting 2-way cluster analysis and multinomial logit analysis. The prevalence of laryngeal disorder was 6.7%. The results of analysis, 3 clusters were automatically extracted. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviors, and health status clusters were significantly related to the risk of laryngeal disorders. The males who were smoking, high-risk drinking, college graduate and above, high income, and non-manual workers had a higher risk of laryngeal disorders than females who were non-smokers, non-drinkers, 60 years old and older, economically inactive, and high school graduate. The results of this study suggested that it may be effective to classify population according to sociodemographic and health behaviors and develop health education materials and health promotion program accordingly in order to prevent laryngeal disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Doenças da Laringe/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16816, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441853

RESUMO

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a routine test for inflammation. Few studies have investigated the potential influence of lifestyle factors and common metabolic abnormalities on the ESR. This study investigates the influence of demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome on the ESR in adults.This cross-sectional study covered 1472 individuals (44.5% males; age range, 18-91 years) randomly selected from the population of a Spanish municipality. The ESR was measured using a standardized method. We assessed habitual alcohol consumption in standard drinking units, along with tobacco smoking, regular physical exercise (by questionnaire), body mass index, and variables defining metabolic syndrome. Multivariate analyses were performed, including mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin concentration in the models.The ESR was higher in females than in males, and increased steadily with age. Median ESR of females was 2-fold higher than that of males, and median ESR of individuals aged >65 years was 2-fold higher than that of individuals in the youngest category (ages 18-35 years). Body mass index, presence of metabolic syndrome, and smoking were independently and positively associated with higher ESR values. Light alcohol drinkers and individuals with high regular physical activity displayed lower ESR values than did alcohol abstainers and individuals with low physical activity, respectively.ESR varies greatly with age and sex, and corresponding reference values are proposed. Lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) and common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and related metabolic syndrome) may also influence ESR values.


Assuntos
Sedimentação Sanguínea , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16099, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the incidence of dementia. METHOD: We will conduct a systematic search without language and year restrictions to identify all relevant published studies. The following electronic databases will be searched: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wan-Fang. Cohort studies published in Chinese or English are considered for inclusion. Two authors will independently select studies base on inclusion criteria, extract data and assess the quality of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system will be used to quantify absolute effects and quality of evidence. Any disagreement will be resolved by consensus. We will use the hazard ratio (HR) as the effect indicator, piecewise linear regression model and restricted cubic spline model will be used for linear and nonlinear trend estimation, respectively. REGISTRATION: The dose-response meta-analysis is registered in the PROSPERO (CRD42019127367) international prospective register of systematic review. DISCUSSION: In the previous related dose-response meta-analysis studies, there were some limitations: on the 1 hand, the sex was not taken into account. On the other hand, relative risk (RR) is not the best effect indicator for time-to-event data, but compare with RR, HR is much better. This study intends to use HR as the effect indicator to explore the dose-response relationship and the sex difference between alcohol intake and dementia. Accurate alcohol drinking data can provide high-quality evidence for the prevention of dementia.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Risco
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16098, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose-response association between alcohol consumption and the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: We will perform a dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) of cohort studies to explore the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and MCI. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wan-Fang Database will be conducted. Two investigators will independently select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of the included study. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used to assess the quality of include studies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system and A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) will be used to assess the quality of evidence and methodological quality. Any disagreement will be resolved by the third investigator. We will use the hazard ratio as the effect indicator, and piecewise linear regression model and restricted cubic spline model will be used for linear and nonlinear trend estimation, respectively. There is no requirement of ethical approval and informed consent. DISCUSSION: This is the first DRMA to explore the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and MCI. We predict it will provide high-quality evidence to prevent clinical MCI and dementia. REGISTRATION: The DRMA is registered in the PROSPERO (CRD42019127261) international prospective register of systematic review.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 759-764, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357794

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the correlation between alcohol consumption and obesity in adults in China. Methods: The information about alcohol consumption were collected at the baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank. The general obesity and central obesity were defined by BMI and waist circumference (WC) respectively. Logistic regression model was employed to examine the relationship of drinking behavior with general obesity and central obesity. Results: A total of 249 873 adults were included. A J-shaped relationship was observed between alcohol consumption and obesity measurement index (BMI and WC) in men. Compared with non-drinkers, the proportion of general obesity and central obesity were lower in light drinkers (men: OR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.59-0.71 and OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98; women: OR=0.77, 95%CI: 0.65-0.91 and OR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.80-0.99). In men, the proportion of general obesity and central obesity was highest in heavy drinkers (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.12-1.32; OR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.27-1.40). BMI and WC were higher in those with a drinking frequency of 3-5 d/week, with largest of proportion of central obesity (men: OR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.16-1.31; women: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 0.99-1.28). The risk for central obesity in men who began drinking every week before 20 years old was 1.24 times higher than non-drinkers (95%CI: 1.16-1.33). Those who drank beer had lower proportion of general obesity (men: OR=0.74, 95%CI: 0.67-0.82; women: OR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.43-0.68). Conclusion: The proportion of obesity was lower in light drinkers but higher in heavy drinkers; and the earlier drinking started, the higher the risk for obesity was.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 810-814, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357804

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between selenium and the risk for oral cancer. Methods: We performed a case-control study in 325 cases of newly diagnosed primary oral cancer from the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and 650 controls from the same hospital and community. Unconditional logistic regression and stratification analyses were used to explore the association between selenium and oral cancer. Adjusted OR and corresponding 95%CI were calculated. The analyses on multiple interactions between selenium and smoking or drinking status, and fruit or fish intake frequencies were conducted. Results: The level of serum selenium was 112.42 (80.98-145.06) µg/L in the case group, which was lower than 164.85 (144.44-188.53) µg/L in control group, the difference was statistical significant (P<0.01). There was a negative correlation between serum selenium level and the risk for oral cancer regardless of smoking and drinking status, and fruits and fish intake frequencies (P<0.05). There were multiple interactions between serum selenium level and smoking or drinking status, and fruit and fish intakes. Conclusions: The high level of serum selenium is a protective factor for the incidence of oral cancer, and serum selenium has multiple interactions with smoking or drinking status, and fruit and fish intakes. Therefore, reducing tobacco use and alcohol consumption and increasing the intakes of fruit and fish can reduce the risk for oral cancer to some extent.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Selênio/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/sangue , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 892, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies of Arab American health behaviors and outcomes exist outside of Michigan. We aimed to provide prevalence estimates of health behaviors and outcomes for Arab Americans and compare them to non-Hispanic Whites in California. METHODS: We used data from the 2003-2016 California Health Interview Surveys. We determined Arab American ethnicity using an algorithm that considered place of birth of the respondent or parent and use of Arabic language at home. Survey-weighted frequencies, chi-squared statistics, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare Arab Americans and non-Hispanic Whites on socioeconomic indicators, health behaviors and health outcomes. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, education level, and insurance status. RESULTS: Arab Americans had higher prevalence of no insurance, living below the federal poverty level, and home ownership than non-Hispanic Whites despite high levels of education and low unemployment prevalence. Arab Americans had reduced odds of alcohol consumption (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.45), binge drinking (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.40), and suicidal ideation (OR: 0.41, 0.25, 0.66) when compared to non-Hispanic Whites in multivariable models. Arab Americans had decreased odds of hypertension (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.83) and increased odds of diabetes (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.34) when compared to non-Hispanic Whites in multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: Arab Americans in California participate in less risky health behaviors and have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic Whites, except with regards to diabetes. Future work aiming to understand the health of Arab Americans should allow for self-identification and less reliance on country of origin and language use at home for sample selection.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , California/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 902, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol guidelines enable individuals to make informed choices about drinking and assist healthcare practitioners to identify and treat at-risk drinkers. The UK Low Risk Drinking Guidelines were revised in 2016 and the weekly guideline for men was reduced from 21 to 14 units per week. This study sought to retrospectively establish 1) the number of additional at-risk male drinkers in England, 2) which demographic characteristics were associated with being an at-risk drinker under the previous versus new guidelines. METHODS: Average weekly alcohol consumption for men aged 16+ from the cross-sectional nationally representative Health Survey for England were used to 1) calculate annual population prevalence estimates for newly defined at-risk (> 14 to ≤21 units/week) male drinkers from 2011 to 2015 (N = 3487-3790), and 2) conduct logistic regression analyses for at-risk vs low risk male drinkers under the previous (> 21 vs ≤21 units/week) and new (> 14 vs ≤14 units/week) guidelines to assess characteristics associated with being at-risk drinkers under each guideline using 2015 data (N = 2982). RESULTS: Population prevalence estimates of newly defined at-risk drinkers ranged from 10.2% (2014 = 2,182,401 men)-11.2% (2011 = 2,322,896 men). Under the new guidelines, men aged 55-74 (OR = 1.63,95% CI = 1.25-2.12); men in managerial/professional occupations (OR = 1.64,95% CI = 1.34-2.00); current smokers (OR = 2.26,95% CI = 1.73-2.94), ex-regular smokers (OR = 2.01,95% CI = 1.63-2.47) and ex-occasional smokers (OR = 1.85,95% CI = 1.25-2.74); men from the North East (OR = 2.08,95% CI = 1.38-3.13) and North West (OR = 1.91,95% CI = 1.41-2.60) of England all had greater odds, and non-white men had reduced odds (OR = 0.53,95% CI = 0.34-0.80) of being at-risk drinkers, as they had under the previous guidelines. Under the new guidelines only: a higher percentage of at-risk drinkers aged 16-34 (32% vs 19%) attenuated the odds of men aged 35-54 being at-risk (OR = 1.18,95% CI = 0.92-1.51); a higher percentage of married at-risk drinkers (37% vs 24%) attenuated the odds of single men being at-risk (OR = 1.28,95% CI = 0.99-1.67); men from the West Midlands (OR = 1.68,95% CI = 1.17-2.42) and London (OR = 1.53,95% CI = 1.03-2.28) had greater odds of being at-risk drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: The change to the Low Risk Drinking Guidelines would have resulted in more than 2 million additional male at-risk drinkers in England. Most groups with greater odds of being at-risk drinkers under the new guidelines were those already known to be drinking the most, strengthening the case for targeted screening and education. Additionally, under the new guidelines, a marked proportion of 16-35 year olds and married men were at-risk and men in the West Midlands and London had greater odds of being at-risk drinkers. These groups may benefit from specific education around the new Low Risk Drinking Guidelines.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(9): 962-968, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361523

RESUMO

Previous studies revealed that the rs671 polymorphism in the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genes is correlated with alcohol consumption in Japanese population. The ALDH2 gene variants and drinking are associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, it remains unclear whether there might be potent relationships among ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in Shandong population. A total of 467 male volunteers from Shandong area were enrolled in this study. The ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in serum were measured using commercial kits. SPSS 23.0 was used for statistical analysis. The significance of differences between subgroups was determined using chi-square test, and multiple comparisons were performed with the least-significant difference method. The ALDH2 variant frequencies were 80.5% with GG, 17.1% with GA, and 2.4% with AA. The ALDH2 genotypes had significant correlations with alcohol consumption (p = 0.001), whereas the GA genotype was associated with a decreased risk of alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 0.27; 95% confidence interval = 0.130-0.539; p = 0.001). The ALDH2 genotypes frequencies and drinking habits were significantly different between hypertension and healthy individuals (p = 0.034; p = 0.044). The ALDH2 GG genotype individuals have high average lipids levels, and the proportion of TC disorder among GG individuals was higher than that of GA individuals (p = 0.006). Individuals who had drinking habits have a high average lipids levels; especially average TC levels (p = 0.048), and had high proportions of dyslipidemia (TC and HDL; p = 0.016 and p = 0.033, respectively). The frequencies of ALDH2 variants were evaluated according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium among enrolled population. Our study suggested that the individuals with ALDH2 rs671 GA genotype were less prone to developing a drinking habit in Shandong population. The ALDH2 genotypes and drinking habit were associated with hypertension and lipid profiles especially TC profile in Shandong province. The ALDH2 rs671 genotypes indicated that the gene-related drinking habit and gene variant altogether may affect hypertension and dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , China , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16150, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348228

RESUMO

We evaluated the post-treatment overall survival (OS) of elderly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.The archived records of 10,578 HCC patients registered at the Korean Central Cancer Registry from 2008 through 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. In this registry, we selected Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) 0, A, or B staged HCC patients (n = 4744) treated by surgical resection (SR), local ablation therapy (LAT), or locoregional therapy (LRT). OSs in nonelderly (<70 years) and elderly (≥70 years) patients were compared after propensity score matching (PSM).In BCLC 0-A staged HCC, the cumulative OS rates of elderly patients were poorer than those of nonelderly patients after PSM (P < .001), but not in those with BCLC stage B (P > .05). In BCLC 0-A staged elderly patients, OS after SR was significantly better than after LAT (P = .005) or LRT (P < .001). In BCLC B staged elderly patients, SR achieved better OS than LRT (P = .006). Multivariable analysis showed that LAT (hazard ratio [HR] 1.52, P = .048) or LRT (HR, 2.01, P < .001) as compared with SR, and large (>3 cm) tumor size (HR1.49, P = .018) were poor predictors of OS for elderly patients with BCLC stage 0-A, and that LRT (HR, 2.64, P = .042) was a poor predictor for those with BCLC stage B.SR provided a better OS rate than LAT or LRT in elderly HCC patients with BCLC stage 0-A, than LRT in those with BCLC stage B. SR should be considered the first therapeutic option even in elderly HCC patients with these stages.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ablação por Cateter/estatística & dados numéricos , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hepatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 493-498, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177726

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the prevalence of alcohol use and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative males. Methods: Baseline data were from the prospective cohort study of comparative HIV and aging research in Taizhou of Zhejiang province from January to December, 2017. The information about alcohol use in the last month was collected through a face-to-face questionnaire interview. Participants were categorized into non-current drinkers, light/moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers according to the US National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) standard. Results: A total of 1 367 HIV positive males and 2 418 HIV negative males were included. Current alcohol use rate (35.2%, 481/1 367) and heavy alcohol use rate (5.0%, 24/481) were significantly lower in HIV positive males than in HIV negative males (48.0%, 1 161/2 418; 23.5%, 273/1 161), but the proportion of drinking wine and yellow rice wine were significantly higher (21.8%, 105/481; 9.1%, 44/481) in HIV positive males than in HIV negative males (13.5%, 157/1 161; 5.8%, 67/1 161). The multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis results showed that larger waist circumference, current smoking and regular physical exercise were associated with heavy alcohol use behavior in HIV positive males, and age ≥30 years, current smoking, regular physical exercise, higher score of depressive symptoms, heterosexual transmission route and baseline CD(4)(+)T cells counts of 200-499 cells/µl were significantly associated with mild/moderate alcohol use behavior in HIV positive males. Conclusions: The alcohol use rate was significantly lower in HIV positive males than in HIV negative males in Taizhou. It is important to strengthen intervention on alcohol drinking behavior and chronic disease risk factors, such as larger waist circumference, smoking and so on.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Soronegatividade para HIV , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 106-109, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC), significantly associated with living environment and behaviour, can be prevented more efficiently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental and behavioural risk factors for HNC. METHODS: Using a detailed questionnaire on social status, education, living and occupational environment exposures, family cancer and lifestyle, HNC patients (103 cases, 76.7% of men) were compared with control subjects (244 subjects, 73% of men) balanced by age: mean (standard deviation) 63.8 (9.3) and 63.8 (9.0) for cases and controls, respectively. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that smoking and low education were significant risk factors for HNC regardless of sex. Family HNC and breast cancer were significant predictors of HNC risk. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed previous results that smoking and low education are significantly associated with HNC. Additionally, results pointed to significant HNC and breast cancer risk in HNC patient's families that may have originated from passive smoking or a smoking habit stemming from social environments that support it. Better dissemination programmes regarding smoking risks for children and adults are needed, targeting not only individuals but also families.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(5-6): 241-247, 2019 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206260

RESUMO

The epidemiological data about alcohol consumption show that the current preventive measures have their limits. Worryingly, the morbidity and mortality associated remain significant in the world. Two main types of preventive approaches, based on individual affect exist: the negative approach based on fear and threat and the so-called Social Norm Approach (SNA). The last original and more positive approach has been used across the Atlantic for thirty years and shows to be efficient. It aims to reduce an individual's consumption of addictive substance by confronting his own social norm (what he thinks people drink, quantities generally overestimated) to the real norm of consumption by a reference social group. A cross-border project is currently evaluating the feasibility of this approach in the Euregio Meuse-Rhin.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 752, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, alcohol use is responsible for 320 deaths every hour, and the impact is more among those in the younger age group. Despite the adverse health and social challenges associated with alcohol use, alcohol remains the most used and abused psychoactive substance among young adults. Our study aimed at determining the prevalence, correlates and frequency of alcohol use among young adults in two Nigerian universities. We further explored the role of family structure, family support and religion/religiosity on alcohol use in this study setting. Such findings could help to inform public health policy formulation in the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two selected universities in the North Central region of Nigeria. The study was conducted among a final sample of 784 students selected using stratified random sampling. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on ever and current alcohol use and frequency of alcohol use between February and April 2018. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The level of ever and current use of alcohol was 43.5 and 31.1%, respectively. The mean frequency of alcohol use among the study participants was three days, but ten days among current alcohol users. In the adjusted model, male sex, age above 19 years, infrequent attendance of religious rituals, and belonging to rich/middle-class family were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of ever use and current use of alcohol, while living in the same household as one's father was associated with lower odds of current and ever use of alcohol. CONCLUSION: There is a high rate of lifetime and current use of alcohol among university students in the study setting. Alcohol use was significantly associated with living with parents, religion and religiosity. Both high and low socioeconomic status were associated with alcohol use. There is a need to implement measures in controlling alcohol manufacturing and marketing as well as policies regulating alcohol outlets establishment around educational institutions as well as the working hours in such outlets. Finally, there is a need to organise interventions aimed at reducing this unhealthy social norm among students in this setting.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Religião , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 790, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has consistently shown that early onset of drinking (EOD) is associated with alcohol-related problems in adulthood. However, recent reviews have identified several limitations in the early onset literature, including the use of retrospective reports, insufficient control for potential confounders, ambiguous definitions of the concept, and an assumption that early onset is independent of cultural norms and national alcohol policies. This study addresses these limitations by examining whether EOD, independent of early onset of excessive drinking (EOE), prospectively predicts hazardous drinking in late adolescence/young adulthood in Norway and Australia, two countries with different drinking cultures. METHODS: Data were drawn from two population-based longitudinal studies; the Norwegian Tracking Opportunities and Problems Study (n = 329) and the Australian International Youth Development Study (n = 786). Data were collected prospectively from mid adolescence (14-16 years) to late adolescence/young adulthood (18-25 years) and a modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Adolescent self-reports included measures of EOD and EOE. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The results were adjusted for adolescent factors; age, gender, impulsivity, hyperactivity, conduct problems, smoking, early sexual intercourse and friends' substance use, and family factors; alcohol and drug use in the family, maternal education, family management and monitoring. RESULTS: Hazardous drinking was identified in 46.8 and 38.9% of young adults in Norway and Australia, respectively. Both EOD and EOE in adolescence were significantly related to an increased risk of alcohol-related problems in late adolescence/young adulthood in both studies, even when adjusting for possible confounders. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that adolescent drinking behaviour is an indicator of alcohol-related problems in late adolescence/young adulthood, even when controlling for a variety of covariates. This finding is in contrast to previous research on older adults, where no association between adolescent drinking and later alcohol-related problems were found when controlling for covariates. The divergence in findings may suggest that the impact of EOD/EOE is limited to the late adolescent and young adult period. Preventing drinking in early adolescence may thus have some impact on the drinking patterns in late adolescence/young adulthood.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 39(6-7): 207-215, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210046

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ongoing surveillance of youth substance use is essential to quantify harms and to identify populations at higher risk. In the Canadian context, historical and structural injustices make monitoring excess risk among Indigenous youth particularly important. This study updated national prevalence rates of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. METHODS: Differences in tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were examined, using logistic regression, among 1700 Indigenous and 22 800 non-Indigenous youth in Grades 9-12 who participated in the 2014/15 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Differences by sex were also examined. Mean age of first alcohol and marijuana use was compared in the two populations using OLS regression. Results were compared to 2008/09 data. RESULTS: While smoking, alcohol, and marijuana rates have decreased compared to 2008/09 in both populations, the gap between the populations has mostly not. In 2014/15, Indigenous youth had higher odds of smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 5.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.54-7.81) and past-year drinking (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.16- 1.76) than non-Indigenous youth. More Indigenous than non-Indigenous youth attempted quitting smoking. Non-Indigenous males were less likely to have had at least one drink in the past-year compared to non-Indigenous females. Indigenous males and females had higher odds of past-year marijuana use than non-Indigenous males (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.32-2.56) and females (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 2.15-3.84). Indigenous youth, especially males, drank alcohol and used marijuana at younger ages. CONCLUSION: Additional policies and programs are required to help Indigenous youth be successful in their attempts to quit smoking, and to address high rates of alcohol and marijuana use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índios Norte-Americanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/etnologia
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(8): 753-763, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152367

RESUMO

Current experimental and epidemiological studies provide inconsistent evidence toward the association between tea consumption and cancer incidence. We investigated whether tea consumption was associated with the incidence of all cancers and six leading types of cancer (lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer and cervix uteri cancer) among 455,981 participants aged 30-79 years in the prospective cohort China Kadoorie Biobank. Tea consumption was assessed at baseline (2004-2008) with an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Cancer cases were identified by linkage to the national health insurance system. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the present population, daily tea consumers were more likely to be current smokers and daily alcohol consumers. 22,652 incident cancers occurred during 10.1 years follow-up (5.04 cases/1000 person-years). When we restricted analyses to non-smokers and non-excessive alcohol consumers to minimize confounding, tea consumption was not associated with all cancers (daily consumers who added tea leaves > 4.0 g/day vs. less-than-weekly consumers: HR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.93-1.13), lung cancer (HR, 1.08; CI, 0.84-1.40), colorectal cancer (HR, 1.08; CI, 0.81-1.45) and liver cancer (HR, 1.08; CI, 0.75-1.55), yet might be associated with increased risk of stomach cancer (HR, 1.46; CI, 1.07-1.99). In both less-than-daily and daily tea consumers, all cancer risk increased with the amount of tobacco smoked or alcohol consumed. Our findings suggest tea consumption may not provide preventive effect against cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia
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