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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572994

RESUMO

Whether lockdown related to the COVID-19 pandemic influences alcohol consumption is not well known. This study assesses alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking behavior during the initial phase of pandemic measures in Norway and identifies potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study (N = 25,708) was conducted in Bergen, Norway, following the first six weeks of strict infection control measures. In a model of self-assessed increased alcohol consumption, logistic regression analysis was conducted with independent variables for COVID-19-related worries, joblessness, quarantine, self-reported drinking behavior, age, gender, and occupational situation. These are reported with odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Fifty-one percent of respondents reported economic or health-related worries due to COVID-19, 16% had been in quarantine, 49% worked/studied from home, 54% reported hazardous drinking behavior, and 13% reported increased alcohol consumption. People aged 30-39 years had elevated odds of increased alcohol consumption during lockdown (OR 3.1, 2.4-3.8) compared to the oldest adults. Increased drinking was more frequent among people reporting economic worries (OR 1.6, 1.4-1.8), those quarantined (OR 1.2, 1.1-1.4), and those studying or working at home (OR 1.4, 1.3-1.6). More than half of respondents reported hazardous drinking behavior. Increased alcohol consumption during lockdown was common among people with economic worries, people in quarantine, and people studying or working at home. These data could be important when adjusting pandemic measures.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(6): 725-730, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is well established that college students increase their drinking when they leave home. This study examined changes in drinking as a result of campus closure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), focusing on the influence of living situation. METHOD: A sample of 312 college students (mean age = 21.2 years; 62% female; 67% White) responded to an online survey regarding their drinking behavior before and after university closures because of COVID-19. Those participants who lived with peers pre-closure and moved home to live with parents post-closure were compared with those who remained living with peers or remained living with parents in terms of changes in frequency and quantity of drinking. RESULTS: A comparison of pre- to post-closure drinking indicated significant decreases in the typical number of drinks per week (from 11.5 to 9.9) and maximum drinks per day (from 4.9 to 3.3) and a slight increase in typical drinking days per week (from 3 to 3.2). Patterns of change significantly varied across groups. Those who moved from peers to parents showed significantly greater reductions in drinking days (from 3.1 to 2.7), number of drinks per week (from 13.9 to 8.5), and maximum drinks in one day (from 5.4 to 2.9) than those who remained living with peers or with parents. In contrast, the latter two groups significantly increased their frequency (from 3.0 to 3.7 days and 2.0 to 3.3 days, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Participants reduced their quantity of drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic. Returning to live with parents during emerging adulthood may be protective for heavy drinking.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Características de Residência , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Grupo Associado , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/tendências , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/tendências , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113476, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198047

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic effect on the functioning of individuals and institutions around the world. This cross-sectional registry-based study examined some of the burdens of the pandemic, the prevalence of mental health difficulties, and risk factors for psychosocial morbidity among community residents in Arkansas. The study focused on a period of gradual reopening but rising infection rates. The investigation included validated screening measures of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety (GAD-7), trauma-related symptoms (PCL-5), and alcohol use (AUDIT-C). A notable percentage of participants reported elevated symptoms on each of these outcomes. In separate multivariable analyses that accounted for a number of demographic and pandemic-related covariates, individuals who reported greater pandemic-related disruption in daily life, and those with a prior history of mental health concerns, were more likely to screen positive for depressive, anxiety and trauma-related symptoms. Findings illuminate burdens experienced by community residents during a period of phased reopening, and offer a foundation for future screening and intervention initiatives.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610613

RESUMO

Physical health is not the only area affected by the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic. There are also other consequences that have globally affected many millions at other levels, namely: Societal, political, economic, and cultural. This study aims to survey alcohol drinking throughout the pandemic so as to investigate those factors considered most relevant; i.e., sociodemographic and clinical. A longitudinal study was designed. The first (or initial) stage was completed between April 10-20 2020 on 443 subjects during the enforcement of the "Lockdown" in Poland. The second stage will be due in June 2020. As well as an in-house questionnaire, the study used: The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief COPE Inventory (Mini COPE). Alcohol was the most commonly used psychoactive substance (73%) identified. More than 30% changed their drinking habits because of the pandemic, with 16% actually drinking less, whilst 14% did so more. The former group was significantly younger than the latter. Amongst the stress-related coping strategies, it was found that current alcohol drinkers were significantly less able to find anything positive about the pandemic situation (positive reframing) and were mentally less able to cope. Those drinking more now were found to have been drinking more intensively before the pandemic started.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(3): 320-330, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Anglo-Celtic colonists of Australia and New Zealand brought with them heavy beer-drinking customs, and each country later developed similar temperance movements and alcohol policies. Yet their beer markets differed throughout the 20th century; for example, Australian men typically drank lager with 5% alcohol-by-volume (ABV), whereas New Zealand men drank ale with 4%ABV. We investigated the public health implications of recent developments in product availability, marketing, and country-level consumption patterns. METHOD: We analyzed official data reporting beverage- and strength-specific volumes of ethanol available for sale in beer from 2000 to 2016, a period in which the countries had similar consumption trends; and did a thematic analysis of "market intelligence" reports. RESULTS: Per capita ethanol beer sales fell in both countries, accompanied by increases in market share of higher %ABV categories. Different definitions of beer strength hampered comparison between countries. In Australia, consumption of ethanol in mid-strength beer (3.01%-3.5%ABV) increased, whereas consumption of low-strength beer (<3%ABV) decreased. In New Zealand, consumption of high-strength beer (4.351%-5%ABV) increased whereas that of traditional mid-strength beer (2.501%-4.35%ABV) decreased substantially. Market reports cited consumer health concerns and demand for "craft beer" (typically high-strength) as competing influences in both markets, and reduced-alcohol beer as "the alcoholic drinks industry's-potentially lucrative-shield against accusations of irresponsibility." CONCLUSIONS: Declines in both high- and low-strength beer in Australia have potentially important implications. In New Zealand, the failure of low-strength beer to establish significant market share, along with increased consumption of high-strength beer, are noteworthy developments. Trend data on product ethanol content warrants scrutiny in public health surveillance globally, whereas research is needed on the role of ethanol content within industry strategy.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Cerveja/análise , Etanol/análise , Indústrias/tendências , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Comércio/tendências , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Saúde Pública
6.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 135-143, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to examine sex as a moderator of the efficacy of a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (eCHECKUP TO GO) on decreasing cognitive risk factors for alcohol use, increasing protective behavioral strategies, and reducing alcohol use among high school seniors. METHOD: Participants (n = 311) were high school seniors randomized by class period to the eCHECKUP TO GO intervention or assessment-only control group. Participants completed online surveys at baseline and 30-day follow-up (91.0%; n = 283). RESULTS: Students in the intervention group reported a significant reduction in normative perceptions of peer drinking, positive alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use relative to those in the control group. Intervention effects for perceptions of frequency of peer drunkenness and frequency of alcohol use were moderated by sex, with results favoring females. In contrast, we did not find evidence for sex as a moderator of intervention effects for normative perceptions of peer drinking frequency, sex-specific perceptions of peer heavy episodic drinking, positive alcohol expectancies, or peak drinking quantity. Further, we did not find significant intervention or moderator effects for protective behavioral strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study extend the literature by demonstrating the efficacy of the eCHECKUP TO GO for both males and females on reducing cognitive risk factors and alcohol use, although results were significant for a broader range of variables for females. Results also indicate that program content regarding normative feedback and protective behavioral strategies may need modification to be more effective for this age group.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Estudantes/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Intoxicação Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/tendências
7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 203-211, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing numbers of substance users report simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use such that their effects overlap. More research is needed to understand what motivates this behavior, especially to inform interventions that address SAM use. A 26-item measure of SAM motives was designed and tested in previous research. The purpose of the current study was to validate that measure and create a briefer version of it. METHOD: Using two waves of data from a multi-site sample of college students (n = 1,014), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to develop a brief 11-item SAM Motives Measure (B-SMM). Negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of both the original and brief measures. RESULTS: The brief measure contains four subscales (conformity, positive effects, calm/coping, and social) that match the empirically supported motivational model of substance use. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from .77 to .87. Most subscales significantly predicted frequency and consequences of SAM use both concurrently and prospectively. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometrically sound measure developed in this study facilitates the examination of SAM motives in clinical settings with time-constrained patient contact and can be valuable for research involving frequent and repeated measures of substance use behaviors.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Motivação , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/tendências , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 225-237, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence that alcohol warning labels (AWLs) affect population alcohol consumption. New evidence-informed AWLs were introduced in the sole government-run liquor store in Whitehorse, Yukon, that included a cancer warning (Ca), low-risk drinking guidelines (LRDGs) and standard drink (SD) messages. These temporarily replaced previous pregnancy warning labels. We test if the intervention was associated with reduced alcohol consumption. METHOD: An interrupted time series study was designed to evaluate the effects of the AWLs on consumption for 28 months before and 14 months after starting the intervention. Neighboring regions of Yukon and Northwest Territories served as control sites. About 300,000 labels were applied to 98% of alcohol containers sold in Whitehorse during the intervention. Multilevel regression analyses of per capita alcohol sales data for people age 15 years and older were performed to examine consumption levels in the intervention and control sites before, during, and after the AWLs were introduced. Models were adjusted for demographic and economic characteristics over time and region. RESULTS: Total per capita retail alcohol sales in Whitehorse decreased by 6.31% (t test p < .001) during the intervention. Per capita sales of labeled products decreased by 6.59% (t test p < .001), whereas sales of unlabeled products increased by 6.91% (t test p < .05). There was a still larger reduction occurring after the intervention when pregnancy warning labels were reintroduced (-9.97% and -10.29%, t test p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Applying new AWLs was associated with reduced population alcohol consumption. The results are consistent with an accumulating impact of the addition of varying and highly visible labels with impactful messages.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio/métodos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Comércio/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/tendências , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Gravidez , Rotulagem de Produtos/tendências , Yukon/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348362

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the seventh most frequent cancers. Among HNSCCs, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) include several anatomical locations of the oral cavity, but exclude the oropharynx. The known risk factors for OSCCs are mainly alcohol consumption and tobacco use for at least 75-80% of cases. In addition to these risk factors, Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, classified as high-risk (HR) HPV genotypes, are considered as risk factors for oropharyngeal cancers, but their role in the development of OSCC remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis of viral etiology in a series of 68 well-characterized OSCCs and 14 potentially malignant disorders (PMD) in non-smoking, non-drinking (NSND) patients using broad-range, sensitive molecular methodologies. Deep-sequencing of the transcriptome did not reveal any vertebrate virus sequences other than HPV transcripts, detected in only one case. In contrast, HPV DNA was detected in 41.2% (28/68) and 35.7% (5/14) of OSCC and PMD cases, respectively. Importantly, 90.9% (30/33) of these belonged to the Betapapillomavirus genus, but no viral transcripts were detected. Finally, high-throughput sequencing revealed reads corresponding to transcripts of the Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV), which were confirmed by RT-PCR in two OSCCs. Our results strongly suggest that Alphapapillomavirus genotypes classified as HR are not involved in the development of OSCCs in NSND patients and that known oncogenic infectious agents are absent in these specific OSCCs. Any possible direct or indirect role of Betapapillomavirus genus members and TVV in OSCCs remains speculative and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Fumar/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013107

RESUMO

Background: We estimated the change in the prevalence of harms attributed by students to their drinking and to others' drinking, over a decade of concerted effort by university authorities to reduce antisocial behaviour and improve student safety. Interventions included a security and liaison service, a stricter code of conduct, challenges to liquor license applications near campus, and a ban on alcohol advertising. Methods: We used a pre-post design adjusting for population changes. We invited all students residing in colleges of a New Zealand University to complete web surveys in 2004 and 2014, using identical methods. We estimated change in the 4-week prevalence of 15 problems and harms among drinkers, and nine harms from others' drinking among all respondents. We adjusted for differences in sample sociodemographic characteristics between surveys. Results: Among drinkers there were reductions in several harms, the largest being in acts of vandalism (7.1% to 2.7%), theft (11% to 4.5%), and physical aggression (10% to 5.3%). Among all respondents (including non-drinkers), there were reductions in unwanted sexual advances (14% to 8.9%) and being the victim of sexual assault (1.0% to 0.4%). Conclusion: Alcohol-related harm, including the most serious outcomes, decreased substantially among college residents in this period of alcohol policy reform. In conjunction with evidence of reduced drinking to intoxication in this population, the findings suggest that strategies to reduce the availability and promotion of alcohol on and near campus can substantially reduce the incidence of health and social harms.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Política Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur Addict Res ; 26(2): 96-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social conformity is considered a possible promoter of alcohol use disorder in humans. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of conformity as one of the social factors that might contribute to the alcohol preference in a rat model of ethanol intake. METHODS: To model social conformity, 105 Wistar rats were group housed (3 animals per cage) with a different number of rats drinking either 10% ethanol or water during daily drinking sessions. Ethanol preference tests were performed. RESULTS: Ethanol preference significantly increased if the majority of cage mates received ethanol during drinking sessions. The analysis also showed an increase in the number of approaches to the ethanol bottle versus the water bottle and an increased duration of a single ethanol approach during the 2 bottle preference test in such groups. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that social conditions promote the ethanol consumption in the novel conformity model used in this study.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Ratos Wistar , Conformidade Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Masculino , Ratos
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112745, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951868

RESUMO

The suicide rate in the Republic of Korea remains among the highest in the world, which needs to be examined in various aspects. This study investigated factors associated with the suicide rates in Korea. The suicide rates of 251 districts in Korea in 2015 and their relationships with the prevalence of heavy drinking, health care provision, and religion as well as demographic characteristics were examined with a Pearson correlations and a multiple linear regression analysis. The suicide rate in Korea was 26.5 per 100,000 persons in 2015. The regression analysis showed that the income level of the region, as represented by the average national health insurance premium, had a negative association with the suicide rate and that the prevalence of heavy drinking and the percentage of the population aged 65 and above had positive associations with the suicide rate. While the unemployment rate and the proportion of Catholics showed negative relationships with the suicide rate in the correlation matrix, the association was statistically insignificant in the regression analysis. Special attention should be given to excessive drinking and socio-economically disadvantaged conditions in taking measures to prevent suicide.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/tendências , Desemprego/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Catolicismo/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 207: 107821, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent analyses of data from the US found that young people were increasingly engaging in cannabis use before alcohol and cigarettes. These shifts are important for public health, but it is not clear whether such trends extend beyond the US. The aim of this study is to examine whether and how the age and sequencing of initiation into alcohol, cannabis and cigarette use has changed in Australia since the early 2000s. METHODS: Data came from six waves of the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey, spanning 2001-2016. We used data from 18 to 21 year-olds (n = 6849) and examined trends in the age at first use for each of the three substances plus any changes in the order of initiation. RESULTS: The mean age of initiation increased steadily for all three substances (e.g. from 14.9 in 2001 to 16.4 in 2016 for alcohol), while the prevalence of any use declined. There were some changes in ordering of use. For example, in 2001, 62 % of respondents who used both cigarettes and cannabis had first used cigarettes at an earlier age than cannabis, compared with 41 % in 2016. Young people who used both alcohol and cannabis remained more likely to try alcohol before cannabis across the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results partly replicated US findings, with differences potentially reflecting the substantially different environment around these substances in the US compared to Australia. The age of initiation for alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use in Australia has increased sharply over the past 15 years.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 39(3): 246-254, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970851

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption among young Australians has declined markedly since the early 2000s. As yet, there has been no data on how this decline has been spread across different beverages and instead high-level survey data with significant potential for recall and other bias has been used. Trends in beverage choice among young people following an increase in the 'alcopops' tax have also not received much attention. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on 'yesterday' drinking occasions were obtained from five waves (2004, 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016) of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. A total of 23 536 respondents aged 14-29 years were included in this study. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted to explore trends in alcohol consumption and changes in beverage preferences. RESULTS: Youth drinking declined by 45% across the study period, with declines of 66% in premix, 48% in spirits, 46% in beer and 33% in wine. Consumption of premix was significantly lower in 2013 and 2016 compared to 2007 amongst the overall sample, males, females, respondents aged 14-21 and 22-29 years, light and heavy drinkers. Significant reductions were also observed in the consumption of premix immediately following the tax (2010) for the younger age group, males and light drinkers. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Youth consumption of alcohol has declined during the study period with significant variation across beverage types. We found some evidence of a separate impact for the alcopops tax, although for some groups, declines in premix consumption occurred well after the implementation of the tax.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(3): 825-832, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832721

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Poor inhibitory control is a well-established risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Similarly, greater sensitivity to the stimulant effects and less sensitivity to the sedative effects of alcohol are also strongly linked to risk for AUD. Traditionally, these two risk factors have been considered to be orthogonal, and thus they have been studied independently. However, recent evidence from animal and human studies suggests that they may be related. The current study examined the relationship between inhibitory control and subjective responses to alcohol in a sample of healthy young adults. METHODS: Moderate social drinkers (N = 69) first completed the stop signal task to assess inhibitory control. They then participated in four sessions in which they received an oral dose of ethanol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of stimulation and sedation on the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) at regular intervals. RESULTS: Linear mixed effects models showed that poor inhibitory control was associated with greater stimulation and less sedation following alcohol compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: These findings provide the first direct evidence that individuals with poor inhibitory control experience greater sensitivity to the rewarding, stimulant effects of alcohol, and less sensitivity to the negative, sedative effects. These findings suggest that inhibition and subjective response to alcohol are not independent risk factors, and that together they constitute a heightened profile of risk for AUD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Inibição Psicológica , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur Addict Res ; 26(2): 66-76, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dutch multi-ethnic Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study recently showed that alcohol consumption was lower in ethnic minority groups than those of Dutch origin, but that binge drinking in drinkers of Turkish and Moroccan origin was relatively high. The aim of the current study is to examine factors that may contribute to the differences in drinking patterns and how they relate to the relationship between drinking patterns and alcohol dependence (AD) across ethnic groups. METHODS: The rate of last year alcohol use, alcohol use patterns and AD was assessed in 4,635 Dutch, 4,317 Moroccan, 4,036 Turkish, 2,459 Ghanaian, 4,426 African Surinamese and 3,357 South-Asian Surinamese participants (both men and women) born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. RESULTS: Compared to the Dutch, the prevalence of (regular) drinking is substantially lower in all ethnic minority groups and regular drinkers among most ethnic minority groups have a lower adjusted risk to develop binge drinking and AD than the Dutch. For the prevalence of regular drinking, the ethnic differences are bigger than for the prevalence of current drinking. However, regular drinkers of Moroccan origin have a risk similar to the Dutch to develop binge drinking and AD; a finding that could not be explained by group differences in age, sex, religiosity, perceived discrimination, depression or guilt feelings about drinking. DISCUSSION: The prevalence data show that current drinking is lower and that regular drinking is much lower in ethnic minorities and - with the exception of those of Moroccan origin - ethnic minority regular drinkers also have a significant lower risk to develop binge drinking or AD than regular drinkers of Dutch origin. This implies that the magnitude of problematic alcohol use is substantially smaller in ethnic minorities than in the ethnic Dutch population of Amsterdam. Unfortunately, no explanation was found for the special risk situation of regular drinkers of Moroccan origin.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Bebedeira/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gana/etnologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Turquia/etnologia
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 207: 107738, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that overreliance on habit may be common in individuals diagnosed with addiction. To advance our understanding of habit in clinical samples and from behavioral measures, this study examines the interrelations between self-reported habit index for smoking and drinking as well as behavioral measures of intraindividual variability in smoking and drinking. METHODS: Treatment-seeking heavy drinking smokers (N = 416) completed the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) adapted for both smoking and drinking. "Behavioral habitualness" was computed from the degree of intraindividual variability in patterns of smoking and drinking over the past month. Using the 28-day Timeline-Follow Back (TLFB) interview, we derived two measures of intraindividual variability: interclass correlation (ICC) and autocorrelation [AR(7) coefficients]. RESULTS: Self-report measures of habit were robustly associated with clinical severity of drinking and smoking with higher habit scores indicating greater severity of drinking and smoking, respectively. ICC and AR(7) coefficients, the behavioral measure of "patterness" and putative habit, were not associated with SRHI scores. While ICC for smoking was associated with higher nicotine dependence scores, this pattern was not found for drinking ICC and alcohol problem severity. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the construct validity of the self-report measures of habit for smoking and drinking, as well an initial evaluation of behavioral measure of smoking "patterness" as a potential proxy for habit smoking. Because habit represents a complex phenotype with limited clinical translation, additional studies capturing a wider range of substance use severity and coupled with brain-based validation methods are warranted.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Hábitos , Autorrelato/normas , Fumar/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/tendências , Fumar Tabaco/tendências
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107653, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital smoking cessation and alcohol reduction aids are widely available in England. To estimate their public health impact, researchers need to consider their adoption in the target population. We assessed adoption rates, and characteristics of adopters, of digital smoking cessation and alcohol reduction aids in England. METHODS: 3655 smokers and 2998 high-risk drinkers (defined as a score of >4 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption; AUDIT-C) who had made a past-year quit/reduction attempt were surveyed as part of the Smoking and Alcohol Toolkit Studies between January 2015-October 2018. Respondents provided information on socio-demographic characteristics and whether they had used a digital aid in a recent quit/reduction attempt. RESULTS: 2.7 % (95 % CI 2.2%-3.0%) of smokers and 3.6 % (95 % CI 2.9%-4.0%) of drinkers who had made a past-year quit/reduction attempt (26.9 % and 15.3 %, respectively) had used a digital aid. Survey year was not significantly associated with use in smokers or drinkers. None of the baseline characteristics were significantly associated with the use of a digital aid in smokers. Drinkers with high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (ORadj = 2.49, 95 % CI 1.63-3.77, p < .001) and higher AUDIT scores (ORadj = 1.07, 95 % CI 1.03-1.11, p < .001) had greater odds of adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Digital smoking cessation and alcohol reduction aids are rarely used by smokers or high-risk drinkers attempting to quit/cut down in England, indicating that most of the target population is not being reached. Despite overall digital access improving, adoption rates remained similarly low between 2015-2018.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/tendências , Fumar/terapia , Terapia Assistida por Computador/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Vigilância da População/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107689, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although much of the work on risky alcohol use behaviors, such as heavy drinking, focuses on adolescence and young adulthood, these behaviors are associated with negative health consequences across all ages. Existing studies on age trends have focused on a single alcohol use behavior across many ages, using methods such as time-varying effect modeling, or a single age period with many behaviors, using methods such as latent class analysis. This study integrates aspects of both modeling approaches to examine age trends in alcohol use behavior patterns across ages 18-65. METHODS: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III were used to identify past-year alcohol use behavior patterns among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 30,997; 51.1% women; 63.5% White Non-Hispanic) and flexibly estimate nonlinear trends in the prevalences of those patterns across ages 18-65. RESULTS: Five patterns were identified: Non-Drinkers, Frequent Light Drinkers, Infrequent Heavy Episodic Drinkers, Frequent Heavy Episodic Drinkers, and Extreme Drinkers. Pattern prevalences were allowed to vary flexibly across the entire age range. Prevalences of the Infrequent Heavy Episodic and Extreme Drinkers peaked around ages 22-24, but peaked for Frequent Heavy Episodic Drinkers around age 49. Non-Drinkers were most prevalent across all ages except during the early 20 s when Extreme Drinkers were more prevalent. Around ages 24-30, the Non-, Frequent Light, and Extreme Drinkers were approximately equally prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used here holds promise for understanding characteristics associated with behavior patterns at different ages and long-term age trends in complex behaviors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107669, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While research suggests that chronic childhood adversities may be predictors of alcohol use disorders, little is known of their influence on accelerated transitions through stages of alcohol involvement. We estimated the speed of transition from first opportunity (to first drink, regular drinking) to alcohol use disorder, by type and number of childhood adversities experienced. METHODS: Nine-hundred-and-fifteen individuals participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey (a stratified multistage probabilistic sample), first as adolescents (12-17 years of age) and again eight years later as young adults (19-26 years of age). The WHO World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) assessed DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and twelve chronic childhood adversities. We calculated random coefficient models to estimate the association of childhood adversities with speed through stages of alcohol use involvement. RESULTS: Mean time from opportunity to disorder was 4.08 years and the average growth rate was 1.36 years between each stage of involvement. Some, but not all, childhood adversities accelerated the growth rate, decreasing latency between each stage of alcohol use involvement from 1.36 to 0.93 years for witnessing family violence, 0.87 years for having a life-threatening illness, 0.79 years for sexual abuse to 0.77 years for physical abuse (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There is a narrower window of opportunity to prevent progression through stages of alcohol involvement in youth who have experienced certain childhood adversities. Our findings are consistent with the dimensional approach of childhood adversity that distinguishes between experiences of threat and deprivation that might differentially influence neurological development.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , México , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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