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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049810, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446493

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sparse attention has been given to the design of control conditions in trials, despite their important role as contrasts for novel treatments, and thus as a key determinant of effect sizes. This undermines valid inferences on effect estimates in trials, which are fundamentally comparative in nature. Such challenges to understanding also makes generalisation of effect estimates complex, for example, it may not be clear to what degree real-world alternatives to the novel treatments in pragmatic trials are similar to the control conditions studied. The present study aims to estimate the effects of being allocated to a waiting list control condition. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Individuals searching online for help to reduce their drinking will be invited to take part in a study. Individuals aged 18 years or older, who in the past month consumed six or more drinks on one occasion, or consumed 10 or more drinks the past week, will be eligible to participate. Both groups will receive identical feedback and advice on behaviour change; however, one group will be informed that they have to wait 1 month for the intervention materials. One month postrandomisation, participants will receive an email with the follow-up questionnaire measuring the primary outcomes: (1) frequency of heavy episodic drinking (defined as at study entry) in the past month; and (2) overall past week alcohol consumption. Differences between groups will be analysed using negative binomial regression models estimated using Bayesian inference. Recruitment will begin in October 2021. A Bayesian group sequential design will be employed to determine when to end enrolment (expected to be between 500 and 1500 individuals). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority on 2021-01-25 (Dnr 2020-06267). Findings will be disseminated in open access peer-reviewed journals no later than 2023. TRIAL REGISTRATION TRIAL: ISRCTN14959594; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Listas de Espera , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 3005-3018, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378693

RESUMO

The SHAHRP program was effective reducing drinking and alcohol - harms in Australia, but cross-cultural adaptation is required before replication. This study aimed at assessing the feasibility of SHAHRP in Brazil focused on implementation and acceptability. A mixed-methodsdesign was used: quantitative for implementing the program and evaluation and qualitative for acceptability. The quantitative design was a pilot of a randomized controlled trial. Private schools were randomly divided into four intervention (n=160) and four control (n=188) schools. Student's mean age was 12.7 years. The fidelity of implementation and likely outcome measures were assessed. Qualitative data on acceptability were provided by students and teachers. The percentage of implementation varied from 62.5% to 87.5%. Behaviours such as alcohol-harms requires a larger cohort and longer follow-up to be adequately evaluated. The risk reduction approach and activities had good acceptability from students and teachers. Quantitative and qualitative outcomes on knowledge and decision-making indicated possible improvement in SHAHRP schools. The program is feasible and well accepted in a Brazilian setting, opening the way for a more comprehensive evaluation and dissemination.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444571

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of the 'pre-intervention effects' of a community-based intervention. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. The aim was to investigate the contribution of these processes (i.e., pre-intervention effects) to changes in intervention-targeted factors before any actual intervention was implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). A regression analysis showed negative pre-intervention main effects on adolescents' perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Additionally, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but the involvement of and discussions in the community when planning the intervention contribute to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Autorrelato
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444272

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of various alcohol prevention programs on the drinking behavior of adolescents. There were seven electronic databases used for the literature search. A systematic review and meta-analysis are employed for works published in Korean and English from January 2010 to April 2021, with strict inclusion criteria yielding 12 papers in the review. The type of alcohol prevention interventions included educational and motivational interventions. Six studies had more than 500 participants each, and five studies had more than 10 participating schools. The programs did not effectively reduce the frequency of drinking or binge drinking of adolescents but significantly reduced the amount of alcohol consumed. Based on the results of this study, when planning alcohol prevention programs for adolescents, it is necessary to adopt a multi-level approach, including the engagement of parents and the community.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Alcoolismo , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 692605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249850

RESUMO

Background: The extent to which eligible individuals in a target population are willing to participate in interventions is important when evaluating the efficacy of public health interventions. Objectives: As part of a process evaluation of an ongoing randomized controlled trial, this study aimed to identify the proportion of risky drinkers who were willing to participate in an alcohol prevention intervention in an occupational health setting, and correlates for such willingness. Methods: Risky drinking employees from 22 companies in Norway were identified through an alcohol screening survey. Risky drinkers' (N = 779) willingness to complete a health examination and to be randomized into an alcohol prevention intervention (digital or face-to-face intervention, or control) was recorded by personnel from occupational health services. The proportion of employees who were willing to participate was assessed on 31 potential correlates (sociodemographic, alcohol-related, work-related, and lifestyle/daily activity). Adjusted (multiple logistic regression) analyses were utilized to explore associations between potential correlates and willingness to participate. Results: Altogether, 38.1% of employees were willing to participate in prevention interventions. In the adjusted analysis, only 5 out of 31 potential correlates were significantly associated with willingness to participate. Managers were more than twice as willing to participate than workers (OR = 2.17, p < 0.01). Willing employees had less workplace decision latitude (perceived control over workplace decisions and less possibility of utilizing personal skills in the job) (OR = 0.62, p < 0.05), and were more overcommitted with exorbitant work ambition and need for approval (OR = 1.49, p < 0.05). Willing employees had to some extent less alcohol-related impaired work performance (presenteeism, OR = 0.78, p < 0.05), and they spent less time on care activities (OR = 0.84, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Reaching four out of ten with risky drinking habits for prevention interventions strengthens the rationale for targeting this public health problem in occupational health care settings. In particular, this study suggests the importance of ensuring secure commitment among workers, who were less willing til participate than managers. Nevertheless, tailoring recruitment and implementation strategies based on easily identifiable correlates may be onerous.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Presenteísmo , Local de Trabalho
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202492

RESUMO

The classic ketogenic diet is a diet high in fat, low in carbohydrates, and well-adjusted proteins. The reduction in glucose levels induces changes in the body's metabolism, since the main energy source happens to be ketone bodies. Recent studies have suggested that nutritional interventions may modulate drug addiction. The present work aimed to study the potential effects of a classic ketogenic diet in modulating alcohol consumption and its rewarding effects. Two groups of adult male mice were employed in this study, one exposed to a standard diet (SD, n = 15) and the other to a ketogenic diet (KD, n = 16). When a ketotic state was stable for 7 days, animals were exposed to the oral self-administration paradigm to evaluate the reinforcing and motivating effects of ethanol. Rt-PCR analyses were performed evaluating dopamine, adenosine, CB1, and Oprm gene expression. Our results showed that animals in a ketotic state displayed an overall decrease in ethanol consumption without changes in their motivation to drink. Gene expression analyses point to several alterations in the dopamine, adenosine, and cannabinoid systems. Our results suggest that nutritional interventions may be a useful complementary tool in treating alcohol-use disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogênica/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Etanol , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Motivação/genética
9.
Addict Behav ; 121: 107004, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol is a major source of harm worldwide. The aim of this study was to experimentally assess the effects of exposing Australian adult drinkers to combinations of 'why to reduce' and 'how to reduce' alcohol harm-reduction messages. METHODS: Three online surveys were administered over six weeks: Time 1 at baseline (n = 7,995), Time 2 at three weeks post-baseline (n = 4,588), and Time 3 at six weeks post-baseline (n = 2,687). Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions: (1) a control condition; (2) a 'why to reduce' television advertisement; (3-5) one of three 'how to reduce' messages referring to the following protective behavioral strategies (PBSs): Keep count of your drinks, Decide how many drinks and stick to it, It's okay to say no; and (6-8) the television advertisement combined with each PBS message individually. Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted to determine effects of condition assignment on changes over time in attempts to reduce alcohol consumption and amount of alcohol consumed. RESULTS: Participants assigned to the 'TV ad' and 'TV ad + Keep count of your drinks PBS' conditions reported significant increases in attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. Only participants assigned to the 'TV ad + Keep count of your drinks PBS' condition exhibited a significant reduction in alcohol consumed (-0.87 drinks per person per week). CONCLUSIONS: Well-executed 'why to reduce' alcohol harm-reduction advertisements can encourage drinkers to attempt to reduce their alcohol consumption. These ads may be effectively supplemented by specific 'how to reduce' messages designed to encourage drinkers to monitor their intake.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Redução do Dano , Adulto , Publicidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Comunicação , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067897

RESUMO

Alcohol binge drinking (BD) and poor nutritional habits are two frequent behaviors among many adolescents that alter gut microbiota in a pro-inflammatory direction. Dysbiotic changes in the gut microbiome are observed after alcohol and high-fat diet (HFD) consumption, even before obesity onset. In this study, we investigate the neuroinflammatory response of adolescent BD when combined with a continuous or intermittent HFD and its effects on adult ethanol consumption by using a self-administration (SA) paradigm in mice. The inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and CX3CL1 were measured in the striatum 24 h after BD, 3 weeks later and after the ethanol (EtOH) SA. Adolescent BD increased alcohol consumption in the oral SA and caused a greater motivation to seek the substance. Likewise, mice with intermittent access to HFD exhibited higher EtOH consumption, while the opposite effect was found in mice with continuous HFD access. Biochemical analyses showed that after BD and three weeks later, striatal levels of IL-6 and CX3CL1 were increased. In addition, in saline-treated mice, CX3CL1 was increased after continuous access to HFD. After oral SA procedure, striatal IL-6 was increased only in animals exposed to BD and HFD. In addition, striatal CX3CL1 levels were increased in all BD- and HFD-exposed groups. Overall, our findings show that adolescent BD and intermittent HFD increase adult alcohol intake and point to neuroinflammation as an important mechanism modulating this interaction.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/imunologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Etanol/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade , Autoadministração/métodos
12.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e557-e565, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a policy option to reduce consumption of alcohol and the harm it does, on May 1, 2018, Scotland introduced a minimum price of 50 British pence (p) per unit of alcohol (8 g) sold; Wales followed suit on March 2, 2020, with the same minimum unit price (MUP). We analysed household purchase data based on bar codes to assess the impact of these policy options in the medium term for Scotland and in the immediate term for Wales. METHODS: For these location-controlled, interrupted time series regression analyses, the data source was Kantar WorldPanel's household shopping panel, which, at the time of our analysis, included 35 242 British households providing detailed information on 1·24 million separate alcohol purchases in 2015-18 and the first half of 2020. With no data exclusions, we analysed the impact of introducing MUP in Scotland, using purchases in northern England as control, and in Wales, using western England as control. The studied changes associated with MUP were price paid per gram of alcohol purchased, grams of alcohol purchased, and amount of money spent on alcohol. FINDINGS: In Scotland, price increases and purchase decreases following the introduction of MUP in 2018 were maintained during the first half of 2020. The difference between Scotland and northern England in 2020 was a price increase of 0·741 p per gram (95% CI 0·724-0·759), a 7·6% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·063 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·656-7·470), a 7·7% decrease. In Wales, the introduction of MUP led to similar results. The difference between Wales and western England was a price increase 0·841 of 0·841 p per gram (0·732-0·951), an 8·2% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·052 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·463-7·640), an 8·6% decrease. For both Scotland and Wales, reductions in overall purchases of alcohol were largely restricted to households that bought the most alcohol. The introduction of MUP was not associated with an increased expenditure on alcohol by households that generally bought small amounts of alcohol and, in particular, those with low incomes. The changes were not affected by the introduction of COVID-19 confinement in the UK on March 26, 2020. INTERPRETATION: The evidence base supporting the positive, targeted impact of MUP is strengthened by the comparable results for Scotland and Wales. The short-term impact of MUP in Scotland during 2018 is maintained during the first half of 2020. MUP is an effective alcohol policy option to reduce off-trade purchases of alcohol and should be widely considered. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Escócia , País de Gales
13.
Addict Behav ; 120: 106969, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000650

RESUMO

Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, and some are at risk for developing alcohol use disorders. However, many students report using alcohol without experiencing negative consequences, which may be due, in part, to use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS). Although evidence of PBS effectiveness on reducing alcohol use and negative consequences is mixed, gender/sex differences in PBS use remain a consistent finding. To further explore these associations, we used item response theory models and assessed item-level PBS correlations with alcohol outcomes separately for female and males. Results indicated specific items exhibited significant sex differences in the amount of information and location of information across the latent trait. Some items provided little information across females and males, suggesting these items can be removed. All PBS items significantly associated with alcohol outcomes were negative in direction, but effects ranged from small to large in magnitude. These findings suggest strategies that are effective against alcohol-related harms vary across females and males, and PBS measurement may be improved by establishing sex-specific norms and analyzing females and males separately when studying PBS. Future research priorities include examining PBS among intersex, trans, and nonbinary people.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol has an almost ubiquitous presence, both offline and online. RESEARCH AIM: This paper therefore aims to describe the status quo of alcohol prevention on leading social media platforms in German-speaking countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To this end, the international state of research on alcohol communication in social media is first summarized by means of a narrative review. Social media analysis is then conducted to evaluate which German-language alcohol channels reach large numbers on platforms such as Facebook and Instagram. Next, content analysis is used to examine N = 470 posts and N = 3015 user comments from the alcohol prevention social media channel with the largest reach. Finally, an online survey of N = 1150 youth (aged 16-20) explores their alcohol-related social media use. RESULTS: According to the state of research, communications glorifying alcohol consumption are frequently seen on social media. On leading social media platforms, the German-language alcohol channels with the widest reach are devoted to marketing and humor; prevention is significantly less prevalent. To date, the social media channel with the highest reach for alcohol prevention is the Facebook page of the BZgA youth campaign "Alcohol? Kenn dein Limit," which achieves the highest interaction rates through videos and user polls. Here, young social media users both express criticism of alcohol consumption (11% of comments) and continue to favor it (21%). Around half of the surveyed young people have already participated in alcohol-related online communication. DISCUSSION: Alcohol prevention faces the task of countering the glorification of alcohol that dominates social media with sensitizing messages.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alemanha , Humanos , Marketing , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043918, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that brief interventions are effective in reducing alcohol consumption among older adults. However, the effectiveness of these interventions when delivered by community health workers (non-specialists) in a primary healthcare setting is unknown. To our knowledge, this will be the first randomised trial to examine this. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two hundred and forty-two individuals considered at-risk drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, AUDIT-C score ≥4) will be recruited and randomly allocated to usual care (waiting-list) or usual care plus an intervention delivered by trained community health workers (non-specialists). Seven primary care units (PCUs) in Sao José dos Campos, Brazil. PCUs are part of the Brazilian public healthcare system (Sistema Único de Saúde).Follow-up6 months.OutcomesThe primary outcome will be the proportion of participants considered at-risk drinkers (AUDIT-C score ≥4). Secondary outcomes will include alcohol consumption in a typical week in the last 30 days (in units per week) assessed by the AUDIT, service use questionnaire, cognitive performance-assessed by The Health and Retirement Study Harmonised Cognitive Assessment, physical activity-assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, depression-assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and quality of life-assessed by the Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation and Pleasure-16 instrument. The analysis will be based on intention-to-treat principle. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, CEP/UNIFESP Project n: 0690/2018; CAAE: 91648618.0.0000.5505. All eligible participants will provide informed consent prior to randomisation. The results of this study will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and in conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: RBR-8rcxkk.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Intervenção na Crise , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009444

RESUMO

Due to the prevalence and harmful consequences of alcohol consumption, universal measures for alcohol prevention are also necessary in adolescence. An example of such a universal measure, "Aktion Glasklar," has been implemented mainly in the school setting for more than 15 years. Through print media, lesson proposals, a quiz with regular prize lotteries, and a website including interactive elements, young people are informed about alcohol in an age-appropriate manner and are encouraged to reflect on alcohol critically. Parents receive suggestions on how to address alcohol consumption with their children. For adult caregivers, such as teachers or youth group leaders, Aktion Glasklar provides prepared teaching suggestions. In a cluster-randomized study, the effects of participation in an intervention on alcohol-related knowledge and the frequency of binge drinking were shown. Thus, even a low-threshold and less intensive measure may contribute to the education and reduction of risky forms of consumption in adolescence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Cuidadores , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Prevalência
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938952

RESUMO

In Germany, alcohol is the most popular drug among adolescents. So far, school-based alcohol prevention programs have focused on elementary school children and pupils in early adolescence. The school program "Klar bleiben" ("Keep a Clear Head") was especially designed for young people in late adolescence (10th graders) with the aim of establishing non-binge drinking as a social norm.Students in the participating classes commit themselves to abstain from binge drinking for six weeks (contract management). The class gives feedback after each week. After at least five positive feedbacks, the class is rated as successful and enters a prize draw. Elaborated teaching impulses and information resources for teachers and parents are further components of the prevention program.The evaluation of the class competition by 92 teachers can be regarded as consistently positive. The results of a cluster-randomized study showed a relative risk reduction of 10.4% in binge drinking in the last month for those adolescents who had already consumed alcohol before and belong to the intervention group. After the end of the intervention, this group of adolescents consumed an average of 0.19 fewer alcoholic beverages per drinking occasion compared to adolescents from the control group. The findings presented here are encouraging, keeping in mind that the intervention is relatively inexpensive.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 764, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the effect of community interventions on youth alcohol consumption, and the results have often been mixed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention known as the Öckerö Method on adolescent alcohol consumption and perceived parental attitudes towards adolescent drinking. METHOD: The study is based on a quasi-experimental design, using matched controls. Self-report studies were conducted among adolescents in grades 7-9 of compulsory education in four control and four intervention communities in the south of Sweden in 2016-2018. Baseline measures were collected in autumn 2016 before the intervention was implemented in the intervention communities. Outcomes were the adolescents' alcohol consumption, past-year drunkenness, past-month drunkenness and perceived parental attitudes towards alcohol. RESULTS: Estimating Difference-in-Difference models using Linear Probability Models, we found no empirical evidence that the intervention has any effect on adolescents' drinking habits, or on their perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards adolescent drinking. CONCLUSION: This is the first evaluation of this method, and we found no evidence that the intervention had any effect on the level of either young people's alcohol consumption or their past-year or past-month drunkenness, nor on their parents' perceived attitudes toward adolescent drinking. A further improvement would be to employ a follow-up period that is longer than the three-year period employed in this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry: Study ID: 51635778 , 31th March 2021 (Retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Intoxicação Alcoólica , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle
19.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(2): 269-278, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rates of heavy alcohol use among active-duty military personnel in the United States are high and negatively affect individuals within the service branches. This study tested the effectiveness of a military-focused screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) intervention for reducing risky alcohol use among active-duty patients. METHOD: We used a randomized, parallel, two-group design to test the effectiveness of the SBIRT intervention in a convenience sample of service members recruited from the emergency department of a military hospital. A total of 791 participants were randomized to the SBIRT or usual care conditions, and 472 participants (59.7%) completed a 6-month follow-up. Fifteen percent of the sample was female. Self-reported Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), controlled drinking self-efficacy (CDSE), and readiness to change drinking behaviors were assessed at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Among higher risk participants (i.e., AUDIT ≥8), results of a complete case analysis showed a significant reduction in scores on the AUDIT-C (consumption questions from the AUDIT) and a significant increase in CDSE. Null findings were observed for intent-to-treat analyses testing the effectiveness of the SBIRT intervention; significant decreases in AUDIT and AUDIT-C scores and significant increases in CDSE were observed over time, irrespective of condition assignment for both complete case and intent-to-treat analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Results of a complete case analysis provided some support for the effectiveness of the SBIRT intervention for higher risk participants. The results of the more conservative intent-to-treat analyses did not support any of the study hypotheses. Future SBIRT effectiveness trials should also test electronic SBIRT intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Militares , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Intervenção na Crise , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919819

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an alcohol-related harm prevention program on out-of-school adolescent girls. This was a quasi-experimental study employing a randomized controlled non-synchronized design. There were 23 and 22 participants in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The program comprised three sessions aiming to motivate voluntary changes and promote autonomous decision-making. The experimental group showed significantly higher alcohol-related knowledge and substantially lower alcohol outcome expectancy than the control group. No significant differences emerged from drinking refusal, self-efficacy, or alcohol abstinence intention. This program could improve alcohol-related knowledge and reduce out-of-school adolescent girls' positive alcohol outcome expectancy.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Abstinência de Álcool , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autoeficácia
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