Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.138
Filtrar
1.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e677-e687, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Updated WHO guidelines recommend a dolutegravir-based regimen as the preferred first-line treatment for HIV infection and low-dose efavirenz (400 mg) as an alternative. We aimed to report the non-inferior efficacy of dolutegravir compared with efavirenz 400 mg at week 96. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, open label, phase 3 trial in in three hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral-naive adults with an HIV RNA viral load of greater than 1000 copies per mL to compare dolutegravir 50 mg with efavirenz 400 mg (reference treatment), both combined with lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The primary endpoint was the proportion with a viral load of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (10% non-inferiority margin). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02777229 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between July, 2016, and August, 2019, of 820 patients assessed, 613 were randomly assigned to receive at least one dose of study medication, with 310 in the dolutegravir group and 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group. At week 96 in the intention-to-treat analysis, 229 (74%) of 310 patients receiving dolutegravir and 219 (72%) of 303 patients receiving efavirenz, achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL (difference 1·6%, 95% CI -5·4 to 8·6; p=0.66). Viral load suppression was reached significantly more rapidly in the dolutegravir group (p<0·001). Virological failure (>1000 copies per mL) was observed in 27 patients (eight in the dolutegravir group, among which, three women switched to efavirenz 600 mg because of the dolutegravir teratogeneicity signal, and 19 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). No acquired resistance mutations to dolutegravir were observed against 17 mutations to efavirenz with or without mutations to lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among the 19 efavirenz 400 mg participants with virological failure. Weight gain was greater in the dolutegravir group (median weight gain, 5·0 kg in the dolutegravir group and 3·0 kg in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p<0·001, and incidence of obesity, 22% in the dolutegravir group and 16% in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p=0·043). The incidence of new WHO HIV-related stage 3 and 4 events was similar in each group (12 [4%] in each group). The two groups had similar rates of serious adverse events (28 [9%] of 310 in the dolutegravir group and 21 [7%] of 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). 18 deaths were observed during the 96-week follow-up (eight in the dolutegravir group and ten in the efavirenz 400 mg group). INTERPRETATION: The non-inferior efficacy of the dolutegravir-based regimen and non-emergence of dolutegravir resistance at 96 weeks supports its use as a first-line regimen for antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection. Viral load suppression was reached more quickly in the dolutegravir group and weight gain was significantly higher. FUNDING: UNITAID and the French National Agency for AIDS Research.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 728, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late presentation (LP), defined as a CD4 count < 350/mm3 or an AIDS-event at HIV-diagnosis, remains a significant problem across Europe. Linking cohort and surveillance data, we assessed the country-specific burden of LP during 2010-2016 and the occurrence of new AIDS events or deaths within 12 months of HIV-diagnosis believed to be attributable to LP. METHODS: Country-specific percentages of LP and AIDS-events/death rates (assessed with Poisson regression) observed in The Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) and EuroSIDA cohorts, were applied to new HIV-diagnoses reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The estimated number of LP in the whole population was then calculated, as was the number of excess AIDS-events/deaths in the first 12 months following HIV-diagnosis assumed to be attributable to LP (difference in estimated events between LP and non-LP). RESULTS: Thirty-nine thousand two hundred four persons were included from the COHERE and EuroSIDA cohorts, of whom 18,967 (48.4%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 47.9-48.9) were classified as LP, ranging from 36.9% in Estonia (95%CI 25.2-48.7) and Ukraine (95%CI 30.0-43.8) to 64.2% in Poland (95%CI 57.2-71.3). We estimated a total of > 320,000 LP and 12,050 new AIDS-events/deaths attributable to LP during 2010-2016, with the highest estimated numbers of LP and excess AIDS-events/deaths in Eastern Europe. Country-level estimates of excess events ranged from 17 AIDS-events/deaths (95%CI 0-533) in Denmark to 10,357 (95%CI 7768-147,448) in Russia. CONCLUSIONS: Across countries in Europe, the burden of LP was high, with the highest estimated number of LP and excess AIDS-events/deaths being in Eastern Europe. Effective strategies are needed to reduce LP and the attributable morbidity and mortality that could be potentially avoided.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Tardio , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 734, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV continues to be the main determinant morbidity with high mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a high number of patients being late presenters with advanced HIV. Clinical management of advanced HIV patients is thus complex and requires strict adherence to updated, empirical and simplified guidelines. The current study investigated the impact of the implementation of a new clinical guideline on the management of advanced HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine clinical data of advanced HIV patients was conducted for the periods; February 2016 to March 2017, before implementation of new guidelines, and November 2017 to July 2018, after the implementation of new guidelines. Eligible patients were patients with CD4 < 200 cell/µl and presenting with at least 1 of 4 opportunistic infections. Patient files were reviewed by a medical doctor and a committee of 3 other doctors for congruence. Statistical significance was set at 0.05%. RESULTS: Two hundred four and Two hundred thirty-one patients were eligible for inclusion before and after the implementation of new guidelines respectively. Sex and age distributions were similar for both periods, and median CD4 were 36 & 52 cell/µl, before and after the new guidelines implementation, respectively. 40.7% of patients had at least 1 missed/incorrect diagnosis before the new guidelines compared to 30% after new guidelines, p < 0.05. Clinical diagnosis for TB and toxoplasmosis were also much improved after the implementation of new guidelines. In addition, only 63% of patients had CD4 count test results before the new guidelines compared to 99% of patients after new guidelines. Death odds after the implementation of new guidelines were significantly lower than before new guidelines in a multivariate regression model that included patients CD4 count and 10 other covariates, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Simplification and implementation of a new and improved HIV clinical guideline coupled with the installation of laboratory equipment and point of care tests potentially helped reduce incorrect diagnosis and improve clinical outcomes of patients with advanced HIV. Regulating authorities should consider developing simplified versions of guidelines followed by the provision of basic diagnostic equipment to health centers.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22416, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019418

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) supresses immune system, primarily cell-mediated immunity. Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count, viral load, and oral lesions are the most important laboratory parameters to evaluate the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The present study aims to determine the incidence of HIV-related oral lesions with CD4 cell count and viral load in Yunnan, China.A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2007 to December 2009, in 1812 HIV positive patients from Department of Infectious Diseases in Kunming Third People's Hospital. CD4, CD8, and viral load data were collected and analyzed statistically using SPSS 11.3.Out of 1812 HIV positive patients, 929 (51.27%) were associated with 1 or more oral lesions. The most common oral lesions observed were Candida Pseudomembranous (13.75%), Candida erythematous (10.93%), Oral hairy leukoplakia (7.95%), Aphthous ulcer (6.18%), Herpes simplex infection (5.58%). In most patients with oral lesions, the CD4 cell count was < 200/µL. The incidence of oral lesions was lower when CD4 count was > 200/µL and with undetectable (P < .01) HIV viral load. Almost no oral lesions was observed when CD4 count > 500/µL (P < .01). With highly active antiretroviral therapy, reduction in HIV-related oral lesions was observed especially in Candida erythematous, Candida Pseudomembranous, Oral hairy leukoplakia, and Aphthous ulcer.The higher incidence of oral lesions with lower CD4 count (<200/µL) in HIV-infected patients indicated importance of CD4 cell count in identifying disease progression.


Assuntos
Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/fisiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/patologia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 660, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although women comprise 33% of the HIV-1-carriers in Israel, they have not previously been considered a risk group requiring special attention. Immigration waves from countries in Africa and in East Europe may have changed the local landscape of women diagnosed with HIV-1. Here, we aimed to assess viral and demographic characteristics of HIV-1-positive women identified in Israel between 2010 and 2018. METHODS: All > 16 year-old, HIV-1-infected women, diagnosed in Israel in 2010-2018, (n = 763) registered in the National HIV reference laboratory were included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the database. Viral subtypes and transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) were determined in 337 (44.2%) randomly selected samples collected from treatment-naive women. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 38 years. Most (73.3%) women were immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) (41.2%, 314) or sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (32.2%, 246) and carried subtype A (79.7%) or C (90.3%), respectively. Only 11.4% (87) were Israeli-born women. Over the years, the prevalence of women from SSA decreased while that of women from FSU increased significantly (p < 0.001). The median CD4+ cell count was 263 cells/mm3, and higher (391 cells/mm3) in Israeli-born women. TDRM were identified in 10.4% of the tested samples; 1.8, 3 and 7.1% had protease inhibitors (PI), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) TDRM, respectively. The prevalence of women with NNRTI TDRM significantly increased from 4.9% in 2010-2012 to 13.3% in 2016-2018. Israeli-born women had the highest prevalence (16.3%) of NNRTI TDRM (p = 0.014). NRTI A62 (5.6%), NNRTI E138 and K103 (5.6 and 4.2%, respectively) were the most prominent mutated sites. CONCLUSIONS: Most HIV-1-positive women diagnosed in Israel in 2010-2018 were immigrants, with the relative ratio of FSU immigrants increasing in recent years. The high proportion of women diagnosed with resistance mutations, particularly, the yearly increase in the frequency of NNRTI mutations, support the national policy of resistance testing at baseline.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico
7.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 505-513, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lephalale Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa, has seen significant economic and industrial development owing to expansion of the coal mining and power generation sectors. This development has coincided with substantial population growth of 65% between 2001 and 2016, attributable to largely (migrant) males living in the area who, overall, outnumbered females by ~121:100. The local HIV prevalence is reported to be higher than national rates. OBJECTIVES: Anonymised National Health Laboratory Service CD4+ data were used to document increasing laboratory services workload and to establish the burden of advanced (CD4+ count <200 cells/µL) and very advanced (<100 cells/µL) HIV disease among adult patients accessing public healthcare in Lephalale between 2006 and 2015. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to analyse CD4+ laboratory data. CD4+ outcomes were categorised by volumes of tests, year, health facility type, age categories (15 - 19, 20 - 24, 25 - 29, 30 - 34, 35 - 39, 40 - 44, 45 - 49 and >49 years), CD4+ test range (≤50, 51 - 100, 101 - 200, 201 - 350, 351 - 500 and ≥501 cells/µL) and gender. Median CD4+ counts were calculated. RESULTS: Extracted Lephalale data comprised 57 490 CD4+ results, with a mean patient age of 34 years. Considerably fewer male than female patients had CD4+ counts reported (male/female ratio 0.45:1). CD4+ test volumes showed a five-fold escalation over the study period, increasing from 1 458 tests in 2006 to 8 239 in 2015. A considerable burden of advanced and very advanced HIV disease (exceeding 50% of all cases) was noted in 2006/2007; by 2015 the proportion had fallen, but was still high at 27%. The overall median CD4+ count in 2006 (192 cells/µL) confirmed a high burden of advanced disease, with modest improvement to 289 cells/µL by 2015. Between 2006 and 2015, the median CD4+ count for females increased from 204 to 405 cells/µL, while that for males increased from 126 to 285 cells/µL. Age analysis further revealed that men aged <20 years or >25 years, and specifically those aged 30 - 45 years, had up to 44% more advanced HIV disease. CONCLUSIONS: Lower median CD4+ counts and a dramatic increase in volumes of CD4+ tests performed from 2007 onwards revealed a high burden of advanced and very advanced HIV disease in patients accessing care in Lephalale. Viewed together with Statistics South Africa census documentation of a disproportionately high number of males compared with females living in the area, these figures suggest that improved systems are urgently needed to encourage and accommodate access to HIV care for male (migrant worker) patients living and working in emerging industrial centres.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , População Urbana
8.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e699-e710, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community randomised trials have had mixed success in implementing combination prevention strategies that diagnose 90% of people living with HIV, initiate and retain on antiretroviral therapy (ART) 90% of those diagnosed, and achieve viral load suppression in 90% of those on ART (90-90-90). The Bukoba Combination Prevention Evaluation (BCPE) aimed to achieve 90-90-90 in Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, by scaling up new HIV testing, linkage, and retention interventions. METHOD: We did population-based, cross-sectional surveys before and after our community-wide intervention in Bukoba-a mixed urban and rural council of approximately 150 000 residents located on the western shore of Lake Victoria in Tanzania. BCPE interventions were implemented in 11 government-supported health-care facilities throughout Bukoba from Oct 1, 2014, to March 31, 2017, when national ART-eligibility guidelines expanded from CD4 counts of less than 350 cells per µL (Oct 1, 2014-Dec 31, 2015) and 500 or less cells per µL (Jan 1, 2016-Sept 30, 2016) to any CD4 cell count (test and treat, Oct 1, 2016-March 31, 2017). We used pre-intervention (Nov 4, 2013-Jan 25, 2014) and post-intervention (June 21, 2017-Sept 20, 2017) population-based household surveys to assess population prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection and ART coverage, and progress towards 90-90-90, among residents aged 18-49 years. FINDINGS: During the 2·5-year intervention, BCPE did 133 695 HIV tests, diagnosed and linked 3918 people living with HIV to HIV care at 11 Bukoba facilities, and returned to HIV care 604 patients who had stopped care. 4795 and 5067 residents aged 18-49 years participated in pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys. HIV prevalence before and after the intervention was similar: pre-intervention 8·9% (95% CI 7·5-10·4); post-intervention 8·4% (6·9-9·9). Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection decreased from 4·7% to 2·0% (prevalence ratio 0·42, 95% CI 0·31-0·57), and current ART use among all people living with HIV increased from 32·2% to 70·9% (2·20, 1·82-2·66) overall, 23·0% to 62·1% among men (2·70, 1·84-3·96), and 16·7% to 64·4% among people aged 18-29 years (3·87, 2·54-5·89). Of 436 and 435 people living with HIV aged 18-49 years who participated in pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys, previous HIV diagnosis increased from 47·4% (41·3-53·4) to 76·2% (71·8-80·6), ART use among diagnosed people living with HIV increased from 68·0% (60·9-75·2) to 93·1% (90·2-96·0), and viral load suppression of those on ART increased from 88·7% (83·6-93·8) to 91·3% (88·6-94·1). INTERPRETATION: BCPE findings suggest scaling up recommended HIV testing, linkage, and retention interventions can help reduce prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection, increase ART use among all people living with HIV, and make substantial progress towards achieving 90-90-90 in a relatively short period. BCPE facility-based testing and linkage interventions are undergoing national scale up to help achieve 90-90-90 in Tanzania. FUNDING: US Presidents' Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Administração de Caso , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , População Rural , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976531

RESUMO

To investigate the clinical value of changes in the subtypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes and levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19, the total numbers of lymphocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes were calculated and observed in different groups of patients with COVID-19. The results show that the lymphocytopenia in patients with COVID-19 was mainly manifested by decreases in the CD4+ T lymphocyte number and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. The decreased number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were correlated with the severity of COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Relação CD4-CD8 , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
10.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(12): 1222-1224, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903133

RESUMO

Limited information is available concerning the coexistence of COVID-19 and opportunistic infections in people living with HIV. The possible association of COVID-19 with AIDS-related respiratory diseases should be considered, particularly in patients with advance immunosuppression. We report the case of a male patient with AIDS-related disseminated histoplasmosis associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Histoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Histoplasmose/complicações , Histoplasmose/virologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Masculino
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 65-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797198

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate changes in hematological parameters after the follow-up of patients who received treatment with favipiravir due to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Sixty-two cases receiving favipiravir treatment for at least five days due to COVID-19 infection were evaluated retrospectively. Parameters including age, gender, nasopharyngeal swab positivity, and chronic diseases were analyzed. Hematologic parameters were analyzed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients receiving treatment with favipiravir was 63.7±12.3 years. Nasopharyngeal swab positivity was detected in 67.7%. The most common comorbid conditions detected in patients were hypertension in 25 cases (40.3%) and diabetes in 16 cases (25.8%). In the statistical analysis of the hematological parameters before and after treatment with favipiravir, WBC, PT-PTT-INR levels were found to be unaffected; the mean RBC was found to have decreased from 4.33 ± 0.58 M/uL to 4.16 ± 0.54 M/uL (p:0.003); the median hemoglobin level was found to have decreased from 12.3 g/dl to 11.9 g/dl (p:0.041); the hematocrit level decreased from 38.1% ± 4.8 to 36.9% ± 4.2 (p:0.026); the median neutrophil count decreased from 4.57 K/uL to 3.85 K/uL (p:0.001); the mean lymphocyte count increased from 1.22 ± 0.53 K/uL to 1.84 ± 1.19 K/uL (p:0.000); and the mean platelet count increased from 244.1 ± 85.1 K/uL to 281.9 ± 103.3 K/uL (p:0.005). CONCLUSION: We concluded that the pathological effect of treatment with favipiravir on the hematologic system was the suppression in the erythrocyte series, and there were no adverse effects in other hematologic parameters.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(12): 1222-1224, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751295

RESUMO

Limited information is available concerning the coexistence of COVID-19 and opportunistic infections in people living with HIV. The possible association of COVID-19 with AIDS-related respiratory diseases should be considered, particularly in patients with advance immunosuppression. We report the case of a male patient with AIDS-related disseminated histoplasmosis associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Histoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Histoplasmose/complicações , Histoplasmose/virologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Masculino
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 65-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate changes in hematological parameters after the follow-up of patients who received treatment with favipiravir due to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Sixty-two cases receiving favipiravir treatment for at least five days due to COVID-19 infection were evaluated retrospectively. Parameters including age, gender, nasopharyngeal swab positivity, and chronic diseases were analyzed. Hematologic parameters were analyzed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients receiving treatment with favipiravir was 63.7±12.3 years. Nasopharyngeal swab positivity was detected in 67.7%. The most common comorbid conditions detected in patients were hypertension in 25 cases (40.3%) and diabetes in 16 cases (25.8%). In the statistical analysis of the hematological parameters before and after treatment with favipiravir, WBC, PT-PTT-INR levels were found to be unaffected; the mean RBC was found to have decreased from 4.33 ± 0.58 M/uL to 4.16 ± 0.54 M/uL (p:0.003); the median hemoglobin level was found to have decreased from 12.3 g/dl to 11.9 g/dl (p:0.041); the hematocrit level decreased from 38.1% ± 4.8 to 36.9% ± 4.2 (p:0.026); the median neutrophil count decreased from 4.57 K/uL to 3.85 K/uL (p:0.001); the mean lymphocyte count increased from 1.22 ± 0.53 K/uL to 1.84 ± 1.19 K/uL (p:0.000); and the mean platelet count increased from 244.1 ± 85.1 K/uL to 281.9 ± 103.3 K/uL (p:0.005). CONCLUSION: We concluded that the pathological effect of treatment with favipiravir on the hematologic system was the suppression in the erythrocyte series, and there were no adverse effects in other hematologic parameters.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(9): 23-26, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798341

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a chronic multisystem disease and about 70% develop neurologic complications (including distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) any time during their life. DSPN is also a very common toxicity of drugs used to treat HIV infection. Little is known about the impact of HIV per se or other factors (apart from drugs) on the occurrence of DSPN in these patients. Methods: It was a cross sectional, observational study, done at the department of Medicine, PGIMER, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India. Ninety consecutive 18-40 years old HIV infected but treatment naïve (ART naïve) cases and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited for this study. Results: Out of 90 cases, 12 (13.4%) had DSPN (8 males and 4 females). The mean CD4 counts of these cases with and without DSPN was 294.73/µl and 370.84/µl respectively. Only 3 out of these 12 cases were symptomatic on presentation and rest nine were diagnosed on NCV study. No control had abnormal NCV. Presence of DSPN was found to be directly associated with infection with HIV per se (p<0.001) along with duration of HIV infection (p<0.01) and level of immunodeficiency (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that DSPN is already present in 13.4% of treatment naive patients with HIV/AIDS and even with milder immunodeficiency and at early stages of disease. Not only HAART but HIV by itself is a major causative risk factor for DSPN in these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Polineuropatias , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
16.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 3-7, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733652

RESUMO

Introduction: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most common systemic fungal infection in patients with HIV infection. Rapid diagnosis and timely initiation of antifungal therapy are key to reducing mortality rate associated with CM. This study aims to evaluate the ability of four different diagnostic tests (Gram stain, India ink, and two types of commercial lateral flow assay [LFA]) to identify CM-positive patients and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tests. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study on diagnostic tests accuracy conducted in Northern Malawi. The target population was HIV-infected adult patients presenting with features of meningitis. Four types of diagnostic tests were conducted: India ink, Gram stain, and two types of commercial lateral flow assay (LFA) (Immy, Inc., OK, USA and Dynamiker Biotechnology (Tianjin) Co., Ltd), Singapore). Culture was conducted as the reference standard. Results: A total of 265 samples were collected. The rate of positive CM detection ranged from 6.4% (using India ink) to 14.3% (using LFA). India ink exhibited the lowest sensitivity of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.0%-72.7%), followed by Gram stain (61.3%; 95% CI: 42.2%-78.2%). The Dynamiker LFA exhibited the highest sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI: 90.0%-100.0%) but a lower specificity (97.0%; 93.9%-98.8%) compared to the Immy LFA (98.3%; 95% CI: 95.7%-99.5%). Conclusion: LFA diagnostic methods have the potential to double the detection rate of CM-positive patients in resource-limited countries such as Malawi. As such, LFAs should be considered to become the main diagnostic tests used for CM diagnostics in these countries. Our data indicate that LFAs may be the best method for diagnosing CM and exhibits the highest diagnostic accuracy as it has shown that it outperforms cell culture, the current gold standard.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Fungos/sangue , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/sangue , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Cryptococcus/imunologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meningite Criptocócica/sangue , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(8): 47-51, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738841

RESUMO

The central nervous system is believed to be a safe sanctuary site which is established very early in the course of HIV infection where the virus can escape antiretroviral therapy. HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is seen to occur even in patients on successful systemic ART. HIV RNA can be at higher levels in CSF than plasma termed as CSF / plasma discordance or CSF escape. We aimed to study the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes in HIV patients who develop neurocognitive dysfunction on otherwise successful (suppressive) ART. We reported 6 cases of HAND in patients on regular successful ART over a 3 year period. Neurological examination , CSF analysis , plasma CD4 T cell count and neuroimaging were done.. Plasma HIV RNA and CSF HIV RNA was also estimated. Most of the patients' (5/6) were male, median age was 38.5 years and median time since HIV diagnosis was 3 years. All patients' were on Tenofovir plus Boosted Protease inhibitors when neurocognitive symptoms were manifest. 4/6 patients had an acute onset of clinical presentation. CSF showed elevated protein and mild pleocytosis in all patients. Median nadir CD4 T cell count was 222 cells / µl and at presentation of HAND with CSF escape was 374 cells / µl. CSF / Plasma HIV RNA discordance was present in all patients' at time of diagnosis. Outcome is good if diagnosed and treated early.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , RNA Viral , Carga Viral
18.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 705-711, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734734

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the recent antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, a large proportion of Korean patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were shown to have low CD4 cell counts at diagnosis and during ART initiation. We investigated the survival trends in patients living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Korea who started ART in the 2000s, and evaluated the risk factors for mortality to elucidate the association between survival and low CD4 cell counts at ART initiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with HIV infection who were aged >18 years and had started ART between 2001 and 2015 in the Korean HIV/AIDS cohort study were enrolled. We compared the clinical characteristics, mortality, and causes of death among the enrolled subjects based on the time of ART initiation. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios of mortality based on the time of ART initiation. RESULTS: Among the 2474 patients enrolled, 105 (4.24%) died during the follow-up period of 9568 patient-years. Although CD4 cell counts at the time of ART initiation significantly increased from 161 [interquartile range (IQR), 73.5-303] in 2001-2003 to 273 (IQR, 108-399) in 2013-2015 (p<0.001), they remained low during the study period. The incidence of all-cause mortality was 10.97 per 1000 patient-years during the study period. There was no decreasing trend in mortality between 2001 and 2015. Age >40 years [adjusted hazard ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.35-5.84] and low CD4 counts (<100 cells/mm³: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.44-6.23) were significant risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Despite excellent HIV care available in the recent ART era, the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART did not improve between 2001 and 2015 in Korea.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 555, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determine TB-LAM is the first point-of-care test (POC) for HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) and rapidly identifies TB in those at high-risk for short-term mortality. While the relationship between urine-LAM and mortality has been previously described, the outcomes of those undergoing urine-LAM testing have largely been assessed during short follow-up periods within diagnostic accuracy studies. We therefore sought to assess the relationship between baseline urine-LAM results and subsequent hospitalization and mortality under real-world conditions among outpatients in the first year of ART. METHODS: Consecutive, HIV-positive adults with a CD4 count < 100 cells/uL presenting for ART initiation were enrolled. TB diagnoses and outcomes (hospitalization, loss-to-follow and mortality) were recorded during the first year following enrolment. Baseline urine samples were retrospectively tested using the urine-LAM POC assay. Kaplan Meier survival curves were used to assess the cumulative probability of hospitalization or mortality in the first year of follow-up, according to urine-LAM status. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of hospitalization and mortality at three months and one year of follow-up. RESULTS: 468 patients with a median CD4 count of 59 cells/uL were enrolled. There were 140 patients (29.9%) with newly diagnosed TB in the first year of follow-up of which 79 (56.4%) were microbiologically-confirmed. A total of 18% (n = 84) required hospital admission and 12.2% (n = 57) died within a year of study entry. 38 out of 468 (8.1%) patients retrospectively tested urine-LAM positive - including 19.0% of those with microbiologically-proven TB diagnoses (n = 15/79) and 23.0% (n = 14/61) of those with clinical-only TB diagnoses; 9 of 38 (23.7%) of patients retrospectively testing LAM positive were never diagnosed with TB under routine program conditions. Among all patients (n = 468) in the first year of follow-up, a positive urine-LAM result was strongly associated with all-cause hospitalization and mortality with a corresponding adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 3.7 (95%CI, 1.9-7.1) and 2.6 (95%, 1.2-5.7), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic urine-LAM testing among ART-naïve HIV-positive outpatients with CD4 counts < 100 cells/uL detected TB cases that were missed under routine programme conditions and was highly predictive for subsequent hospitalization and mortality in the first year of ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Lipopolissacarídeos/urina , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/urina , Urinálise/métodos
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 554, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence, clinical presentation and risk factors of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) cases in China. METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis of demographic and clinical data of HIV/TB coinfected patients receiving ART at Beijing Ditan Hospital between January 2014 and October 2018. RESULTS: Of 199 patients included, 45 (22.6%) developed paradoxical TB-IRIS, and 19 (9.5%) TB-IRIS cases presented miliary TB. The pre-ART CD4 count lower than 50 cells/mm3 was found to be significantly associated with development of TB-IRIS. Similarly, patients with higher than 4-fold increase in CD4 cell count after antiretroviral therapy (ART) had significantly higher odds of having TB-IRIS. When patients aged 25-44 years were utilized as the control group, youths (< 25 years old) were more likely to have miliary TB. No significant difference was observed in the intervals from initiation of ART to IRIS presentation between miliary and non-miliary group. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data demonstrate that approximate one quarter of patients coinfected with TB and HIV develop paradoxical TB-IRIS after initial of ART therapy in China. Lower baseline CD4 count and rapid increase in CD4 count are the major risk factors associated with the occurrence of paradoxical TB-IRIS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Miliar/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Pequim/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção/complicações , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Miliar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Miliar/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA