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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(17): e29193, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512075

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Although many studies suggest that varicocelectomy leads to improvement in semen parameters and morphology, its clinical efficacy remains controversial. The detailed morphological parameters described in the World Health Organization guidelines are important in terms of showing the effect of microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy on morphological changes.An observational, retrospective clinical cohort study was conducted with patients followed up from January 2018 to August 2021. This study included the data of 79 patients who met the criterion of undergoing at least 2 detailed morphological evaluations before and after surgery. All operations were performed by the same surgical team using the microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy technique.The mean age of the patients was 30.25 years. Of the patients, 63 underwent left-sided varicocelectomy and 16 underwent bilateral surgery. The sperm analysis revealed statistically significant increases in sperm volume (P = .006), sperm concentration (P = .003), total sperm count (P = .001), progressive sperm motility (P < .001), and normal morphology (P < .001). In the detailed morphological evaluation, except for the elongated head anomaly (P = .037), no other statistically significant changes were found in relation to sperm head, tail, and neck anomalies after surgery.This study makes an important contribution to the literature, being the first to use the subinguinal microscopic varicocelectomy technique in detailed morphological semen evaluation. We consider that detailed morphology examination in the selection and treatment of infertile patients may be useful in evaluating the efficacy of varicocelectomy.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Varicocele , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/cirurgia , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Varicocele/cirurgia
2.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466230

RESUMO

The effect of thyroid function on semen parameters has been studied in pathological conditions in small studies. With this research work, we aimed to study thyroid hormone effects on semen parameters in 130 men who were evaluated for couple subfertility. Our study was cross-sectional. We noted semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, testosterone levels and thyrotropin (TSH) levels. The analysis included ordinary least squares regression (OLS-R), quantile regression (QR) and segmented line regression (SR). Using OLS-R, a weak negative correlation was found between the logTSH levels and semen volume (r = -0.16, r2 = 0.03, p = 0.05). In Q-R, each incremental unit increase in logTSH decreased the mean semen volume between -0.78 ± 0.44 and -1.33 ± 0.34 mL (40-60th response quantile) and between -1.19 ± 0.71 and -0.61 ± 0.31 mL (70-90th response quantile) (p = 0.049). With SR, a biphasic relationship of sperm concentration with TSH was noted (positive turning to negative, peaking at TSH = 1.22 µIU/mL). Thus, a weak negative association between the TSH levels and semen volume was noted, showing a trough within the usual normal range for TSH. Moreover, a biphasic relationship between the sperm concentration and TSH was also noted, peaking at approximately mid-normal TSH levels. Based on our results, TSH explained slightly less than 3% of the variation in semen volume and 7% of the sperm concentration (thus, other factors, which were not studied here, have a more important effect on it).


Assuntos
Sementes , Testosterona , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Tireotropina
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5026, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322111

RESUMO

All coral species in the genus Acropora are broadcast-spawning hermaphrodites. Fertilization in the ocean requires sufficient numbers of gametes from conspecifics and the contact time for fertilization is thought to be limited by the rapid diffusion of sperm. Many studies have reported a positive correlation between sperm concentration and fertilization success, but it is not clear how gametes diffuse in seawater to produce mixtures of gametes from many colonies, leading to fertilization that improves genetic diversity. To elucidate this, we analyzed the changes in sperm concentration of A. tenuis in situ after spawning and genotyped sperm and fertilized eggs from seawater using seven microsatellite (MS) markers. Results showed that most of the eggs were fertilized at below 106 sperm/mL in situ. MS genotyping showed that the alleles of released sperm were diverse and those alleles also appeared in the fertilized eggs. The MS fragment peak height in released sperm, which presumably reflects the allele frequency of the sperm, was positively correlated with the allele frequencies of the fertilized eggs. Collectively, synchronous spawning populations composed of highly fecund and genetically diverse colonies potentially increases genetic diversity and the number of descendants.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Fertilização , Variação Genética , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 828: 154395, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male fertility has shown a continuously declining tendency for decades. Over exposure to metal/metalloid elements has been proposed as associated with reproductive impairment. However, the hazard profile remained unclear in general public experiencing low-level and combined metal exposure. METHODS: Based on the MARHCS cohort in Chongqing, China, 796 college students were recruited from June 2013 and 666 subjects were followed up next year. At each phase, semen and blood samples were collected for an assessment of semen quality and six sex hormones levels. Eighteen urinary metal/metalloid elements were quantified by ICP-MS as internal exposure biomarkers. Cluster analysis was conducted to characterize reproductive outcomes in the subgroups for different overall estimated exposure levels. Effects of each metal/metalloid element were analyzed using multiple statistical strategies: single-element mixed model, multiple-elements model and self before-after comparison design. RESULTS: The urine concentration for 18 metal/metalloid elements was at a typically lower level (far away from the exposure limits) and positively associated with each other. After adjustment of the potential confounders, a decrease of 11.53% (95% CI: -18.61, -3.84%) and 10.84% (95% CI: -17.93, -3.14%) in spermatid morphology was observed in the highest quantile groups of vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni), respectively. Urinary silver (Ag) was dose-dependent associated with an increase in total sperm number (6.91%, 95% CI: 1.14, 13.00%), sperm concentration (16.38%, 95% CI: 5.15, 28.81%) and semen volume (23.73%, 95% CI: 10.46, 38.60%). Further, hormone testosterone presented a significant decrease in subgroup with higher overall estimated exposure and a stable negative association with lithium (Li). The above relationships remained significant across different statistical strategies (all p values <0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study provided new evidences that exposure to metal/metalloid elements potentially exert bidirectional influences on semen quality at a relatively low level. And serum testosterone appears as a vulnerable index for metal exposure.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Análise do Sêmen , China , Humanos , Masculino , Metais , Estudos Prospectivos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Estudantes , Testosterona
6.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 20(1): 46, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection on semen parameters and investigate the impact of the infection on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled couples undergoing IVF cycles between May 2020 and February 2021 at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Baseline characteristics were matched using propensity score matching. Participants were categorized into an unexposed group (SARS-COV-2 negative) and exposed group (SARS-COV-2 positive) based on a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the populations were 148 and 50 after matching, respectively. IVF data were compared between the matched cohorts. Moreover, semen parameters were compared before and after infection among the infected males. The main measures were semen parameters and IVF outcomes, including laboratory and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Generally, the concentration and motility of sperm did not significantly differ before and after infection. Infected males seemed to have fewer sperm with normal morphology, while all values were above the limits. Notably, the blastocyst formation rate and available blastocyst rate in the exposed group were lower than those in the control group, despite similar mature oocytes rates, normal fertilization rates, cleavage rates, and high-quality embryo rates. Moreover, no significant differences were exhibited between the matched cohorts regarding the implantation rate, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, or early miscarriage rate. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective cohort study suggested that the semen quality and the chance of pregnancy in terms of IVF outcomes were comparable between the males with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and controls, although a decreased blastocyst formation rate and available blastocyst rate was observed in the exposed group, which needs to be reinforced by a multicenter long-term investigation with a larger sample size.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Sêmen/fisiologia , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Adulto , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Implantação do Embrião , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sêmen/citologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Cells ; 11(6)2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326444

RESUMO

In the search for the possible role of the mitochondrial dynamics markers in spermatozoa adaptation, an in vivo approach was designed to mimic situations in which human populations are exposed to 3 h of repeated psychological stress (the most common stress in human society) at different time points during the day (24 h). The hormones (stress hormone corticosterone and testosterone), the number and the functionality of spermatozoa (response to acrosome-reaction-inducer progesterone), as well as the transcriptional profiles of 22 mitochondrial dynamics and function markers and 22 signaling molecules regulating both mitochondrial dynamics and spermatozoa number and functionality were followed at three time points (ZT3, ZT11, and ZT23). The results show that repeated stress significantly decreased the number and functionality of spermatozoa at all time points. In the same samples, the transcriptional profiles of 91% (20/22) of mitochondrial dynamics and functionality markers and 86% (19/22) of signaling molecules were disturbed after repeated stress. It is important to point out that similar molecular changes in transcriptional profiles were observed at ZT3 and ZT23, but the opposite was observed at ZT11, suggesting the circadian nature of the adaptive response. The results of PCA analysis show the significant separation of repeated stress effects during the inactive/light and active/dark phases of the day, suggesting the circadian timing of molecular adaptations.


Assuntos
Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Transdução de Sinais , Biomarcadores , Corticosterona , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 499-505, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between serum level of vitamin D, semen analysis parameters and sperm DNA damage in men with unexplained subfertility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight men diagnosed with unexplained infertility and 50 age and BMI matched fertile men were included in the study. A participant whose semen parameter is normal but pregnancy is not achieved was accepted as unexplained male infertility. Blood samples were taken from all participants following three-day abstinence for measurement of vitamin D. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by Aniline Blue staining of the collected samples. RESULTS: Compared with the fertile men, male patients with unexplained infertility had significantly lower vit D levels (27.00 ng/mL (12.63-39.30) vs. 23.66 ng/mL (7.50-55.00), p<0.004). While the number of patients with vitamin D levels lower than 20 ng/mL was 26 (44.8%) in the infertile group, it was recorded as 5 (10.0%) in the fertile group (p<0.001). DNA damage was found in 31.50% (9.0-71.0) of the infertile men and 26.00% (11.0-54.0) of the fertile men. DNA damage was found to be significantly higher in the unexplained infertile group (p<0.002). In men with unexplained male infertility, serum vit D levels were positively correlated with total sperm count (r = 0.527, p<0.001), total motility (r = 0.527, p<0.001) and sperm morphology (r = 0.416, p = 0.001). There was a negative and significant correlation between vit D levels and sperm DNA damage (r = -0.605, p<0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, serum vit D > 20 ng/mL led to an improvement in fertility outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Men with unexplained infertility exhibit decreased serum vit D levels and increased sperm DNA damage.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Sementes , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Gravidez , Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , Vitamina D
9.
Environ Pollut ; 299: 118926, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) has attracted much attention worldwide because of its pervasive existence in the human body and environment. TCS exposure has been reported to be associated with decreased male reproductive function. However, few studies have investigated these associations in humans. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between TCS in urine and male semen quality. METHODS: A total of 406 men from a reproductive clinic were enrolled in this study. Urinary TCS concentrations were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Sixteen semen parameters were assessed according to the guidelines of World Health Organization (WHO), including parameters for volume, count, motility, and motion. We used multivariate linear regression models and restricted cubic splines to estimate the linear and non-linear associations between TCS exposure and semen parameters, respectively. Logistical regression models were further applied to explore the associations with abnormal semen quality. RESULTS: TCS was detected in 74.6% of urine specimens. The monotonous trend of TCS tertiles and continuous TCS levels with all semen quality parameters were not observed in multivariate linear regression models (p > 0.05). However, compared with those in the lowest tertile, subjects in the second tertile showed significantly higher linearity and wobble (p < 0.05), indicating potential effects on sperm motion. In the models using restricted cubic splines with 3-5 knots, there were no significant non-linear associations between TCS exposure and any semen quality parameter. In addition, TCS tertiles were not associated with the risk of abnormal semen quality (i.e., count and motility) in the logistical regression models. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that low-level TCS exposure may have limited (none or modest) effects on male semen quality, potentially inducing some fluctuations. Further mechanistic studies on low levels of exposure are needed.


Assuntos
Triclosan , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Triclosan/urina
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2148684, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175344

RESUMO

Importance: The health effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) on male fertility remain unclear. Although PM exposure has been linked with semen quality, the results were inconsistent. Objective: To examine the association of different size fractions of PM (<2.5 µm [PM2.5], 2.5-10 µm [PM2.5-10], and ≤10 µm [PM10]) exposure with semen quality in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using data on men whose wives underwent assisted reproductive technology procedures in a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China, from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2019. Participants were from 340 prefecture-level cities of China and were followed up from the date of their first visit until December 31, 2019. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2020, to May 15, 2021. Exposures: Exposure to PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10 during the entire period (0-90 days before semen ejaculation) and key periods of sperm development (0-9, 10-14, and 70-90 days before semen ejaculation). Main Outcomes and Measures: Semen quality, including sperm count, concentration, and motility. Results: A total of 33 876 men were included in the final analysis, with a mean (SD) age of 34.1 (5.7) years and large variation of PM exposure. For example, the median exposure to PM2.5 during the entire period of sperm development was 46.05 (IQR, 34.38-61.65) µg/m3. During the entire period of sperm development, exposures to higher levels of PM were significantly associated with lower total and progressive sperm motility. For total sperm motility, an IQR increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with an estimated effect decrease of -3.60% (95% CI, -3.93% to -3.26%); an increase in PM2.5-10 exposure, with an estimated effect decrease of -0.45% (95% CI, -0.76% to -0.14%); and an increase in PM10 exposure, with an estimated effect decrease of -2.44% (95% CI, -2.91% to -1.96%). Similar results were observed for progressive motility. An IQR increase in PM2.5 or PM10 exposures was associated with an estimated effect decrease on sperm progressive motility of -1.87% (95% CI, -2.37% to -1.36%) and -1.05% (95% CI, -1.45% to -0.64%), respectively. However, no significant associations were observed between PM exposure during the entire period of sperm development and sperm count or concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that PM exposure may adversely affect sperm motility and highlight the need to reduce ambient particulate air pollution exposure for reproductive-aged men.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Contagem de Espermatozoides/estatística & dados numéricos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Adulto , China , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise do Sêmen
11.
Chemosphere ; 295: 133805, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134404

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to metals, including essential and nonessential elements, may be related to semen quality. Our goal was to explore the continuous relationship between seminal metals and sperm parameters. A restricted cubic spline (RCS) was applied to automatic selection criteria to ascertain the optimal smoothing degree. We recruited 841 male volunteers from Henan Province, China. Eighteen seminal metals, namely Al, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Co, V, Rb, Ag, Ba, TI, Fe, and Li, and 21 semen parameters were detected. Seminal malondialdehyde (MDA) was also detected to express oxidative stress. We revealed a non-linear relationship of the vanadium and chromium exposure to semen parameters. There were inverse 'U' shapes found between seminal Cr and sperm concentrations, total sperm count, and semen quality. The best semen quality was observed when the seminal Cr concentration was 5.05 ppb, and an increase or decrease in chromium concentration led to decreased semen quality. The V concentration was associated with reduced sperm concentration, total sperm count, normal morphology, and progressive motility at high doses (V > 0.58 ppb). Seminal MDA had a strong adverse association with sperm motility parameters, such as curve line velocity (VCL) (P < 0.001), straight line velocity (VSL) (P = 0.004), velocity of average path (VAP) (P < 0.001), and lateral head movement (ALH) (P = 0.001), whereas it was adversely associated with seminal Zn (ß [95% confidence interval (CI)], -0.28(-0.41-0.16), P < 0.001) after adjusting for confounding factors. Our findings represent the curves of the dose-response relationship between seminal Cr, seminal V, and semen quality, in which seminal MDA was a good indicator of sperm movement. These models provide new insight into the dose-relationship between metal exposure and semen quality, and further investigation is needed to validate this.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Vanádio
12.
Reprod Sci ; 29(4): 1262-1270, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106743

RESUMO

To study if stress, as measured by salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol, negatively impacts male fertility, as measured by semen parameters, pregnancy, and live birth rates. Prospective, cohort study of men enrolled in the Males, Antioxidants, and Infertility (MOXI) trial. One-hundred twelve infertile men provided first-morning salivary and semen samples at baseline. Salivary samples were analyzed for alpha-amylase and cortisol. Couples attempted to conceive naturally (months 1-3) and with clomiphene citrate/intrauterine insemination (months 4-6). The association between stress-related biomarkers and semen parameters including DNA fragmentation was assessed using linear regression models adjusting for male age. Salivary levels were dichotomized at the 80th percentile. Pregnancy/live birth rates in couples in the upper quintile were compared to remaining subjects using chi-square testing. Salivary levels of alpha-amylase were not associated with semen parameters or DNA fragmentation. Salivary cortisol levels were not correlated with DNA fragmentation or normal morphology. For every 1-unit increase in salivary cortisol, total sperm count increased by 13.9 million (95% CI: 2.5, 25.3) and total motile sperm count increased by 9.9 million (95% CI: 3.2-16.6). Couple pregnancy rates and live birth rates did not differ for males in the highest quintile of alpha-amylase (27% and 28%, p = 0.96; 23% and 21%, p = 0.87) or cortisol (40% and 26%, p = 0.22; 35% and 19%, p = 0.12), compared to males with lower values. Physiologic measures of high stress may not harm but actually improve semen parameters among men with male-factor infertility.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Infertilidade Masculina , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides , alfa-Amilases
13.
Fertil Steril ; 117(4): 698-707, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the dose-dependent effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure on male testes and reproductive health in a nonhuman primate model. DESIGN: Research animal study. SETTING: Research institute. ANIMAL(S): Adult male rhesus macaques 8-10 years of age (n = 6). INTERVENTION(S): Daily edible THC at medically and recreationally relevant doses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Testicular volume and epididymal head width, serum levels of inhibin B, albumin, total testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and luteinizing hormone; semen volume; and sperm motility, morphology, and concentration. RESULT(S): For each 1 mg/7 kg/day increase in THC dosing, there was a marked loss in total bilateral testicular volume of 11.8 cm3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.3-15.4). In total, average bilateral testicular volume decreased by 58%. Significant dose-response decreases in mean total testosterone level by 1.49 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.83-2.15) and in estradiol level by 3.8 pg/mL (95% CI: 2.2-5.4) were observed, but significant increases in the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone by 0.06 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.02-0.10), luteinizing hormone by 0.16 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.08-0.25), and prolactin by 7.4 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.4-11.3) were observed. There were no statistically significant changes in semen parameters. CONCLUSION(S): In rhesus macaques, chronic exposure to THC resulted in significant dose-response testicular atrophy, increased serum gonadotropin levels, and decreased serum sex steroids, suggestive of primary testicular failure. Further studies are needed to determine if reversal of these observed adverse effects would occur if THC was discontinued and for validation of thefindings in a human cohort.


Assuntos
Dronabinol , Saúde Reprodutiva , Animais , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona
14.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(1): 117-122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infertility is a sensitive subject carrying with it economic, social, and psychological implications. Work up of male infertility is often hampered by a lack of infrastructure and facilities, as well as inadequate training of pathology residents. The purpose of this research survey was to evaluate the current status of semen analysis practices and compare them to the standards laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was designed consisting of questions related to semen analysis practices and procedures being followed currently by pathologists in India. A total of 194 pathologists responded. Questions regarding the procedures followed for semen collection, sperm count, volume, normal range, lower normal limit of sperm count, morphology, etc., were included in the survey. These data were recorded. The differences and gaps in the practice with respect to the WHO standards were analyzed. RESULTS: The survey revealed that the printed instructions for semen analysis were available with 38.7% of the respondents; 58.8% of the respondents had a separate room for semen collection; 95.9% performed the analysis manually, and; only 4.1% used automated analyzers. Only 53.6 and 52.6% of the respondents were correctly reporting the normal range of semen volume and sperm counts, respectively. Only 19.6% stated as having read the WHO manual and were also practicing its guidelines, while 14.4% had not read the WHO manual even once. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a large gap between the practice of semen analysis by respondents from various parts of India and standard procedures as laid down by the WHO. Many laboratories do not follow the standard instructions. There is a need to improve the quality of practice related to semen analysis in this country through appropriate teaching and training in medical institutions as well as through Continuing Medical Education (CMEs) or regular update programs.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Análise do Sêmen/normas , Contagem de Espermatozoides/métodos , Contagem de Espermatozoides/normas , Humanos , Índia , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Masculino , Manejo de Espécimes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 39(1): 19-36, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034216

RESUMO

Although medical advancements have successfully helped a lot of couples with their infertility by assisted reproductive technologies (ART), sperm selection, a crucial stage in ART, has remained challenging. Therefore, we aimed to investigate novel sperm separation methods, specifically microfluidic systems, as they do sperm selection based on sperm and/or the female reproductive tract (FRT) features without inflicting any damage to the selected sperm during the process. In this review, after an exhaustive studying of FRT features, which can implement by microfluidics devices, the focus was centered on sperm selection and investigation devices. During this study, we tried not to only point to the deficiencies of these systems, but to put forth suggestions for their improvement as well.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides/instrumentação , Espermatozoides/citologia , Adulto , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Microfluídica/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/normas , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/tendências , Contagem de Espermatozoides/métodos , Contagem de Espermatozoides/tendências , Espermatozoides/microbiologia
16.
Andrologia ; 54(4): e14368, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997774

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is an effective anti-cancer drug that is widely accepted, but it is not devoid of unintended toxic effects. Gonadal toxicity is reported as one of the side effects of its long-time use. This study examined the effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on the biological integrities of the testes after cyclophosphamide exposure. Thirty adolescent male Wistar rats (100-110 g) were divided into six groups (n = 5), receiving normal saline (NS), 20 mg/kg of CYP (CYP), 5 mg/kg of TQ (TQ5), 10 mg/kg of TQ (TQ10), 20 mg/kg of CYP and 5 mg/kg of TQ (CTQ5), and 20 mg/kg of CYP and 10 mg/kg of TQ (CTQ10) respectively. On the 22nd day, blood, semen and testicular samples were collected for the assay of serum reproductive hormones (follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones), semen analysis and testicular histology and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. The results revealed that CYP exposure affected functional and structural integrities of the testes, by depleting sperm count and motility, testosterone, LH, spermatogenic and mature sperm cell population, Leydig cells and PCNA immunoreactive proliferating cells. TQ interventions were able to reverse all cytotoxic CYP impacts, but with differential activities on the hormonal concentrations, specifically LH and FSH. Cumulatively, thymoquinone may be a potent agent against cyclophosphamide effects on the physiological, regeneration and histological integrities of the testes, as observed in this study.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas , Testículo , Animais , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Testosterona
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(3): e28442, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060497

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study is to investigate the effect of high serum uric acid (UA) level on oxidative stress and semen quality of male infertility patients.A cohort of 654 male individuals aged between 20 and 45 years old were included in this study, and their semen and venous blood samples were collected. The serum UA, blood glucose, blood lipids, and hormone levels were determined by chemiluminescence method. The changes in inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, adipokines, and biochemical indices in seminal plasma were determined by ELISA. Organic acids in seminal plasma were detected with reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography.Compared with the control group, the amount of semen and the total number of sperm in the hyperuricemia group significantly reduced (P < .05). Semen volume decreased with the increase of serum UA level, and the total number of sperm also decreased. The level of luteinizing hormone increased and the level of testosterone decreased in the hyperuricemia group. The concentration of superoxide dismutase decreased and the concentration of endothelin increased in the hyperuricemia group (P < .05). The concentration of seminal plasma α-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase in the hyperuricemia group decreased significantly (P < .05). Compared with the control group, the contents of ascorbic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, and UA in the seminal plasma were significantly reduced in the hyperuricemia group (P < .05).Blood UA level may become a new risk predictor of semen quality in infertile men.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Infertilidade Masculina , Estresse Oxidativo , Sêmen , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Infertilidade Masculina/complicações , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
18.
Fertil Steril ; 117(2): 252-257, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986981

RESUMO

In the sixth edition of the World Health Organization manual for the examination and processing of human semen, extended examination methods to provide key diagnostics in the investigation of the male reproductive system function are elaborated. These go beyond the basic analysis of semen and may be useful in more specifically guiding the clinical characterization of fertile or infertile men. Among the extended examinations included in the chapter, the use of multiparametric scoring for sperm morphological defects, sperm DNA fragmentation, and the roles for computer-assisted analysis of sperm or semen are arguably those that will be the most widely used and may also cause the most debate.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Manuais como Assunto/normas , Análise do Sêmen/normas , Espermatozoides/patologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Dano ao DNA , Ejaculação , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática
19.
Cells ; 11(2)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053349

RESUMO

Sperm competition is thought to impose strong selection on males to produce competitive ejaculates to outcompete rival males under competitive mating conditions. Our understanding of how different sperm traits influence fertilization success, however, remains limited, especially in wild populations. Recent literature highlights the importance of incorporating multiple ejaculate traits and pre-copulatory sexually selected traits in analyses aimed at understanding how selection acts on sperm traits. However, variation in a male's ability to gain fertilization success may also depend upon a range of social and ecological factors that determine the opportunity for mating events both within and outside of the social pair-bond. Here, we test for an effect of sperm quantity and sperm size on male reproductive success in the red-back fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus) while simultaneously accounting for pre-copulatory sexual selection and potential socio-ecological correlates of male mating success. We found that sperm number (i.e., cloacal protuberance volume), but not sperm morphology, was associated with reproductive success in male red-backed fairy-wrens. Most notably, males with large numbers of sperm available for copulation achieved greater within-pair paternity success. Our results suggest that males use large sperm numbers as a defensive strategy to guard within-pair paternity success in a system where there is a high risk of sperm competition and female control of copulation. Finally, our work highlights the importance of accounting for socio-ecological factors that may influence male mating opportunities when examining the role of sperm traits in determining male reproductive success.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Cloaca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Passeriformes/genética , Fenótipo , Espermatozoides/citologia
20.
Endocrinology ; 163(3)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022746

RESUMO

Testicular-derived inhibin B (α/ß B dimers) acts in an endocrine manner to suppress pituitary production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), by blocking the actions of activins (ß A/B/ß A/B dimers). Previously, we identified a homozygous genetic variant (c.1079T>C:p.Met360Thr) arising from uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in the INHBB gene (ß B-subunit of inhibin B and activin B) in a man suffering from infertility (azoospermia). In this study, we aimed to test the causality of the p.Met360Thr variant in INHBB and testis function. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate InhbbM364T/M364T mice, where mouse INHBB p.Met364 corresponds with human p.Met360. Surprisingly, we found that the testes of male InhbbM364T/M364T mutant mice were significantly larger compared with those of aged-matched wildtype littermates at 12 and 24 weeks of age. This was attributed to a significant increase in Sertoli cell and round spermatid number and, consequently, seminiferous tubule area in InhbbM364T/M364T males compared to wildtype males. Despite this testis phenotype, male InhbbM364T/M364T mutant mice retained normal fertility. Serum hormone analyses, however, indicated that the InhbbM364T variant resulted in reduced circulating levels of activin B but did not affect FSH production. We also examined the effect of this p.Met360Thr and an additional INHBB variant (c.314C>T: p.Thr105Met) found in another infertile man on inhibin B and activin B in vitro biosynthesis. We found that both INHBB variants resulted in a significant disruption to activin B in vitro biosynthesis. Together, this analysis supports that INHBB variants that limit activin B production have consequences for testis composition in males.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Subunidades beta de Inibinas/genética , Subunidades beta de Inibinas/fisiologia , Mutação , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Testículo/fisiopatologia , Ativinas/biossíntese , Ativinas/genética , Animais , Azoospermia/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Inibinas/biossíntese , Inibinas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células de Sertoli , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatogônias , Testículo/química , Testículo/citologia
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