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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220232, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986142

RESUMO

(A) OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify trajectories of alcohol use (AU) and their associations with the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) among young men with different weekly drinking patterns. (B) METHOD: A longitudinal latent class analysis integrating several aspects of AU, such as drinking quantity and frequency on weekends vs workweek days, involving 4719 young Swiss men at ages 20, 21, and 25, and collected by the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors, was used to identify different AU trajectories over time. The development of AUD scores in these trajectories was investigated using generalized linear mixed models. (C) RESULTS: Six AU trajectory classes, similar to those described in the literature, were identified: 'abstainers-light drinkers', 'light workweek increasers', 'light decreasers', 'moderate weekend decreasers', 'moderate workweek increasers', and 'heavy drinkers'. Only 12% of participants were assigned to a trajectory class with decreasing AU associated with a decline in their AUD score. AUD scores increased in trajectory classes exhibiting increasing AU on workweek days, despite low and moderate general AU. Finally, more than 59% of participants were on an AU trajectory presenting no change in their mean AUD score over time. (D) CONCLUSIONS: Maturing out of problematic AU in emerging adulthood is not the norm in Switzerland, and the AUD score developed in late adolescence remains until at least emerging adulthood. AU on workweek days is a more practical marker of potentially problematic AU. This calls for timely interventions in adolescence and concerning regular drinking on workweek days in emerging adulthood.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 61, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although male and female rats differ in their patterns of alcohol use, little is known regarding the neural circuit activity that underlies these differences in behavior. The current study used a machine learning approach to characterize sex differences in local field potential (LFP) oscillations that may relate to sex differences in alcohol-drinking behavior. METHODS: LFP oscillations were recorded from the nucleus accumbens shell and the rodent medial prefrontal cortex of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Recordings occurred before rats were exposed to alcohol (n = 10/sex × 2 recordings/rat) and during sessions of limited access to alcohol (n = 5/sex × 5 recordings/rat). Oscillations were also recorded from each female rat in each phase of estrous prior to alcohol exposure. Using machine learning, we built predictive models with oscillation data to classify rats based on: (1) biological sex, (2) phase of estrous, and (3) alcohol intake levels. We evaluated model performance from real data by comparing it to the performance of models built and tested on permutations of the data. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate that corticostriatal oscillations were able to predict alcohol intake levels in males (p < 0.01), but not in females (p = 0.45). The accuracies of models predicting biological sex and phase of estrous were related to fluctuations observed in alcohol drinking levels; females in diestrus drank more alcohol than males (p = 0.052), and the male vs. diestrus female model had the highest accuracy (71.01%) compared to chance estimates. Conversely, females in estrus drank very similar amounts of alcohol to males (p = 0.702), and the male vs. estrus female model had the lowest accuracy (56.14%) compared to chance estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The current data demonstrate that oscillations recorded from corticostriatal circuits contain significant information regarding alcohol drinking in males, but not alcohol drinking in females. Future work will focus on identifying where to record LFP oscillations in order to predict alcohol drinking in females, which may help elucidate sex-specific neural targets for future therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(7): 626-636, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497986

RESUMO

Exerting self-control depletes capacity for future self-control, which can promote greater alcohol use. However, certain populations may be more susceptible to these effects of depleted self-control capacity. For example, individuals with lower alcohol sensitivity (i.e., requiring more drinks to experience the effects of alcohol) are a high-risk group who are likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and develop an alcohol use disorder. Those lower in alcohol sensitivity also exhibit heightened motivational reactivity in response to alcohol-related cues, which may be enhanced following exertion of self-control. However, whether drinkers lower in alcohol sensitivity are at higher risk for exhibiting greater motivations toward alcohol-related cues after exerting self-control is unclear. The current research examined the role of alcohol sensitivity in predicting approach motivation following exertion of self-control. It was expected drinkers exerting self-control would exhibit greater orientation toward rewarding cues, particularly after viewing alcohol-related cues. However, we predicted this pattern would be most prominent among drinkers lower in alcohol sensitivity. Experiment 1 supported these hypotheses, with lower alcohol sensitivity predicting greater approach motivation among drinkers required to exert self-control prior to viewing alcohol-related compared to neutral cues. Experiment 2 aimed to replicate these findings by assessing asymmetrical frontal cortical activation, an index of approach motivation. Drinkers with lower alcohol sensitivity exhibited greater relative left frontal cortical activation, consistent with approach motivation, while viewing alcohol-related cues following exertion of self-control. Results have implications for interventions aimed at identifying those at risk for greater alcohol motivations during states of mental exhaustion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Etanol/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Trials ; 20(1): 402, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) leads to a significant individual and societal burden. To achieve higher therapy success rates, therapeutic interventions still need to be improved. Most current neuroscientific conceptualizations of AUD focus on the imbalance between an enhanced automatic reaction to alcohol cues and impaired inhibition. Complementary to traditional relapse prevention strategies, novel computerized training interventions aim to directly alter these processes. This study tests a computerized alcohol-specific inhibition training in a large clinical sample and investigates its effects on behavioral, experimental and neurophysiological outcomes. It also analyzes whether variations in inhibition difficulty and/or endogenous cortisol levels during training impact these effects. METHODS: This is a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 246 inpatients with AUD participating. After baseline assessment, participants are randomly assigned to one of three computerized Go-NoGo-based inhibition training interventions (two alcohol-specific versions with different Go/NoGo ratios, or neutral control training) and one of two intervention times (morning/afternoon), resulting in six study arms. All patients perform six training sessions within 2 weeks. Endogenous cortisol is measured in 80 patients before and after the first training session. Inhibitory control and implicit associations towards alcohol are assessed pre and post training, at which point electroencephalography (EEG) is additionally measured in 60 patients. Patients' alcohol consumption and relevant psychological constructs (e.g., craving, self-efficacy, treatment motivation) are measured at discharge and at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Fifty healthy participants are assessed (20 with EEG) at one time point as a healthy control group. DISCUSSION: This study investigates the effects of a computerized, alcohol-specific inhibition training for the first time in patients with AUD. Results should give insight into the effectiveness of this potential add-on to standard AUD treatment, including proximal and distal measures and effects on behavioral, experimental and neurophysiological measures. Information about working mechanisms and potential optimizations of this training are gathered through variations regarding difficulty of inhibition training and training time. This study may thus contribute to a deepened understanding of AUD and the improvement of its evidence-based treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02968537 . Registered on 18 November 2016.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Aprendizagem , Motivação , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/sangue , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(5): 431-441, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294578

RESUMO

Hazardous alcohol use remains a significant global public health problem. A better understanding of relapse may assist the development of new interventions. Low levels of dispositional mindfulness may be a risk factor for craving and alcohol use, but few studies have examined these associations prospectively in an alcohol-dependent sample. In an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study, Dutch alcohol dependent patients (N = 43) carried around a personal digital assistant for 4 weeks while trying to maintain abstinence. Participants completed assessments at random times 3 times per day, and when they felt a strong urge to drink or came to the brink of drinking without doing so. At each assessment, stress, negative affect, craving, recent drinking, and attentional or approach bias were assessed. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed at baseline with the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). More mindful individuals (higher MAAS scores) reported lower craving than less mindful individuals. There was no evidence that stress, negative affect, attentional bias, or approach bias mediated the association between MAAS and craving. However, there was evidence for an indirect path from MAAS to drinking such that higher mindfulness was associated with lower craving ratings that in turn were associated with less drinking. There was no evidence that MAAS significantly moderated associations between stress/negative affect/cognitive biases and craving, or between craving and drinking. In sum, more mindful recovering alcohol dependent patients reported lower craving ratings than less mindful patients, and this association appeared to be independent of stress/negative affect and cognitive biases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Atenção Plena , Adulto , Computadores de Mão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107732, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344371

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is often characterized by heavy episodic, or binge drinking, which has been on the rise. The aim of this study was to examine the neural dynamics of inhibitory control in demographically matched groups of young, healthy adults (N = 61) who reported engaging in binge (BD) or light drinking patterns (LD). Electroencephalography signal was recorded during a fast-paced visual Go/NoGo paradigm probing the ability to inhibit prepotent responses. No group differences were found in task performance. BDs showed attenuated event-related theta (4-7 Hz) on inhibition trials compared to LDs, which correlated with binge episodes and alcohol consumption but not with measures of mood or disposition including impulsivity. A greater overall decrease of early beta power (15-25 Hz) in BDs may indicate deficient preparatory "inhibitory brake" before deliberate responding. The results are consistent with deficits in the inhibitory control circuitry and are suggestive of allostatic neuroadaptive changes associated with binge drinking.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ritmo beta , Bebedeira/psicologia , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Personalidade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Ritmo Teta , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 452, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This was a 5 year retrospective study of patients' hospital records to find out how patients with cellulitis are managed and the care provided by nurses to these patients in some hospitals in Fako, Cameroon. RESULTS: Of the 236 cases of cellulitis identified from a study of hospital records, 202 were included in the study. Most of the participants (55%) were female and the mean (SD) age was 43 (1.1) years. Cellulitis accounted for 2.3% of admissions in this study. The predisposing factors identified were; the presence of trauma (60.5%), HIV infection (18.6%), alcohol consumption (8.4%) and tobacco use (4.8%). Commonly recorded complications were necrosis (32.2%), sepsis (23%), abscess formation (19.5%), and ulcer development (19.5%). Medical management was with antibiotic therapy, including mostly penicillin (26.5%), aminoglycoside (22.1%), nitroimidazole (20.2%) and cephalosporin (19.6%). Debridement (46.7%), and incision and drainage (44.4%) were the most implemented surgical interventions. Nursing care, as found in patients' hospital records were predominantly on medication administration (98.0%), vital signs assessment (90.5%) and patient assessment (53%). Cellulitis therefore was found among a substantial number of patients and management was predominantly with combination antibiotics therapy and inadequate nursing care.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Celulite (Flegmão)/terapia , Desbridamento/métodos , Drenagem/métodos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Camarões , Celulite (Flegmão)/etiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/cirurgia , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/patologia , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/patologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Úlcera/diagnóstico , Úlcera/patologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 94, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, widely recognized as a serious health concern, is characterized by profoundly altered metabolism. However, the intermediate metabolites involved in this change remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We conducted targeted metabolomics profiling to identify moieties associated with adult obesity. METHODS: In this case-control study of Iranian adults, 200 obese patients were compared with 100 controls based on 104 metabolites profiled by a targeted metabolomic approach using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analysis comprised acylcarnitines, diacyl-phosphatidylcholines (PCaa), acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines (PCae), sphingomyelins (SM), lyso-phospholipids (LPC) and amino acids. We performed multivariable linear regression to identify metabolites associated with obesity, adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, total physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing. RESULTS: A pattern of 19 metabolites was significantly associated with obesity. Branched chain amino acids, alanine, glutamic acid, proline, tyrosine LPCa C16:1, PCaa C32:1, PCaa C32:2 and PCaa C38:3 were positively, while serine, asparagine, LPCa C18:1, LPCa C18:2, LPCe C18:0, PCae C34:3, PCae C38:4 and PCae C40:6 were negatively associated with obesity (all p < 0.00048). CONCLUSIONS: A metabolomic profile containing 9 amino acids and 10 polar lipids may serve as a potential biomarker of adult obesity. Further studies are warranted to replicate these findings as well as investigate potential changes in this profile after weight reduction.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Aminoácidos/classificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carnitina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Lineares , Lisofosfolipídeos/classificação , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/classificação , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Esfingomielinas/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 210, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in diabetic men is considerably high but it is often underdiagnosed and undermanaged. There were no data available about the prevalence and the risk factors of ED in our region. So a cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the prevalence and associated risk factors of ED in a tertiary care diabetic center in Northern Sri Lanka. RESULTS: 326 diabetic male patients between ages 18-60 years were interviewed. Majority (62.9%; 95% CI 57.5-68.0%) of the diabetic patients suffered from ED and 22.4% (95% CI 17.8-26.8%) were found to have severe ED. Most of the patients (98.8%) were not screened or treated for ED. Bivariate analysis showed age above 40, duration of DM (> 5 years), type of diabetes (type 2), having micro-vascular complications, co-existing hypertension, BMI, consuming unsafe level of alcohol and taking beta-blockers were associated with ED at 5% level (P < 0.05). This study failed to show association with dyslipidemia, macro vascular complications such as coronary artery disease (CAD, P-0.052), glycemic control (P-0.082) and smoking. Regression analysis revealed age > 40 (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI 1.05-4.33), duration of diabetes (AOR: 2.90; 95% CI 1.67-5.01), co-existing hypertension (AOR: 1.8; 95% CI 1.06-3.06), and unsafe level alcohol intake (AOR: 3.14; 95% CI 1.76-5.59) were independent risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Erétil/complicações , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
11.
Neurosci Lett ; 703: 184-190, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928477

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of LHb lesions on appetitive extinction and alcohol consumption. Eighteen male Wistar rats received neurochemical lesions of the LHb (quinolinic acid) and 12 received a vehicle infusion (PBS). In a runway instrumental task, rats received acquisition (12 pellets/trial, 6 trials/session, 10 sessions) and extinction training (5 sessions). In a consummatory task, rats had daily access to 32% sucrose (5 min, 10 sessions) followed by access to water (5 sessions). Then, animals received 2 h preference tests with escalating alcohol concentrations (2%-24%), followed by two 24 h preference tests with 24% alcohol. Relative to Shams, LHb lesions delayed extinction, as indicated by lower response latencies (instrumental task) and higher fluid consumption (consummatory task). LHb lesions did not affect alcohol consumption regardless of alcohol concentration or test duration. The LHb modulates appetitive extinction and needs to be considered as part of the brain circuit underlying reward loss.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Apetitivo , Habenula/fisiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Extinção Psicológica , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
13.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 17(2): 155-162, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995187

RESUMO

Background and Study Objective: To estimate the prevalence of chronic edema (CO) and wounds within two vulnerable populations, a male high security prison in the East Midlands (United Kingdom) and residential and nursing homes in the United Kingdom and Australia. Methods and Results: Methods for screening for CO and wounds were adapted from the main LIMPRINT methodology. Prison Population: In total, 195 inmates were recruited with 22 (11%) having CO. While the majority were white Caucasian (156/83.4%) a further 20 (10.7%) were dark skinned with 11 (5.95%) from other minority populations. Comorbidities included 123 (63%) smokers, 22 (11%) alcohol dependant, 60 (31%) with mental health problems, and 35 (18%) a history of self-harm. Only three had a current wound with 30 (16%) having had a traumatic stab wound. Residential and Nursing Homes (United Kingdom and Australia): In the United Kingdom, the total population available for inclusion was 189 with only 137 (73%) recruited. Seventy-two of the 137 (52%) suffered from CO and a further 16 (23%) had a history of cellulitis. Results from the Australian residential care facilities have been published in full. In summary, of the 37 participants 20 (54%) experienced CO with 25 (68%) having comorbidities and 11 (30%) having a concurrent wound. Conclusion: Obtaining an accurate picture of the prevalence and impact of CO in vulnerable populations is extremely challenging due to issues of access and consent. Lack of reliable data for these populations will contribute to poor service provision.


Assuntos
Edema/diagnóstico , Sistema Linfático/patologia , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Casas de Saúde , Prisioneiros , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Celulite (Flegmão)/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Edema/epidemiologia , Edema/patologia , Edema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Linfático/fisiopatologia , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Linfedema/patologia , Linfedema/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/patologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/fisiopatologia
14.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(4): 345-352, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888414

RESUMO

AIMS: Compulsive ethanol intake, characterized by persistent consumption despite negative consequences, is an addictive behavior identified by the DSM-5 as a central criterion in diagnosing alcohol use disorders (AUD). Epidemiological data suggest that females transition from recreational alcohol use to AUD more rapidly than males. Because of this potential sex difference in the etiology of AUD, it is critical to assess addictive behaviors such as compulsive intake in both males and females in preclinical studies. METHODS: We used the model of aversion-resistant ethanol consumption to assess compulsive-like ethanol intake. In these experiments, C57BL6/J mice were first provided with continuous access two-bottle choice between water and ethanol to establish baseline intake. Ethanol solution was then adulterated with increasing concentrations of the bitter tastant quinine hydrochloride. Animals that consume ethanol solution despite its pairing with this negative stimulus are thought to be exhibiting compulsive-like behavior. RESULTS: We found that higher concentrations of quinine were required to suppress ethanol consumption in female mice relative to males. We found no effect of estrous cycle phase on baseline ethanol intake or on quinine-adulterated ethanol intake in females. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggest that females exhibit a higher degree of aversion-resistance than male mice. Because we observed no effect of estrous cycle phase, it is likely that the presence of threshold levels of estradiol or progesterone, as opposed to their natural fluctuation across the estrous cycle, mediates increased aversion-resistance in females. Alternatively, or in combination, developmental effects of sex hormones could contribute to aversion-resistant ethanol intake.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(5): 1244-1251, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908373

RESUMO

Rodrigues, R, Franke, RA, Teixeira, BC, Macedo, RCO, Diefenthaeler, F, Baroni, BM, and Vaz, MA. Can the combination of acute alcohol intake and one night of sleep deprivation affect neuromuscular performance in healthy male adults? A cross-over randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1244-1251, 2019-The aim of this work was to perform a cross-over study to compare isolated and combined effects of alcohol intake and sleep deprivation on neuromuscular responses. Ten young and physically active male subjects were allocated to 4 conditions: (a) placebo intake + normal sleep (PLA + SLE); (b) alcohol intake + normal sleep (ALC + SLE); (c) placebo intake + sleep deprivation (PLA + SDP); and (d) alcohol intake + sleep deprivation (ALC + SDP). In each condition, volunteers ingested 1 g of alcohol per kg of body mass of alcoholic beer or nonalcoholic beer (placebo), followed by one night of normal sleep or sleep deprivation. In the next morning, neuromuscular performance (knee extensor isometric and concentric peak torque and time to task failure during the endurance test) and muscle activation were assessed. No differences were observed in the neuromuscular performance. We observed a significant reduction in quadriceps activation during the knee extensor isometric test in ALC + SDP compared with PLA + SLE (-20.8%; p = 0.02; d = 0.56). Our results demonstrated that acute alcohol intake and one night of sleep deprivation reduced quadriceps muscle activation without impact on neuromuscular performance.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Resistência Física , Sono/fisiologia , Torque , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive alcohol expectancy (AE) contributes to excessive drinking. Many imaging studies have examined cerebral responses to alcohol cues and how these regional processes related to problem drinking. However, it remains unclear how AE relates to cue response and whether AE mediates the relationship between cue response and problem drinking. METHODS: A total of 61 nondependent drinkers were assessed with the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to alcohol and neutral cues. Imaging data were processed and analyzed with published routines, and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the interrelationships among global positive score of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test score, and regional responses to alcohol versus neutral cues. RESULTS: Alcohol as compared with neutral cues engaged the occipital, retrosplenial, and medial orbitofrontal cortex as well as the left caudate head and red nucleus. The bilateral thalamus showed a significant correlation in cue response and in left superior frontal cortical connectivity with global positive score in a linear regression. Mediation analyses showed that global positive score completely mediated the relationship between thalamic cue activity as well as superior frontal cortical connectivity and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test score. The alternative models that AE contributed to problem drinking and, in turn, thalamic cue activity and connectivity were not supported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest an important role of the thalamic responses to alcohol cues in contributing to AE and at-risk drinking in nondependent drinkers. AEs may reflect a top-down modulation of the thalamic processing of alcohol cues, influencing the pattern of alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Motivação/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
17.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 284: 21-28, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640144

RESUMO

An emergent literature suggests that resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) functional connectivity (FC) patterns are aberrant in alcohol use disorder (AUD) populations. The salience network (SAL) is an established set of brain regions prominent in salience attribution and valuation, and includes the anterior insular cortex (AIC). The SAL is thought to play a role in AUD through directing increased attention to interoceptive cues of intoxication. There is very little information on the salience network (SAL) in AUD, and, in particular, there are no data on SAL FC in currently drinking, nontreatment seeking individuals with AUD (NTS). rsfMRI data from 16 NTS and 21 social drinkers (SD) were compared using FC correlation maps from ten seed regions of interest in the bilateral AIC. As anticipated, SD subjects demonstrated greater insular FC with frontal and parietal regions. We also found that, compared to SD, NTS had higher insular FC with hippocampal and medial orbitofrontal regions. The apparent overactivity in brain networks involved in salience, learning, and behavioral control in NTS suggests possible mechanisms in the development and maintenance of AUD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia
18.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 135-145, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite increases in female gambling, little research investigates female-specific factors affecting gambling behavior (GB). Although research suggests that some addictive behaviors may fluctuate across menstrual cycle phase (MCP), gambling requires further investigation. In two studies, we examined associations between MCP and three risky GBs: time spent gambling, money spent gambling, and the probability of consuming alcohol while gambling. Associations between MCP and negative affect were also examined in Study 2. We predicted that, consistent with self-medication theory, increases in negative affect (Study 2) and risky GBs (Studies 1 and 2) would occur premenstrually/menstrually relative to other phases. METHODS: Data were obtained from 33 female gamblers using a retrospective timeline followback procedure (Study 1) and from 20 female gamblers using a prospective 32-day, daily diary method (Study 2). In Study 2, salivary progesterone levels verified self-reported MCP validity. RESULTS: Findings revealed significant, but somewhat inconsistent, MCP effects on GBs across studies. The self-medication hypothesis was partially supported. Increases relative to another MCP(s) were found for alcohol consumption while gambling premenstrually, time spent gambling menstrually/premenstrually, money spent gambling menstrually, and negative affect premenstrually. Unexpectedly, findings more consistently indicated that GBs increased during ovulation, suggestive of enhanced reward sensitivity. Progesterone assays validated self-reported MCP (Study 2). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a role of ovarian hormones on negative affect and GBs in females. This research could lead to the identification of female-specific factors affecting gambling and the development of more effective interventions for females with, or at risk for, problematic gambling.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Ciclo Menstrual , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/metabolismo , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Behav Brain Res ; 362: 299-310, 2019 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664887

RESUMO

Previous research in male Long Evans rats has shown a relationship between low voluntary alcohol consumption and high conditioned fear after a single training session. Here, we determined whether chronic intermittent access (CIA) to alcohol during adolescence/early adulthood or during adulthood would alter or be associated with auditory-cued conditioned fear levels using an extended training fear incubation procedure. This training procedure leads to low fear soon after training that grows over one month. Rats received 6 weeks of CIA to 20% alcohol or water from PND 26-66. Ten or eleven days later, the rats began behavioral testing that included 10 sessions of tone-shock pairings. Rats then received 4 weeks of CIA exposure during the 1-month fear incubation period and were tested for conditioned fear 6 days after the end of alcohol access. We found no evidence that voluntary alcohol consumption during adolescence/early adulthood or adulthood altered fear expression. However, we found that rats that consumed more alcohol during early adulthood (PND 54-66) had lower fear than low-consumption rats on day 1 of conditioned fear training and in the day 2 and 1-month tests. This extends associations we previously found between individual differences in alcohol consumption and conditioned fear to a different fear conditioning procedure. Combined with our previous data that show that the rate of instrumental extinction is associated with both alcohol consumption and conditioned fear, these data provide further support for the generality and reliability of a pair of phenotypes that encompass a wide variety of learning traits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , /fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos Long-Evans
20.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 25, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the genes ALOX5 (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase), ALOX5AP (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein) and LTA4H (leukotriene A4 hydrolase) has previously been shown to contribute to the risk of MI (myocardial infarction) in Caucasian and African American populations. All genes encode proteins playing a role in the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory leukotriene B mediators, possibly providing a link between MI and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these associations could be confirmed in the study of China MI patients. The study included 401 Han Chinese MI patients and 409 controls. Six tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-ALOX5 rs12762303 and rs12264801, ALOX5AP rs10507391, LTA4H rs2072512, rs2540487 and rs2540477-were selected. SNP genotyping was performed by an improved multiplex ligation detection reaction assay. RESULTS: The rs2540487 genotype was associated with the risk of MI in overdominant model (P = 0.008). rs12762303 and rs10507391 SNPs were significantly associated with lipid levels in MI patients (P < 0.006-0.008). Several SNPs interacted with alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and hypertension to modify TC, TG, LDL-C and CRE levels, and the risk of MI (P < 0.0017 for all). No association between the SNPs of LT pathway and susceptibility to MI was found (P > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this study provides additional evidence that functional genetic variation of the LT pathway can mediate atherogenic processes and the risk of MI in Chinese.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ativadoras de 5-Lipoxigenase/genética , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , China , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Leucotrieno B4/genética , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
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