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2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3825-3837, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468676

RESUMO

The study aims to describe the consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages according to sociodemographic, health and location variables. Cross-sectional study with ELSA-Brasil data (2008-2010). A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, food, health data and anthropometry. Descriptive analysis and association with variables of interest were carried out. In the sample, 8% of the total caloric value comes from non-alcoholic beverages (5.6%: sugary drinks), and 4% from alcoholic beverages (2.7%: beer). Consumers of unsweetened and artificially sweetened beverages reported moderate/strong physical activity, former smokers and higher education. The opposite was true for sugary drinks. Eutrophic people reported higher consumption of sugary drinks and those obese, artificially sweetened and beer. Alcohol consumption varied with age (young: beer; elderly: wine/spirits) and education (low education: beer/spirits; higher education: wine). Coffee, natural juice and soda were the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and beer was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Consumption variation was observed according to geographic location. The consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages is high in Brazil and public health strategies are required.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Edulcorantes , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1644, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to characterize the prevalence of alcohol consumption and further investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We studied 39,259 participants aged 18 to 79 years of the Henan Rural Cohort study. The associations between alcohol consumption and T2DM were examined using the logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline. RESULTS: For men, alcohol abstinence was associated with an increased risk of T2DM (1.491(1.265, 1.758)), whereas current drinkers were not associated with T2DM (1.03(0.91, 1.15)). Further analysis of alcohol drinkers revealed that only high-risk drinkers of WHO drinking risk levels increased the risk of T2DM (1.289(1.061,1.566)) compared to never drinkers. The risk of T2DM increased as the age of starting to consume alcohol decreased and as the number of years of consuming alcohol and the alcohol intake increased only in men. We further found that the risk of T2DM decreased as the number of years of abstinence increases and no association between alcohol abstinence and T2DM was found after more than 10 years of abstinence among men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that reducing the amount of alcohol consumed and adhering to abstinence from alcohol consumption are beneficial in reducing the risk of T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Henan Rural Cohort Study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699). Date of registration: 2015-07-06. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=11375.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 427, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and lifetime criteria profiles of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the transitions from alcohol use to disorder in Chifeng, China. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted using Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 (CIDI-3.0) among 4528 respondents in Chifeng. RESULTS: The weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 AUD were 3.03 and 1.05%, respectively. Mild lifetime AUD was the most prevalent severity level (69.53%). The two most common criteria were "failure to quit/cutdown" and "drinking more or for longer than intended." Lifetime prevalence was 65.59% for alcohol use, and 22.97% for regular drinking. Male and domestic violence were risk factors for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking or AUD and from regular drinking to AUD. Younger age was risk factor for the transition to AUD from alcohol use or regular drinking. Poverty (OR = 2.49) was risk factor for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking. The earlier drinkers were more likely to develop to regular drinking (OR = 2.11). CONCLUSION: AUD prevalence in Chifeng was not as high as that in Western countries. The study revealed that multiple risk factors might contribute to the transition across different stages of alcohol use. Further research should explore the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 431, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption constitutes a major public health problem as it has negative consequences on the health, social, psychological, and economic outcomes of individuals. Tertiary education presents students with unique challenges and some students resort to the use of alcohol in dealing with their problems. This study, therefore, sought to determine alcohol use, its effects, and associated factors among tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipaility of Ghana. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 418 tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana using a two-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. A binary logistic regression modelling was used to determine the strength of the association between alcohol consumption and the explanatory variables. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Stata version 16.0 was used to perform the analysis. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption was 39.5%. Out of them, 49.1% were still using alcohol, translating to an overall prevalence of 19.4% among the tertiary students. Self-reported perceived effects attributed to alcohol consumption were loss of valuable items (60.6%), excessive vomiting (53.9%), stomach pains/upset (46.1%), accident (40.0%), unprotected sex (35.1%), risk of liver infection (16.4%), depressive feelings (27.3%), diarrhoea (24.2%), debt (15.2%), and petty theft (22.4%). In terms of factors associated with alcohol consumption, students aged 26 years and above were more likely to have consumed alcohol [AOR = 4.4, 95%CI = 1.74, 11.14] than those in 16-20 years group. Muslim students had lower odds of alcohol consumption compared to Christians [AOR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.31]. It was also found that students who had peer influence [AOR = 3.7, 95%CI = 2.31, 5.82] and those who had academic adjustment problems [AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.01, 6.46] were more likely to consume alcohol. CONCLUSION: Lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption is high among tertiary students in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana, with several physical, psychosocial and economic consequences. Alcohol-related education should be intensified in tertiary institutions and counseling units should be equipped with relevant assessment tools to assess and help students who are at risk and those who are already consuming alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudantes , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 617311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513774

RESUMO

Objectives: To map the alcohol hot spots and understand the Sociodemographic Indices (SDI) affecting alcohol consumption in Indian men and women. Methods: Data from National Family Health Survey-4 carried out from 2015 to 2016 with a sample size of 103,411 men and 699,686 women were used for Geographic Information System mapping, and hot spot identification by spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Gi*). Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze SDI. Results: India has three major alcohol hot spots: (1) North-East (NE) states, (2) Eastern Peninsular states formed by Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, and Telangana, and (3) Southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Hot spot analysis strongly correlated with region-wise analysis of SDI. Respondents who consumed tobacco have higher odds (men adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.42; women aOR: 4.30) of consuming alcohol. Except for religion and social category, other socioeconomic factors have a low to moderate effect on alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Hot spots and high-risk districts of alcohol consumption identified in this study can guide public health policies for targeted intervention. Alcohol use is at the discretion of individual states and union territories, and stringent anti-alcohol policies strictly enforced across India are the keys to control alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106325, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and psychoactive drug use are well-recognised risk factors for road traffic injuries (RTIs). Both types of use may impair and affect drivers' performance. Yet, there is limited literature on their contribution to RTIs among commercial motorcycle riders, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol consumption, marijuana use and RTIs among commercial motorcycle riders in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study between July 2018 and March 2019. Cases (n = 164) were commercial motorcycle riders who had sustained an RTIs and attended at a hospital. Controls (n = 400) were commercial motorcycle riders who had not experienced an RTIs that led to hospital attendance during the past six months. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification (AUDIT) score, which classified participants as a non-drinker, normal drinker(1-7 scores) and risky drinker (scores ≥ 8). Marijuana use was assessed through self-reported use in the past year. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic, driver-, and work-related factors. RESULTS: Risky drinking was associated with close to six times the odds of RTIs compared to non-drinkers (OR = 5.98, 95% CI: 3.25 - 11.0). The association remained significant even after adjusting for sociodemographic, driving and work-related factors (OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.01 - 5.76). The crude odds ratios of RTIs were significantly higher among users of marijuana than non-users (OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.38 - 3.95). However, the association did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for confounders (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.49-2.48). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm increased odds of RTIs among commercial motorcycle riders with risky drinking behaviour even after taking sociodemographic, driving and work-related factors into account. Unlike alcohol consumption the relationship between marijuana use and RTIs among commercial motorcycle riders was unclear. Since motorcycle riders are more susceptible to the effect of alcohol due to higher demands of balance and coordination and because commercial motorcyclist riders, in particular, they spend a considerable amount of time on the road, our results underscore the importance of addressing hazardous alcohol consumption and marijuana use in future prevention strategies to enhance road safety.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha , Motocicletas , Acidentes de Trânsito , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360141

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify changes in the hazardous consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis, due to the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 in a cohort of schooled adolescents from Central Catalonia. We also analyzed the effect of the individual and social factors on risky consumption during confinement. This longitudinal study involved a subsample of 303 adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were attending 4th year of compulsory secondary education (ESO), 2nd year of college preparation (baccalaureate), or Vocational and Educational Training (VET). We collected data before COVID-19 lockdown (October 2019-February 2020) and 2 months after the lockdown ended. We estimated the prevalence of risky substance use in the sample at baseline for each independent variable. We used Poisson regression models with robust variance to compute the Cumulative Incidence (CI) and Relative Risk (RR), with their respective 95% confidence interval. We found that VET students had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher risk of substance use: binge drinking (RR = 3.21 (95%CI: 1.00-10.34)); hazardous drinking of alcohol (RR = 3.75 (95%CI: 1.12-12.54)), hazardous consumption of cannabis (RR = 3.75 (95%CI: 0.65-21.59)) and daily smoking of tobacco (RR = 4.82 (95%CI: 1.74-13.39)). The results showed a general trend of reduction of consumption during COVID-19 confinement period. This study suggests that VET students were more likely to engage in hazardous drinking of alcohol and daily smoking of tobacco. No statistically significant differences were found for the other age groups and variables.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Tabaco
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360321

RESUMO

(1) The goal of this study was to analyze the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption (frequency of consumption, average daily consumption, and risky consumption) before and during confinement due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the adult population and based on gender. (2) Methods: Data from 3779 individuals were collected via a set of online surveys. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C) were used to measure the frequency of consumption, the average daily consumption, intensive consumption, risky consumption, and standard drink units. (3) Results: During confinement, the prevalence of alcohol consumption declined in both males and females, but only intensive consumption showed significant differences, with a greater reduction in males. The number of females who consumed alcohol four or more times per week doubled, whereas the number of males who did so was multiplied by a factor of 1.5; in both females and males, the percentage who presented intensive consumption doubled. The percentage of females with risky consumption was higher than that of males both before and during confinement. In addition to gender, the interaction between age and the employment situation explain consumption before and during confinement. (4) Conclusions: During confinement due to COVID-19, alcohol consumption declined in both sexes, but alcohol-risk consumers increased their frequency of use. The interaction between gender, age, and employment situation was related to these changes. These findings are relevant for guiding public health and health-risk management policies related to alcohol consumption in environmental situations similar to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045063, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess trends in the prevalence of alcohol use depending on smoking behaviours and that of smoking depending on drinking behaviours among Japanese adolescents. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study using Japanese school-based nationwide surveys conducted between 1996 and 2017. SETTING: Surveyed schools, both junior and senior high schools, considered representative of the entire Japanese population, were sampled randomly. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 11 584-64 152 students from 179 to 103 schools yearly. They completed a self-reported and anonymous questionnaire on smoking and drinking behaviour. RESULTS: Since 1996, the prevalence of alcohol use and smoking among adolescents decreased in each survey (p<0.01). The prevalence of alcohol use in the non-smokers group was 29.0% in 1996 and 4.0% in 2017, and in the smokers group, it was 73.3% in 1996 and 57.4% in 2017. The reduction rate (the difference in prevalence between 1996 and 2017 divided by the prevalence in 1996) was 0.86 in the non-smokers group and 0.22 in the smokers group. The prevalence of smoking in the non-drinkers group was 6.7% in 1996 and 0.7% in 2017, while that in the drinkers group was 32.5% in 1996 and 18.9% in 2017. The reduction rate was 0.90 in the non-drinkers group and 0.42 in the drinkers group. Therefore, downward trends differed among the groups. In a subanalysis of senior high school students, we divided students into three groups according to their intention to pursue further education. Between 1996 and 2017, there was a consistent difference in the prevalence of alcohol use and smoking among these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use and smoking among Japanese adolescents seem to have reduced. However, certain groups showed poor improvements, and health risk behaviour disparity exists, which may widen further. We need to focus on high-risk groups and implement appropriate measures or interventions accordingly.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106341, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine are the most commonly used substances, there is limited research on the between- and within-person associations of their use and driving under the influence (DUI) and riding with an impaired driver (RWID). The current study utilized a burst design to assess how use and co-use of these substances is associated with DUI and RWID. METHODS: College student drinkers with past-year marijuana and/or nicotine use (N = 367) were assessed on two consecutive weekends for three semesters. Logistic regression compared students who only reported drinking to student drinkers who used marijuana, nicotine, or all three substances on likelihood to DUI and RWID. Multilevel logistic models assessed the associations of varied combinations of substances with the daily likelihood of DUI and RWID. RESULTS: Compared to students who only used alcohol, students who also reported marijuana use were more likely to DUI (OR = 5.44), and students who reported use of alcohol, nicotine and marijuana more likely to DUI (OR = 10.33) and RWID (OR = 10.22). Compared to occasions when only alcohol was used, DUI was more likely on marijuana only occasions (OR = 9.08), and RWID was more likely on alcohol and marijuana occasions (OR = 3.86). However, confidence intervals were wide for effects. DISCUSSION: Students reporting use of all 3 substances had higher overall risk of DUI and RWID indicating prevention efforts for DUI and RWID should include all substances. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies at the individual and environmental level are discussed.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cannabis , Dirigir sob a Influência , Acidentes de Trânsito , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nicotina , Estudantes
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444544

RESUMO

This study classified the changes in alcohol use behavior among Korean adults and explored the related factors. The study used data from the 4th (2009) to 14th (2019) waves of the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The subjects were 8267 adults aged 19-60 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to classify the latent classes of alcohol use behavior among Korean adults, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the specific factors that form the classes. Additionally, the 11-year trajectories of major variables associated with alcohol use behavior for the derived classes were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Four classes were identified according to the trajectories of alcohol use behavior. There were statistically significant differences in the trajectories of depression, self-esteem, satisfaction in family relationships, and satisfaction in leisure activities according to the class of alcohol use behavior. In particular, self-esteem and satisfaction in family relationships indicated distinctly decreasing trajectories in the low- to moderate-risk class, which suggested the need for longitudinal analysis of the factors that influence alcohol use behavior. Moreover, it is recommended that interventions for the prevention of high-risk drinking target not only individuals but also family units.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Satisfação Pessoal , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444638

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the drinking culture in Korea by sex, age, household type, occupation, and income level to identify demographic groups with prominent drinking behaviors and factors affecting their drinking. Furthermore, we evaluated recent changes, including those due to COVID-19, in drinking behavior, using data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study from 2010 to 2020. Panel analysis was performed to reveal the effects of material deprivation, depression, and sociodemographic factors on drinking behavior. We used the AUDIT 3 scale including frequency of drinking, average amount of drinking, and frequency of excessive drinking. The two characteristics of Korean drinking are consistent with the claim of the ecological system theory that humans, as social beings, drink to facilitate social communication or promote problematic drinking when social communication is difficult. Drinking among Koreans is characterized by a pattern that alternates between social drinking and problem drinking. Our study recognizes drinking as a social problem that should be managed at social as well as national levels.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , COVID-19 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify alcohol consumption patterns in people cared by a Primary Health Care service and verify the association between the patterns and the variables of the sample. METHOD: Our observational study used both the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test instrument and a questionnaire with socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral questions for data collection. We carried out the descriptive and univariate analysis with Kendall and Kruskal-Wallis correlation tests. We introduced variables with p ≤ 0.2 values in the multiple logistic regression - Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The sample of the study was constituted by 561 women. The analysis results indicated relevant influence for higher patterns of consumption: not having a partner, not having a religion, smoking and drug habits, and having arterial hypertension. Besides that, within each additional year in women's age, the alcohol consumption decreases. CONCLUSION: We endorsed data that female alcohol consumption is presenting a tendency to increase especially among younger women, this information is essential for the promotion of Primary Health Care.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 46, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384483

RESUMO

AIMS: Only several empirical studies have examined substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic in general populations. Most of these studies compared self-reported substances use before the pandemic and during the pandemic's early stages. This study aims to identify the changes in substance use between the early and later waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey recruited 750 participants (ages 18-65) in two waves: (1) 427 during and following the first lockdown (April-mid-May, 2020); and (2) 323 following the second lockdown (from October to mid-November, 2020). RESULTS: Participants who experienced two lockdowns reported more frequent consumption of all alcoholic beverages and cannabis in the last 30 days than those who experienced one lockdown. After controlling for demographic variables, significant differences were found between participants who experienced one lockdown and those who experienced two lockdowns in the consumption of alcoholic beverages (F(1, 742) = 6.90, p = .01, η2 = .01). However, there was no significant association between pandemic duration and other illegal drug consumption. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between pandemic duration and alcohol consumption. Policymakers and practitioners should develop national alcohol and cannabis use prevention and harm reduction interventions during pandemics with a focus on men, singles and youth.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107082, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis ("simultaneous alcohol and marijuana [SAM] use") is common among young adults and associated with negative substance-related consequences. SAM use may be tied to fluctuating mood states such as negative affect and individual characteristics including trait level of anxiety and sex. However, little is understood about their collective role. In this study, we sought to understand the daily link between SAM use and negative affect and whether this link might differ by both trait anxiety and sex. METHOD: Participants were 154 young adults (57.8% female, 72.7% White, M age = 20.2) who completed baseline surveys on trait anxiety symptoms and up to 14 consecutive daily surveys on their substance use and affective states. RESULTS: Multilevel models tested for associations of type of substance use day (i.e., alcohol-only days, cannabis-only days, and no use days relative to SAM use days) with next-day negative affect. Three-way and lower order interactions were tested for substance use day type, anxiety, and sex. Two three-way interactions between cannabis-only days, anxiety, and sex and between alcohol-only days, anxiety, and sex emerged such that SAM use was associated with greater next-day negative affect relative to single substance use days particularly among female participants with elevated anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and sex are salient factors in the link between SAM use relative to single-substance use and daily negative affect. Study findings reinforce the need to account for all of these factors in order to develop maximally efficacious substance use interventions.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Uso da Maconha , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Etanol , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107079, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) may be linked to both short- and longer-term problems for young adults. Across two years of longitudinal data, we examined between- and monthly within-person associations of alcohol and marijuana use patterns, including SAM, with negative alcohol-related consequences, depressive symptoms, and general health. METHODS: 773 young adults (aged 18-23 at screening; 56% women) who used alcohol in the year prior to study enrollment were surveyed monthly for 24 months. Multilevel models assessed associations of alcohol and marijuana use patterns with outcomes. RESULTS: Individuals who reported a higher proportion of SAM months had more negative alcohol-related consequences (Rate Ratio [RR] = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17,1.89). At the within-person level, participants experienced more alcohol-related consequences on months when SAM was reported compared to months of alcohol-only (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10,1.25) and months of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use without simultaneous use (CAM; RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11,1.29). Compared to alcohol-only, SAM was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer general health at the between-person level and with more depressive symptoms at the monthly within-person level; however, SAM did not differ substantially from using neither alcohol nor marijuana or CAM for these outcomes at either the between- or within-person level. CONCLUSIONS: SAM use may indicate risk for negative alcohol-related consequences, both within months of SAM use and across more extended time periods. Individuals who engage in SAM may experience worse mental and physical health than individuals who use alcohol exclusively.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
18.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107053, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416533

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Heavy episodic drinking poses a risk for HIV-infection, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). Previous research suggests implicit associations may play a role in heavy episodic drinking and that various executive functions (EF) may moderate the relation between implicit associations and heavy episodic drinking. This study investigated the role of two EF - working memory (maintaining and updating information) and response inhibition (inhibiting prepotent responses) - as moderators of the relation between implicit alcohol approach associations and heavy episodic drinking among moderate-to-heavy drinking MSM. METHODS: Two-hundred and fifty-one participants completed measures of implicit alcohol associations (the implicit alcohol approach association test - IAT), working memory, and response inhibition, as well as a self-report questionnaire assessing heavy episodic drinking. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether the association between the IAT and heavy episodic drinking was moderated by working memory and response inhibition. RESULTS: Results showed that working memory moderated the relation between the alcohol IAT and heavy episodic drinking such that IAT alcohol approach scores were positively associated with heavy episodic drinking among those low in working memory but not those high in working memory. Response inhibition did not moderate the association between IAT scores and heavy episodic drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the relation between implicit alcohol approach associations and heavy episodic drinking is stronger among moderate-to-heavy drinking MSM with lower working memory capacity compared to those with higher working memory capacity, and these individuals may particularly benefit from alcohol intervention approaches that target automatic alcohol responses.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Etanol , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo
19.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107080, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the motivational determinants of drinking among college students is necessary to improve the identification of those at greatest risk and to inform prevention and treatment interventions. Alcohol craving, or the desire to use alcohol, is considered one important factor in the development and maintenance of drinking behaviors. Recent evidence suggests that the link between alcohol craving (approach inclinations) and alcohol use is moderated by desires not to use alcohol (avoidance inclinations). Using ecological momentary assessment, the present study investigated the influence of motivational conflict (high desires to use and high desires to not use alcohol) on alcohol consumption among college students. METHODS: Undergraduate students (n = 80; 88.8% female) completed assessments of alcohol-related behaviors and alcohol motivation five times daily for fourteen days. RESULTS: Although between-person effects were nonsignificant, significant within-person effects indicated that avoidance inclinations attenuated the effect of approach inclinations in the prediction of drinking (controlling for age, gender, drinking history, affect, day of week, and time of day). CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the need for consideration of the unique effects of both approach and avoidance inclinations in the prediction of alcohol consumption and draw attention to the need for further investigation into the complex interplay of these processes in daily life.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fissura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estudantes
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444240

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the differences in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, mood and bullying between adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of Northern Spain (one in Galiza and four in central Catalonia) that share similar socioeconomic characteristics and encompass around 10,000 inhabitants each. Students living in Burela, Galiza (N = 71) were compared to those of Central Catalonia (N = 193). The independent variable was the municipality of residence. The dependent variables encompassed: weekly available pocket money, Family Affluence Scale, self-classified academic qualification, place of origin, alcohol consumption, tobacco and cannabis smoking, negative mood and bullying. The mean age and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of participants were similar between the regions (Burela: 15.90 years (15.68-16.13) and Central Catalonia: 15.36 years (15.28-15.44)). More than half of the participants were females (Burela, Galiza (53.5%) and Catalonia (54.9%)). Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression models. In comparison with adolescents from Burela (Galiza), those living in Central Catalonia had higher prevalence of diverse academic levels (adjusted PR = 3.92 (1.78-8.66)), tobacco consumption (adjusted PR = 2.41 (1.47-3.97)) and negative mood (adjusted PR = 5.97 (3.05-11.70)). Even when dealing with regions with similar socioeconomic characteristics and number of inhabitants, differences exist in terms of the socioeconomic level, tobacco consumption, mood and bullying, as reported by adolescents.


Assuntos
Bullying , Cannabis , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
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