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1.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(3): 176-181, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991105

RESUMO

Introduction: After the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak, global measures were implemented with the aim of containing its progression. On March 20, 2020, the mandatory preventive quarantine began in Argentina. As a result of these events, previous studies conducted in the framework of this pandemic in China, have shown psychological consequences. Methods: The aim of this study is to explore, through a self-administered electronic survey, attitudes and fears regarding COVID-19, the development of depressive symptoms and the pattern of alcohol consumption among the argentinian population during quarantine (n = 759). Results: As a result, we observed that fear of COVID-19 was greater in 55 to 59 years old people, with an abrupt drop above 70; that depressed mood and the increased of alcohol consumption were more frequent in youngest subjects, and that depressed mood was also frequent among subjects who lost their jobs during quarantine. Finally, we observed an elevated degree of agreement with the quarantine measure, even in some people who suffered a decrease in their income greater than 80% during quarantine. These results are useful for obtaining information about risk groups, enabling specific preventive and therapeutic strategies could be designed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3475-3480, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876252

RESUMO

The study aims to identify marital violence precipitating/intensifying elements during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a narrative review of the literature, and the search was carried out in May 2020. We employed the PubCovid-19 platform, which is indexed in the United States National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and the Excerpta Medica (EMBASE) database. English descriptors "Domestic violence", "COVID-19", and "Intimate Partner Violence" were used in the search, and nine papers were selected for full-text reading. Three empirical categories were elaborated from the exploration of the selected material: Economic instability, Alcohol and other drugs use/abuse, and Weaker women's support network. Support networks for women in situations of marital violence should be expanded in this pandemic context, with emphasis on the use of digital technologies as possible tools for screening pandemic-related violence cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
3.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 309-318, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881428

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and mood changes in the Croatian general population. METHODS: During ten days of the COVID-19 lockdown in Croatia, 3027 respondents (70.3% female) from the general population completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Demographic data and data on lifestyle habits and mood changes before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected. RESULTS: A total of 95.64% of respondents reported to follow most or all restrictions, with female sex (P<0.001) and higher education level (P<0.001) being associated with higher restriction compliance. Women smoked an increased number of cigarettes (P<0.001). The proportion of respondents of both sexes who did not drink or drank 7 drinks per week or more increased (P<0.001). Women also reported lower frequency (P=0.001) and duration of physical exercise (P<0.001). In total, 30.7% of respondents gained weight, with female sex (OR, 2.726) and higher BMI (OR, 1.116; both P<0.001) being associated with an increased likelihood of gaining weight. Both men and women felt more frequently afraid (P<0.001), discouraged (P<0.001), and sad (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in order to reduce long-term negative effects of the lockdown.


Assuntos
Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Coronavirus , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Quarentena/psicologia , Tristeza , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22413, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991472

RESUMO

Stroke is the acute onset of neurological deficits and is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and disease burden. In the present study, we aimed to develop a scientific, nomogram for non-invasive predicting risk for early ischemic stroke, in order to improve stroke prevention efforts among high-risk groups. Data were obtained from a total of 2151 patients with early ischemic stroke from October 2017 to September 2018 and from 1527 healthy controls. Risk factors were examined using logistic regression analyses. Nomogram and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn, cutoff values were established. Significant risk factors for early ischemic stroke included age, sex, blood pressure, history of diabetes, history of genetic, history of coronary heart disease, history of smoking. A nomogram predicting ischemic stroke for all patients had an internally validated concordance index of 0.911. The area under the ROC curve for the logistic regression model was 0.782 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.766-0.799, P < .001), with a cutoff value of 2.5. The nomogram developed in this study can be used as a primary non-invasive prevention tool for early ischemic stroke and is expected to provide data support for the revision of current guidelines.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Nomogramas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
5.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1628-1634, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941066

RESUMO

Objectives. To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental distress in US adults.Methods. Participants were 5065 adults from the Understanding America Study, a probability-based Internet panel representative of the US adult population. The main exposure was survey completion date (March 10-16, 2020). The outcome was mental distress measured via the 4-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire.Results. Among states with 50 or more COVID-19 cases as of March 10, each additional day was significantly associated with an 11% increase in the odds of moving up a category of distress (odds ratio = 1.11; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.21; P = .02). Perceptions about the likelihood of getting infected, death from the virus, and steps taken to avoid infecting others were associated with increased mental distress in the model that included all states. Individuals with higher consumption of alcohol or cannabis or with history of depressive symptoms were at significantly higher risk for mental distress.Conclusions. These data suggest that as the COVID-19 pandemic continues, mental distress may continue to increase and should be regularly monitored. Specific populations are at high risk for mental distress, particularly those with preexisting depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adolescents often display heterogenous trajectories of alcohol use. Initiation and escalation of drinking may be important predictors of later harms, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Previous conceptualizations of these trajectories lacked adjustment for known confounders of adolescent drinking, which we aimed to address by modeling dynamic changes in drinking throughout adolescence while adjusting for covariates. METHODS: Survey data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adolescents (n = 1813) were used to model latent class alcohol use trajectories over 5 annual follow-ups (mean age = 13.9 until 17.8 years). Regression models were used to determine whether child, parent, and peer factors at baseline (mean age = 12.9 years) predicted trajectory membership and whether trajectories predicted self-reported symptoms of AUD at the final follow-up (mean age = 18.8 years). RESULTS: We identified 4 classes: abstaining (n = 352); late-onset moderate drinking (n = 503); early-onset moderate drinking (n = 663); and early-onset heavy drinking (n = 295). Having more alcohol-specific household rules reduced risk of early-onset heavy drinking compared with late-onset moderate drinking (relative risk ratio: 0.31; 99.5% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.83), whereas having more substance-using peers increased this risk (relative risk ratio: 3.43; 99.5% CI: 2.10-5.62). Early-onset heavy drinking increased odds of meeting criteria for AUD in early adulthood (odds ratio: 7.68; 99.5% CI: 2.41-24.47). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that parenting factors and peer influences in early adolescence should be considered to reduce risk of later alcohol-related harm. Early initiation and heavy alcohol use throughout adolescence are associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harm compared with recommended maximum levels of consumption (late-onset, moderate drinking).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Pais , Grupo Associado , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21360, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871863

RESUMO

HIV prevalence is higher among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), owing to their unsafe sexual behavior. Further, MSM indulge in behaviors such as consumption of alcohol/oral drugs and/or injecting during/before sex that poses the risk of unsafe behaviors, thereby increasing their vulnerability to HIV. The study aims to analyze the factors associated with HIV infection among the multi-risk MSM using any substances with those MSM who do not use substances.Community-based cross-sectional survey design using probability-based sampling between October 2014 and November 2015.For the nation-wide Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS), 23,081 MSM were recruited from 4067 hotspots in 108 districts across India. Information on demographics, sexual behaviors, substance use, sexual partners, and awareness on HIV and its management was collected from the consented respondents using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) by trained personnel. Blood samples were tested for HIV. Statistical analyses were done, to study the associations between substance use and its influence on high-risk sexual behaviors and HIV infection.One in 3 MSM (33.88%) in India were substance users, thus exhibiting "multi-risk" (MR) behaviors. Significantly higher HIV prevalence (3.8%, P < .05) was reported among MR-MSM, despite 97.2% of them being aware of HIV. Higher HIV prevalence among MSM exhibiting homosexual behavior for ≤1 year is of specific concern, as this accounts to recent infections and indicates the increased vulnerability of the infection among the new entrants.Substance-use resulting in high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with higher HIV prevalence among MR-MSM. Integrated targeted interventions focusing on safe sex and safe-IDU practices among MR-MSM are required to end the disease transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/classificação , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22036, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957321

RESUMO

Studies about the effects of metabolically healthy obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) have yielded conflicting results. These heterogeneous results could be due to the limited usefulness of BMI in measuring general adiposity, as body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect body composition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body shape on CVD outcomes across different obesity phenotypes, and to provide an explanation for the heterogeneous effects of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype on CVD.We analyzed data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a population-based cohort study conducted between 2001 and 2012. We divided the participants into 4 groups: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), MHO, metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). To assess body shape, we calculated the z-score of the log-transformed a body shape index (LBSIZ). We computed Pearson correlation coefficients to examine the association of LBSIZ with muscle mass index, percentage of total fat mass (%Total FM), and percentage of abdominal fat mass (%Abdominal FM). We also used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the effect of LBSIZ on CVD events according to the obesity phenotypes.A total of 9460 participants were assessed in this study. The incidence of CVD was 8.53 cases per 1000 person-year. LBSIZ showed strong positive correlation with %Total FM and %Abdominal FM, but negative correlation with muscle mass index. In Cox regression, MHO individuals did not show increased risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.73). However, MHO individuals in the 3rd (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.28-4.51) and 4th (HR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.99-6.74) quarters of LBSIZ showed significantly higher risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals in the 1st quarter of LBSIZ. Moreover, LBSIZ showed a linear relationship with CVD among MHO individuals.While the MHO individuals showed similar CVD risk to the MHNO individuals, CVD risk increases with LBSIZ among the MHO individuals. LBSIZ appears to be a useful measure for CVD risk assessment in clinical practice and epidemiologic studies, especially for MHO patients.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/epidemiologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/patologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020407, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe lifestyle changes with regard to consumption of tobacco and alcohol, food intake and physical activity, in the period of social restriction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil with data from the ConVid online health behavior survey. The data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by the survey participants. Post-stratification procedures were used to calculate prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 45,161 individuals aged 18 years or more participated. During the period of social restriction participants reported a decrease in practicing physical activity and an increase in time spent using computers or tablets or watching TV, intake of ultra-processed foods, number of cigarettes smoked and alcoholic beverage consumption. Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a worsening of lifestyles and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21534, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756203

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between oral health and asthma/allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis in a large representative Korean adolescent population.A total of 136,027 participants (aged 12-18 years old) were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2014 to 2015. The subjects' history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis was determined by inquiring whether they had been diagnosed by a medical doctor within the previous 12 months or throughout life. Participants were asked if they had experienced the following 6 symptoms regarding oral health in the past 12 months: "chipped or broken tooth," "toothache when eating or drinking," "throbbing and sore tooth," "sore and bleeding gums," "pain in the tongue or inside the cheeks," and "unpleasant breath." The participants were divided into 3 groups according to the number of oral health-related symptoms as follows: good oral health (symptoms = 0), moderate oral health (symptoms = 1), and poor oral health (symptoms = 2-6). Multiple logistic regression analyses calculated the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for asthma/allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis within the past 12 months and throughout life among groups with oral health-related symptom groups.Older age, female sex, fewer days of physical activity, lower parental economic level, lower parental education level, smoking, and frequent alcohol consumption were associated with poor oral health (each P < .001). The aORs for asthma/allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis were 1.48 (95% CI = 1.34-1.63, P < .001), 1.42 (95% CI = 1.36-1.47, P < .001), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.28-1.43, P < .001), respectively, in the poor oral health group compared to the good oral health group.Poor oral health was significantly correlated with the prevalence of asthma/allergic rhinitis/atopic dermatitis within the past 12 months and throughout life in Korean adolescents. Based on our comparative data, oral health-related education may be considered to adolescents with allergic disease for good oral health.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a disastrous act which has a significant effect on the global burden of disease, contributing yearly to 1.4% of the total burden with the foremost role played by a people aged between 15 and 35 years. Medical students are one of the high-risk groups for suicide. This increased risk may begin during medical school and leads to premature death. But, there is a paucity of epidemiologically reliable data on the issue. Therefore, the current study was aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideations and attempt among undergraduate medical students of Haramaya University. METHOD: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 13 to June 12, 2019 at College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University. Stratified sampling technique was used and a total of 757 participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Suicidal ideation and attempt were assessed by using suicidal module of world mental health survey initiative version of the World Health Organization, composite international diagnostic interview. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science Version 20. Descriptive results were presented by tables and graphs. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant and the strength of association was presented by an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. RESULT: The study showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt were 23.7% (95%CI, 20.5-26.8) and 3.9% (95%CI, 2.6-5.5), respectively. Cumulative grade point average (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.49), current alcohol use (AOR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.45-3.55), depression (AOR = 3.58, 95%CI: 2.23-5.76), anxiety (AOR = 3, 95%CI: 1.88-4.77), and poor social support (AOR = 2.57, 95%CI: 1.41-4.68) were the factors statistically associated with the suicidal ideation. Depression (AOR = 5.4, 95%CI: 1.45-20.14) and anxiety (AOR = 3.19, 95%CI: 1.01-10.18) were associated with the suicidal attempts. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the high prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt as compared to the prevalence of suicidal behavior among other university students who were studying in other fields. Cumulative Grade Point Average, current alcohol use, depression, anxiety and poor social support were the factors statistically associated with the suicidal ideation. Depression and anxiety were the ones associated with the suicidal attempt. Early screening, detection and management of suicidal behavior and associated mental health problems were recommended for undergraduate medical students.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Faculdades de Medicina , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Orv Hetil ; 161(30): 1252-1259, 2020 07.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653868

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The combined effect of alcohol consumption and smoking on hypertension in hypertensive patients is still not completely clear, although both are known to be cardiovascular risk factors. AIM: The aim of our study was to compare the blood pressure, the achievement of target blood pressure and heart rate of non-smokers and non-drinkers in the middle-aged hypertensive patients with those who smoke and drink regularly. METHOD: From the database of the Hungarian Hypertension Registry, 12 615 patients (6341 men and 6274 women) aged 45-64 years were included in the current analysis, who self-reported smoking habit and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 55.8 ± 5.7 years (males) and 56.1 ± 5.5 years (females). The percentage of regular smokers was 40.8% and 27.2% among men and women, respectively. 38.1% of males and 12.5% of females were regular alcohol drinkers. The ratio of patients reaching goal blood pressure values was higher in all investigated groups of females than males (p<0.001). Regular smokers and drinkers have lower percentage of reaching goal blood pressure values: 31.1% versus 46.6% in males (p<0.001) and 41.1% versus 49.8% in females (p<0.01), respectively. The average of pulse rate was higher in patients who are smokers and regular drinkers. CONCLUSION: Regular alcohol consumption and smoking decrease the chance of reaching blood pressure goal values in middle-aged, treated hypertensive patients. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(30): 1252-1259.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(3): 230-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687124

RESUMO

Background: Psychoactive substance use is frequently encountered in hospitals' emergency departments (EDs). It accounts for major health-care problems frequently leading to accident and ED admissions, yet it is frequently unidentified. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substance use among patients presenting in the Accident and EDs and to compare the case detection rate of psychoactive substance use between self-report questionnaire and biochemical markers (e.g., urine toxicology). Methods: To achieve this, 200 consenting participants attending the accident and emergency unit of a tertiary hospital were consecutively enlisted into the study within 2 weeks. They were screened for psychoactive substance use with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and the urine drug test (UDT). Results: The lifetime prevalence of psychoactive substance use was 45.5%, while the past 3 months (recent use) prevalence was 27.0%. The pattern of psychoactive substance use revealed that alcohol was the predominant psychoactive substance use with a lifetime prevalence of 13.0% and recent use of 12.0%. The UDT significantly detected more patients who used psychoactive substance compared to self-report (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of drug use recorded among attendees of the accident and emergency unit was high in this study. The UDT significantly detected more patients who used psychoactive substances compared to self-report (P < 0.001). Several patients with major health problems as a result of psychoactive substance use were identified with the aid of these screening tools.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(6): 380-389, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612078

RESUMO

Objective In recent years, the long-term use of media (including the Internet, video games, and social networking services) at a young age has been regarded as a problem. It has been pointed out that prolonged media usage may have an undesirable effect on the growth of adolescents from the physical, mental, and social perspectives. Junior and senior high school students are in a particularly important period of self-management of the basic lifestyle habits acquired thus far. Additionally, they must cultivate the ability to interact appropriately with media used daily. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the time expended on media usage and lifestyle habits among junior and senior high school students.Methods A sample of 1,633 students was extracted from all junior and senior high schools in Fukushima City. Principals of the schools distributed a self-administered questionnaire to their students. In total, 1,589 responses were obtained; as surveys of 30 students were missing values for gender and grade, they were excluded from the analysis, and data from 1,559 respondents were ultimately analyzed. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between an independent variable (media usage time) and dependent variables (subjective health, lifestyle habits, and drinking and smoking experience) while controlling for gender and grade.Results Among junior high students, media usage for more than three hours was significantly related to "no breakfast," "no exercise habits," "irregular sleep," "lack of rest," and "feeling stressed." Among high school students, media usage for three hours or more was significantly related to "poor subjective health status," "eating only one or two meals a day," "no breakfast," "low food diversity," "obesity," "no exercise habits," "irregular sleep," "late bedtime," "waking up late," "drinking," and "smoking."Conclusion Our findings indicate that three or more hours of daily media usage is related to unhealthy lifestyles in terms of sleeping, eating, physical activity, drinking, and smoking. Junior and senior high school students who responded to the survey indicated that prolonged usage was also adversely related to their subjective health. Because the overuse of media is associated with students' lifestyles and health, it is important to develop an educational system that helps junior and senior high school students use media properly.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Redes Sociais Online , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 400-402, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hanging is a common form of self-harm, and emergency care physicians will not infrequently be called upon to manage a survivor.Despite the relative frequency of the injury, there is a paucity of literature on the topic and the spectrum and incidence of associated injuries are poorly described. OBJECTIVES: To review experience with management of victims of hanging at a major trauma centre in South Africa. METHODS: All patients treated by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service following a hanging incident between December 2012 and December 2018 were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry. Basic demographics were recorded, and the management and outcome of each patient were noted. RESULTS: During the 6-year period under review, a total of 154 patients were seen following a hanging incident. The mean age was 29.4 years. There were 24 females (15.6%) and 130 males (84.4%). The vast majority (n=150; 97.5%) had attempted suicide, and only 4 hangings (2.5%) were accidental. A total of 92 patients (60.9%) had consumed alcohol prior to the incident. There were 23 patients with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <9 (severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)), 14 with a GCS of 9 - 12 (moderate TBI) and 117 with a GCS >12 (mild TBI). A total of 7 patients (4.5%) required intensive care unit admission, and 25 (16.2%) required intubation. The following extracranial injuries were documented on computed tomography scans: hyoid bone fractures (n=2), cervical spine fracture (n=10), mandible fracture (n=4) and oesophageal injury (n=1). Intracranial pathology was evident on 27.0% of scans, with the most common finding being global cerebral ischaemia. The mortality rate was 2.5% (4/154). CONCLUSIONS: Hanging is a common mechanism of self-harm. It is associated with significant injuries and mortality. The acute management of hanging should focus on airway protection followed by detailed imaging of the head and neck. Further work must attempt to include mortuary data on hanging.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Hioide/lesões , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fraturas Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the alcohol outlet density in residential areas and the current and lifetime alcohol consumption, adjusted for individual and family factors. METHOD: Information from a three-stage household stratified probabilistic cluster sampling survey (census tract, household, adult and adolescent), conducted in Belo Horizonte, Brazil ("Health in BH", 2008-2009) and data of the establishments were obtained from official sources and subsequently georeferenced. The outcome was the adolescents' report of current and lifetime alcohol consumption. The exposure variable was the alcohol outlet density, defined as the number of establishments within a 200-meter range from the adolescents' residence. The association was estimated by Poisson regression adjusted by individual and family variables. RESULTS: In total, 601 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years were included in this study. Of these, 53.3% were males and 71.0% lived in a family with income up to five minimum wages. The prevalence of lifetime alcohol consumption was 57.0% (95%CI 51.5 - 62.6) and the current was 11.9% (95%CI 8.7 - 15.0). The multivariate analysis showed a significant association between current alcohol consumption and density of snack bars (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03 - 1.24), bars (PR = 1.21; 95CI% 1.05 - 1.38), and restaurants (PR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.02 - 1.21). Significant interactions between density of establishments with sex and age were found. CONCLUSION: Current alcohol consumption may be enhanced by the availability of some types of establishments located within a range of 200 meters from the adolescents' residence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 461-465, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential risks of increased alcohol use and of the development of alcohol dependence during COVID-19 pandemic were identified. So far there have been no studies concerning pandemic influence on alcohol consumption in medical professionals in quarantine or isolation. METHODS: The 12 point 'online' ALCOVID survey with a cover letter was designed and addressed to physicians, recruited online via accessible networks, who underwent isolation or quarantine during recent pandemic. The AUDIT-3 scale was included. RESULTS: A representative trial of 113 physicians participated in the study. Over 53% of screened doctors revealed that the amounts of the consumed alcohol have escalated; almost 20% of subjects binged over seven standard drinks for one occasion. Close to every second used six or more drinks on one occasion. Over 40% used alcohol more than four times per week. Female used alcohol more often and more standard drinks per occasion. Male binged more. Anxiety and hopelessness were the most common motives to drink. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption in physicians in quarantine has threateningly increased. It is important to identify the group of people at the risk of problem drinking and dependence development, especially when it concerns key professional branches in the fight against the current crisis.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23 Suppl 1: e200003.SUPL.1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors associated with domestic violence against Brazilian adolescents. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive analysis of the variables and calculation of the prevalence of intrafamily violence reported by the students was performed, followed by multinomial regression with calculation of the adjusted odds ratio to analyze the association between the variables and the outcome investigated. RESULTS: Black skin color (ORa = 1.9; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.7) and brown (ORa = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0 - 1.9), insomnia (ORa = 1.8; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.4), bullying (ORa = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7 - 3.7) and alcohol consumption (ORa = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1 - 1.9) increased the chances of adolescents suffering an episode of intrafamily violence. Bullying (ORa = 3.9; 95%CI 2.8 - 5.3) and alcohol consumption (ORa = 2.2; 95%CI 1.7 - 2.7) contributed up to 4 times more not to suffer more than one episode of domestic violence. Habits such as eating with family (ORa = 0.7; 95%CI 0.5 - 1.0) and having parents who understand their problems (ORa = 0.6; 95%CI 0.5 - 0,7) proved to be protective factors for intrafamily violence. CONCLUSION: Intrafamily violence against adolescents is related to family interactions, psychoactive substance use and violence in the school environment. Thus, it reveals the importance of the participation of parents and guardians in the prevention of violence and risk behaviors in the lives of Brazilian adolescents.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200066, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence of simultaneous risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases, and factors associated with these prevalences in rural adults of a Southern Brazilian city. METHODS: The design of this study was cross-sectional with a sample of 1,445 adults from the rural area of Pelotas, RS. Four risk factors were considered: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and inadequate consumption of vegetables. To verify the simultaneous occurrence of the outcomes, a cluster analysis was used. The association was tested by ordinal regression resulting in odds ratios. RESULTS: Among the four risk factors evaluated, three were the most prevalent among men, and only physical inactivity was greater among women. In the cluster analysis, only the combination of alcohol consumption + smoking + inadequate vegetable consumption presented an observed prevalence that was significantly higher than the expected (O/E = 2.67, 95%CI 1.30, 5.48), and higher than another study in the south of the country. This can be justified because that study included an evaluation of urban dwellers and the consumption of fruits. After adjustment, men, single individuals, non-white people, those with less schooling, those with a worse socioeconomic status, those who reported poor perception of health, and those who do not work in specifically rural activities had a greater probability of having the simultaneity of risk factors. CONCLUSION: The results show the importance of developing priority actions regarding the health of rural populations with special attention to the subgroups with an identified higher risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , População Rural , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras
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