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2.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(8): 445-450, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Substance use patterns and sociodemographic variables of Berlin's party scene were investigated to derive preventive measures and harm reduction services, which meet the needs of the consumers. METHODS: A questionnaire was used online and in the field among Berlin partygoers (N = 877) and structured interviews (N = 20) were conducted with professionals working in this area, including social workers, emergency medical service, police and club owners and users. RESULTS: A risky consumption pattern was found in 67 % of participants, who also stated need for counseling and a wish for reduction of their substance use. Of all preventive measures, drug checking was requested most often. Substances with the highest prevalence were alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, MDMA, cocaine and ketamine, whereas methamphetamine and new psychoactive substances were barely stated. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need to expand current preventive measures. There is a willingness of the scene to use according services, especially by those who need it the most.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Redução do Dano , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Berlim , Alemanha , Humanos , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
3.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019036, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study was to conduct a comparative assessment of drinking behaviors and overall health among pregnant and breastfeeding women. METHODS: This study used data collected from the Korean Community Health Survey in 2015. Data obtained from 2,156 pregnant or breastfeeding women were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the t-test, the chi-square test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Current drinking and alcohol consumption were higher among pregnant women than among breastfeeding women. Depression was twice as common among breastfeeding women than among pregnant women, and stress was much higher among breastfeeding women as well. Breastfeeding women also had lower subjective dental health and more unmet medical needs than pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Although pregnant women were in better overall health than breastfeeding women, many of them were unable to stop drinking, which is a risky and adverse health behavior that negatively affects maternal and fetal health. In order to reduce drinking among pregnant and breastfeeding women, it is necessary to develop a tailored, standardized educational program and national guidelines.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Gravidez , República da Coreia
4.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3199, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate self-esteem, the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other substances in outsourced workers of a public university. METHOD: a descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative study developed with 316 outsourced workers from a municipality in the Southeast of Brazil. Data was collected through a characterization tool, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, odds ratio and logistic regression. RESULTS: the majority of workers had high self-esteem and some used alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. A significant association between gender, age group and work shift with self-esteem; between the risk of developing problems related to alcohol consumption with sex, age group, marital status, religious belief and number of children; between the practice of physical activity and the risk of developing problems related to the consumption of tobacco products was found. CONCLUSION: this study contributes to the increase of knowledge due to the small number of researches involving this subject and to contribute to the nurses to have subsidies to work with this population using strategies to combat the triggers of psychic disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Serviços Terceirizados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
5.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 522-526, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478780

RESUMO

Aims: This study describes changes in alcohol habits in age and gender strata among the Swedish general population during the 21-year period following the Swedish EU membership in 1995. Methods: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was distributed as a postal questionnaire to randomly selected cross-sectional samples every fourth year, starting in 1997. Results: Six samples were included in this study. A comparison between 2014 and 2018 showed a tendency to decreasing average total AUDIT scores, particularly among men and in the youngest age group (Cohen's d = 0.28). Conclusion: The results should be understood in the context of declining response rates in this type of survey.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Hábitos , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 368-374, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug use among mothers during the postpartum period after a severe pregnancy-related complication. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of maternal morbidity including maternal near-miss and control groups conducted in a tertiary hospital in Campinas, Brazil, between July 2008 and June 2012. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was used to assess drug use during lifetime, pregnancy, and in the previous 3 months. RESULTS: Of 638 women evaluated, drug use was reported by 165 (25.8%). Alcohol was the most common substance used (n=133, 20.6%), followed by tobacco (n=85, 13.2%), and cocaine (n=15, 2.3%). The highest risk for postpartum drug use was among those using drugs during pregnancy. There were no differences between the morbidity and control groups, but there was a significant difference in the need for intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in the severe maternal morbidity group. Risk for substance abuse intervention increased three-fold in women with PTSD criteria, and all aspects of quality of life were worse among drug users. CONCLUSION: Drug use during pregnancy and maternal complications are linked to postpartum drug abuse. These women should be managed during pregnancy; postpartum follow-up requires updated guidance and must go beyond family planning.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Morbidade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
7.
AIDS Behav ; 23(12): 3247-3256, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401739

RESUMO

Alcohol, depression, and intimate partner violence (IPV) are endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines whether and how these conditions affect mothers living with HIV (MLH), compared to mothers without HIV (MWOH). In particular, we assess the influence of these comorbidities on engagement in HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapies (ARV) among MLH. Data on maternal HIV care are typically based on clinic samples, with substantial loss to follow-up. This study fills that gap by including all mothers in specified areas. A cohort study examines MLH in Cape Town, South Africa recruited in pregnancy and followed repeatedly for 5 years, compared to MWOH. Almost all (98%) pregnant women in 12 neighborhoods (N = 594) were recruited in pregnancy. Mothers and children were reassessed five times over 5 years with high retention rates at each of the six assessments, from 98.7% at 2 weeks to 82.8% at 5 years post-birth. MLH's uptake and adherence to HIV care was evaluated over time associated with maternal comorbidities of alcohol use, depressed mood, and IPV using mixed effects logistic regression. MLH have fewer resources (income, food, education) and are more likely to face challenges from alcohol, depression, and having seropositive partners over time than MWOH. Only 22.6% of MLH were consistently engaged in HIV care from 6 months to 5 years post-birth. At 5 years, 86.7% self-reported engaged in HIV care, 76.9% were receiving ARVs and 87% of those on ARV reported consistent ARV adherence. However, data on viral suppression are unavailable. Alcohol use, but not depressed mood or IPV, was significantly related to reduced uptake of HIV care and adherence to ARV over time. Adherence to lifelong ARV by MLH requires a combination of structural and behaviorally-focused interventions. Alcohol abuse is not typically addressed in low and middle-income countries, but is critical to support MLH.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Parceiros Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
AIDS Behav ; 23(12): 3237-3246, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401740

RESUMO

Despite greater mental health co-morbidities and heavier alcohol use among PLWH, few studies have examined the role of the neighborhood alcohol environment on either alcohol consumption or mental health. Utilizing cross-sectional data from a cohort study in a southern U.S. metropolitan area, we examine the association between neighborhood alcohol environments on hazardous drinking and mental health among 358 in-care PLWH (84% African American, 31% female). Multilevel models were utilized to quantify associations between neighborhood alcohol exposure on hazardous drinking and effect modification by sex. Neighborhood alcohol density was associated with hazardous drinking among men but not women. Women living in alcohol dense neighborhoods were nearly two-fold likely to report depression compared to those in less dense neighborhoods, with no association between neighborhood alcohol density and depression among men. Neighborhood alcohol environments may be an important contextual factor to consider in reducing heavy alcohol consumption and improving mental health among PLWH.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398815

RESUMO

In both developing and underdeveloped countries there has been a worrying increase in the number of young people drinking alcohol; this public health problem warrants more research. This multilevel study analyzed the influence of drinking refusal self-efficacy, peers' motivation, and protective behavioral strategies as predictors of alcohol consumption in a sample of 261 young people arranged into 52 social groups (peers who regularly shared leisure activities). A series of questionnaires were administered individually to evaluate beliefs and behaviors related to alcohol consumption at both individual level (drinking refusal self-efficacy) and peer level (enhancement motivation and protective behavioral strategies). The results showed that the individual variable (drinking refusal self-efficacy) predicted alcohol consumption behaviors. The multilevel design allowed us to evaluate the direct and moderated effects of peers' enhancement motivation and protective behavioral strategies on the relationship between self-efficacy and drinking behavior. These results show the importance of developing cognitive, behavioral, and educational intervention programs to increase young people and university students' confidence and ability to use protective strategies, in order to reduce alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Infuência dos Pares , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sleep Health ; 5(5): 495-500, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sleep complaints, such as insomnia and sleep disturbances caused by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are more common among women veterans than nonveteran women. Alcohol use among some women may be partially motivated by the desire to improve sleep. This study evaluated rates of alcohol use as a sleep aid among women veterans and explored the relationship between alcohol use to aid sleep and drinking frequency and sleeping pill use. DESIGN AND SETTING: National cross-sectional population-based residential mail survey on sleep and other symptoms. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of women veteran VA users who completed a postal survey (N = 1533). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: The survey included demographics, Insomnia Severity Index, Primary Care PTSD screen, and items on alcohol use frequency (days/week), use of prescription or over-the-counter sleep medications, and use of alcohol as a sleep aid (yes/no for each item) over the past month. RESULTS: A total of 14.3% of respondents endorsed using alcohol to aid sleep. Logistic regression models showed more severe insomnia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.06) and PTSD (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.49-2.97) were associated with increased odds of using alcohol to aid sleep. Alcohol use to aid sleep was associated with increased odds of daily drinking (OR = 8.46; 95% CI: 4.00-17.87) and prescription (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.34-2.38) and over-the-counter sleep aid use (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.12-2.11). CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia and PTSD may increase risk for using alcohol as a sleep aid, which may increase risk for unhealthy drinking and for mixing alcohol with sleep medications. Findings highlight the need for alcohol use screening in the context of insomnia and for delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia to women veterans with insomnia.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Neuropsychology ; 33(6): 781-794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of the scientific literature pertaining to the effects of alcohol on neural correlates of cognitive and emotional functioning, including reward processing and cue-reactivity, in adolescence and young adulthood. METHOD: Peer-reviewed, original research articles that included a neuroimaging assessment of alcohol effects on subsequent cognitive or emotional processing in adolescent or young adult samples were searched (through November 2018) and summarized in the review. RESULTS: Cross-sectional studies provided early evidence of alcohol-related differences in neural processing across a number of cognitive domains. Longitudinal studies have identified neural abnormalities that predate drinking within most domains of cognitive functioning, while a few neural alterations have been observed within the domains of visual working memory, inhibitory control, reward processing, and cue-reactivity that appear to be related to the neurotoxic effect of alcohol use during adolescence. In contrast, neural correlates of emotion functioning appear to be relatively stable to the effects of alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Larger prospective studies are greatly needed to disentangle premorbid factors from neural consequences associated with drinking, and to detect subsets of youth who may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol's effects on cognitive and emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Emoções , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Neuroimagem , Recompensa
12.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 511-519, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436446

RESUMO

Although computer delivered brief interventions (CDBIs) have been effective in reducing alcohol use, few studies have examined which components of CDBIs are most associated with drinking reductions. The current factorial trial deconstructed a brief alcohol intervention into component parts to identify main and interaction effects on drinking outcomes. Participants (N = 352) were randomly assigned to 1 of 16 possible combinations of four dichotomous (present vs. absent) CDBI components for which theoretical and empirical support was available: empathic reflections, motivational strategies, a spoken voice, and an animated narrator. We measured main and interaction effects of these components on the primary outcome of self-reported mean drinks per day at 1- and 3-month follow-up, as well as on secondary outcomes, including binge drinking, intentions to reduce drinking, and alcohol consequences. Participants reduced drinking across all alcohol use indices over the 3-month assessment period. These effects were stronger for participants who were exposed to motivational strategies, F = 7.7, p < .001. Empathic reflections, use of a spoken voice, and use of an animated narrator were not associated with reductions in alcohol use, either as main effects or in interaction with other factors. Results suggest that CDBIs using motivational strategies are effective in reducing alcohol use. However, empathic reflections and lifelike characteristics (e.g., narrator, voice) may operate differently in CDBIs than they do in person-delivered interventions. More research is needed to better understand how these (or other factors) may influence efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Aconselhamento/métodos , Empatia , Retroalimentação , Motivação , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 3078-3092, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444711

RESUMO

Alcohol is the most widely abused substance in Namibia and is associated with poor adherence and retention in care among people on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Electronic screening and brief interventions (eSBI) are effective in reducing alcohol consumption in various contexts. We used a mixed methods approach to develop, implement, and evaluate the introduction of an eSBI in two ART clinics in Namibia. Of the 787 participants, 45% reported some alcohol use in the past 12 months and 25% reported hazardous drinking levels. Hazardous drinkers were more likely to be male, separated/widowed/divorced, have a monthly household income > $1000 NAD, and report less than excellent ART adherence. Based on qualitative feedback from participants and providers, ART patients using the eSBI for the first time found it to be a positive and beneficial experience. However, we identified several programmatic considerations that could improve the experience and yield in future implementation studies.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Namíbia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 552-560, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368722

RESUMO

The development of online dating has created a cultural shift in how emerging adults approach dating. The present study examined retrospective and event-level associations between alcohol, online dating, and sexual hookups among a sample of single, postcollege women. Participants completed baseline and 24 electronic daily diary surveys on alcohol use, sexual behavior, and method for meeting their sexual partners. We examined the influence of alcohol on sexual hookups, and how method of meeting a partner, and location prior to the hookup influenced level of intoxication during a sexual hookup. There was a within-person effect of alcohol on likelihood of engaging in a sexual hookup whereby hookups were more likely on days when women reported higher levels of intoxication relative to their average drinking. Spending time at bar/party prior to a sexual hookup was associated with higher levels of intoxication prior to a sexual hookup relative to being at other locations. Measured in the daily diary surveys, meeting a sexual hookup partner online was associated with lower levels of intoxication during the hookup relative to when meeting at bars/parties, even when including location just prior to the hookup in the model. The baseline retrospective analyses also indicated that meeting a partner online was associated with drinking less frequently before a sexual hookup relative to meeting a partner at a bar/party. Interventions to address alcohol use, method for meeting a partner, and location prior to hookups could be effective in decreasing potential negative consequences of alcohol-related sexual behavior in emerging adult women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(8): 2883-2894, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389536

RESUMO

This study explores one of the most interesting and least studied issues in Brazil: the consequences of complex and contradictory experiences by replacing the traditional drinks by cachaça, introduced through interethnic contact. Given the rarity of the study of Maxakali alcohol consumption in research, this study aims to understand, from the native's point of view, the negative aftereffect of alcohol consumption. Although anthropological studies emphasize functions of traditional and contemporary drinking as social "lubricants", social perceptions of the Maxakali highlight the problems of cachaça bought through interethnic contact. Symbols and meanings of these consequences were interpreted through their daily life histories, recorded by 21 leaders in focus group. Through the interethnic contact, some adaptations have occurred in the Maxakali alcohol use, with negative consequences for those who drink, their families, their villages and their community. In the world-of-life, these changes these changes can be seen through accidents, insults, marital disharmony, neglects, violent behavior, illness and death. This study's findings highlight the importance of producing comprehensive and in-depth knowledge in search of to identify vulnerable groups and to develop participatory solutions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Saccharum/química , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Brasil , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 292-297, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185356

RESUMO

Background: Past studies have suggested that emotional intelligence (EI) is a new construct that may help to explain alcohol abuse. This study is one of the first to examine the predictive capacity of both trait and ability EI, based on the Mayer and Salovey model, with regards to distinct variables of alcohol consumption in an adolescent population. Method: A survey was conducted on 844 school children who completed a self-report and performance-based EI test, as well as a selection of items on alcohol consumption. Results: Regression analyses revealed that trait EI was the most predictive. Clarity and emotional Repair showed significant negative correlations with alcohol consumption, as opposed to emotional Attention. Likewise, the abilities of Perceiving and Using emotions were found to be protective factors for consumption in schoolchildren. Conclusion: The results suggest that trait and ability EI are complementary dimensions that may help in the understanding and intervention of alcohol abuse in adolescents. The results are discussed in the EI research context, as well as their educational implications and future research lines


Antecedentes: diversas investigaciones muestran que la inteligencia emocional (IE) es un nuevo constructo que puede ayudar a explicar el consumo abusivo de alcohol. El presente estudio es uno de los primeros en examinar la capacidad predictiva de la IE rasgo y de la IE habilidad, basada en el modelo de Mayer y Salovey, sobre diversas variables de consumo de alcohol en población adolescente. Método: se realizó una encuesta a 844 escolares que cumplimentaron un autoinforme y un test de rendimiento máximo de IE, así como una selección de ítems de consumo de alcohol. Resultados: los análisis de regresión revelaron que la IE rasgo fue la más predictiva. La Claridad y la Reparación emocional mostraron relaciones significativas negativas con el consumo de alcohol, al contrario que la Atención emocional. Asimismo, la habilidad de Percepción y Facilitación emocional resultaron ser factores protectores del consumo en los escolares. Conclusión: los resultados sugieren que la IE rasgo y habilidad son medidas complementarias que pueden ayudar en la comprensión e intervención sobre el problema del abuso del alcohol en la adolescencia. Se discuten los resultados en el contexto de la investigación sobre la IE, así como su implicación educativa y futuras líneas de investigación


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebedeira/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Psicológicos , Análise de Regressão , Autoavaliação , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 529-539, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343200

RESUMO

The college years are a period of peak vulnerability for sexual victimization (SV) and substance misuse. During college, students with SV histories report riskier substance use patterns, yet little is known about the influence of SV on substance use behaviors as students begin to transition away from the college environment. This was the purpose of the present study. College seniors (N = 480; 61% female) reported on their alcohol and drug use behaviors across 5 time points spanning 1 calendar year. For many, this year included the transition out of college. Latent growth curve analysis was used to determine whether trajectories for alcohol and drug use as well as alcohol and drug consequences differed based on SV histories (no SV, precollege SV, college SV, precollege + college SV). Results revealed that at the start of senior year, young adults with SV histories reported greater substance use and consequences relative to nonvictimized peers. Over the year, SV histories were associated with steeper declines in substance use and consequences. Despite the declines, those who were revictimized across developmental time periods (precollege + college SV) consistently reported higher alcohol use and consequences across the transitional year, although this did not replicate for other drugs. In sum, although alcohol and other drug involvement among those with SV histories decreased over time, precollege + college SV histories continued to be a persistent risk factor for heavier alcohol use behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 426, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that wine glass size affects sales of wine in bars, with more wine purchased when served in larger glasses. The current four studies, conducted in one restaurant (Studies 1 and 2) and two bars (Studies 3 and 4) in Cambridge, England, aim to establish the reproducibility of this effect of glass size on sales. A multiple treatment reversal design was used, involving wine being served in sequential fortnightly periods in different sized glasses of the same design (290 ml, 350 ml, and 450 ml). The primary outcome was daily wine volume (ml) sold. RESULTS: Restaurant: Daily wine volume sold was 13% (95% CI 2%, 24%) higher when served with 350 ml vs. 290 ml glasses in Study 1. A similar direction of effect was seen in Study 2 (6%; 95% CI - 1%, 15%). Bars: Daily wine volume sold was 21% (95% CI 9%, 35%) higher when served with 450 ml vs. 350 ml glasses in Study 3. This effect was not observed in Study 4 (- 7%, 95% CI - 16%, 3%). Meaningful differences were not demonstrated with any other glass comparison. These results partially replicate previous studies showing that larger glasses increase wine sales. Considerable uncertainty remains about the magnitude of any effect and the contexts in which it might occur. Trial registration Study 1: ISRCTN17958895 (21/07/2017), Study 2: ISRCTN17097810 (29/03/2018), Study 3 and 4: ISRCTN39401124 (10/05/2018).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Restaurantes/economia , Vinho , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária/economia , Inglaterra , Vidro , Humanos
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 37-42, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ethanol intake can increase the sedative effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (GHB/GBL), although the real clinical impact is unknown. We studied the clinical impact of the co-ingestion of ethanol in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with acute toxicity related to GHB/GBL use. METHOD: We performed a secondary analysis of the Euro-DEN Plus Registry (14 countries, 22 EDs) which includes 17,371 consecutive patients presenting to the ED with acute recreational drug toxicity over 39 consecutive months (October 2013 - December 2016). We compared the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and ED management of patients identified as presenting with acute toxicity related to lone GHB/GBL (Group A) or GHB/GBL combined with ethanol (Group B) without other concomitant drugs. RESULTS: A total of 609 patients were included (age 32 (8) years; 116 women (19%); Group A: 183 patients and Group B: 426). The most common features were reduction in consciousness (defined as Glasgow Coma Score <13 points: 56.1%) and agitation/aggressiveness (33.6%). Those with ethanol co-ingestion were younger patients (Group A/B: 31.5/33.1 years, p = 0.029) and ethanol co-ingestion was associated with a lower frequency of bradycardia (23.5%/15.7%, p = 0.027) and more frequent arrival at the ED by ambulance (68.3/86.6%; p < 0.001), reduction in consciousness (58.9%/49.1%; p = 0.031), need for treatment in the ED (49.2%/60.4%; p = 0.011), use of sedatives (20.1%/12.8%; p = 0.034), admission to critical care units (22.4%/55.3%; p < 0.001), and longer hospital stay (stay longer than 6 h: 16.9%/28.4%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Co-ingestion of ethanol increases the adverse effects of patients intoxicated by GHB/GBL, leading to greater depression of consciousness, need for treatment, admission to the ICU and longer hospital stay.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Oxibato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Consciência/psicologia , Transtornos da Consciência/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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