Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.913
Filtrar
1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 16-22, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498083

RESUMO

Horses in Iceland have been isolated for more than 1,000 yr but still harbor a similar range of gastrointestinal parasites as do horses across the world. The long isolation of the horses and their parasites presumably means that no resistance genes have been introduced into the Parascaris spp. population. It is therefore of particular interest to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin on Parascaris spp. infecting Icelandic foals. Potential treatment failure of ivermectin in Iceland will add substantial new information on how resistance can arise independently. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of subcutaneous injection of ivermectin for the treatment of Parascaris spp. infection in foals and to identify the Parascaris species present in the west and north of Iceland. A fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test (FECRT) was performed on 50 foals from 8 farms, including an untreated control group of 6 foals, from September to November 2019. The foals were between 3 and 5 mo of age at the start of the study and had not previously been treated with anthelmintic drugs. Each foal was treated subcutaneously with off-label use of Ivomec® injection 10 mg/ml or Noromectin® 1% at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The FECR for each farm was calculated in 2 ways, by the eggCounts package in R and by the Presidente formula (FECRT). Both calculation methods resulted in efficacy levels between 0% and 80.78%, indicating ivermectin resistance on all farms. We also confirmed, by karyotyping, that the species of equine ascarid present in the west and north of Iceland is Parascaris univalens. This study provides evidence for treatment failure of ivermectin against P. univalens infection in foals. Since Icelandic horses have been isolated on the island for more than 1,000 yr, this implies that resistance alleles have developed independently in the Icelandic Parascaris population. The actual clinical impact of ivermectin resistance is unknown but another drug of choice should be considered to treat Parascaris infection in foals in Iceland.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Islândia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Cariotipagem/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454733

RESUMO

Plant extracts have been widely used in animal production systems due to the benefits promoted by their bioactive components, mainly through their antioxidant effects and positive effects on animal growth, health, and meat quality. We determined whether bioactive compounds (BC) from grape (Vitis vinifera), olive (Olea europaea), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) have beneficial effects on lamb growth while controlling gastrointestinal parasitism and reducing skeletal lipid peroxidation in muscle. Fourteen lambs (4 to 5 mo of age) were housed in individual pens and assigned to two treatment groups (seven animals/group), where they received: 1) a basal diet of beet pulp:soybean meal (90:10) (CONTROL) and 2) the same diet, but containing 0.3% of BC extracted from grape, olive, and pomegranate (BNP). After 21 d of consuming their respective rations (period 1), all lambs were dosed with 10,000 L3 stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Intake, production, and physiological parameters were determined before infection (period 1), after oral dosage with L3 (period 2), and during early (period 3) and later (period 4) developmental stages of infection. Groups of animals did not differ in their ration intake or average daily gain, either before or after the infection, or in their parasitic burdens estimated through fecal egg counts (P > 0.05). Lambs under BNP showed greater feed efficiency before infection (P < 0.001), but the pattern reversed after infection. In addition, the inclusion of plant bioactives to the diet did not have an effect (P > 0.05) on blood or lipid peroxidation in muscle or on hemogram, serum concentration of haptoglobin, and immunoglobulin E. These results could be explained by low dietary doses and constrained absorption or ruminal inactivation of these compounds. Changes in feed efficiencies suggest a negative interaction between BC in the diet and parasitism, which warrants further research.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Músculos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407892

RESUMO

Unlike the successful immunization of native H. contortus antigens that contributed to the realization of the first commercial vaccine Barbervax, not many studies revealed the encouraging protective efficacies of recombinant H. contortus antigens in laboratory trials or under field conditions. In our preliminary study, H. contortus α/ß-hydrolase domain protein (HcABHD) was demonstrated to be an immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) protein that interacts with goat T cells. We herein evaluated the protective capacities of two HcABHD preparations, recombinant HcABHD (rHcABHD) antigen and anti-rHcABHD IgG, against H. contortus challenge via active and passive immunization trials, respectively. Parasitological parameter, antibody responses, hematological pathology and cytokine profiling in unchallenged and challenged goats were monitored and determined throughout both trials. Subcutaneous administration of rHcABHD with Freund adjuvants elicited protective immune responses in challenged goats, diminishing cumulative fecal egg counts (FEC) and total worm burden by 54.0% and 74.2%, respectively, whereas passive immunization with anti-rHcABHD IgG conferred substantial protection to challenged goats by generating a 51.5% reduction of cumulative FEC and a 73.8% reduction of total worm burden. Additionally, comparable changes of mucosal IgA levels, circulating IgG levels, hemoglobin levels, and serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17A levels were observed in rHcABHD protein/anti-rHcABHD IgG immunized goats in both trials. Taken together, the recombinant version of HcABHD might have further application under field conditions in protecting goats against H. contortus infection, and the integrated immunological pipeline of ES antigen identification, screening and characterization may provide new clues for further development of recombinant subunit vaccines to control H. contortus.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/uso terapêutico , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/uso terapêutico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027421

RESUMO

Semi-intensive equine breeding system favors gastrointestinal nematode infections. The treatment of these infections is based on the use of anthelmintics. However, the inappropriate use of these drugs has led to parasitic resistance to the available active principles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main classes of antiparasitic (ATP) used in control in adult and young animals, including: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole), pyrimidines (pyrantel pamoate), macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin and moxidectin), as well as the combination of active ingredients (ivermectin + pyrantel pamoate). The study was carried out in two military establishments, located in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), from January to December, 2018. The intervals between the treatments of the animals were performed from 30 to 90 days. Coproparasitological evaluations were determined by the egg count reduction in the faeces. Cyatostomine larvae were identified in pre and post-treatment cultures. The results demonstrated the multiple parasitic resistance of cyathostomins to fenbendazole, moxidectin in young animals, and to fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate in adult animals. Thus, it is necessary to define or diagnose parasitic resistance to assist in the creation of prophylactic parasitic control, using suppressive treatment with ATP associated with integrated alternatives. The progress of parasitic resistance can be slowed.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Militares , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea , Estrongilídios , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107980, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877640

RESUMO

Acacia farnesiana pods are rich in secondary metabolites and their biological activities have been recorded as antibacterial, antioxidant and anthelmintic. Previously, an in vitro bioguided study showed the important ovicidal and larvicidal effects of an organic fraction (EtOAc-F) from a hydroalcoholic extract of A. farnesiana pods against Haemonchus contortus. The present study aimed to assess the in vivo anthelmintic effect of EtOAc-F from A. farnesiana pods on the H. contortus faecal egg elimination in female lambs and on the infective larvae (L3) population reduction in coprocultures. The EtOAc-F was obtained from a hydroalcoholic extract from A. farnesiana pods through chromatographic procedures; additionally, some secondary compounds were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one 'Katahdin' crossbred female lambs ranging from three to four months of age, with body weights 21.9 ± 0.39 kg were used. Animals were orally infected with H. contortus (L3) by a single dose of 350 L3/kg BW. Three experimental groups (n = 7) were assigned as follows: 1) Control (untreated), 2) Albendazole, as a positive control (at 7.5 mg/kg BW, unique dose) and 3) EtOAc-F (at 100 mg/kg BW, once every third day, with three applications in total). Individual faecal samples were collected once a week for 5 weeks (at days 38, 45, 52, 59 and 66) post-treatment, to measure the faecal egg counts (FEC) and to obtain the H. contortus (L3) population from faecal cultures. The highest FEC reduction caused by EtOAc-F was 67.7%; meanwhile, albendazole showed a total FEC reduction after the second week post-treatment (day 45). On the other hand, the fraction caused an important reduction in the larval population in coprocultures (54.3-68.5%). The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of galloyl derivatives and flavonoids as major compounds. The A. farnesiana pods could serve as a natural anthelmintic for the control of H. contortus, and perhaps for controlling other parasites of veterinary importance.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Ácido Gálico/química , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Hematócrito/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3401-3413, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780185

RESUMO

In wildlife, endoparasite burden can be affected by host life history stage, environmental conditions, host abundance, and parasite co-infections. We tested the effects of these factors on gastrointestinal parasite infection in plains zebras (Equus quagga) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, using fecal egg counts of two nematode families (Strongylidae and Ascarididae) and the presence/absence of cestode (Anoplocephalidae) eggs. We predicted higher egg counts of Strongylidae and Ascarididae, and increased likelihood of Anoplocephalidae infection in individuals (1) during energetically costly life history stages when resource allocation to immune processes may decrease and in young zebras after weaning because of increased uptake of infective stages with forage, (2) when climatic conditions facilitate survival of infective stages, (3) when large zebra aggregations increase forage contamination with infective stages, and (4) in individuals co-infected with more than one parasite group as this may indicate reduced immune competence. Strongylidae egg counts were higher, and the occurrence of Anoplocephalidae eggs was more likely in bachelors than in band stallions, whereas Ascarididae egg counts were higher in band stallions. Strongylidae and Ascarididae egg counts were not increased in lactating females. Strongylidae egg counts were higher in subadults than in foals. Regardless of sex and age, Ascarididae infections were more likely under wet conditions. Co-infections did not affect Strongylidae egg counts. Ascarididae egg counts in adult females were higher when individuals were co-infected with Anoplocephalidae. We present evidence that parasite burdens in plains zebras are affected by life history stage, environmental conditions, and co-infection.


Assuntos
Equidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Equidae/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Clima , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790679

RESUMO

The focus of gastro-intestinal parasite control in the sheep industry is increasingly on finding a balance between maintaining productivity of the flock whilst minimising selection for anthelmintic resistance to preserve anthelmintic efficacy for the future. Periparturient ewes represent the major source of gastro-intestinal parasites for growing lambs and are therefore a priority for parasite control. This study examines the impact on ewe faecal egg counts (FECs), lamb FECs, lamb daily live weight gains (DLWGs) and pasture larval counts of treating groups of ewes two weeks prior to lambing with either, a long-acting moxidectin treatment, short-acting doramectin or control. Six groups of twenty ewes were allocated to individual paddocks, two groups allocated to each treatment, and weekly faecal sampling was performed throughout from the ewes and from six weeks after the start of lambing in the lambs. Treatment group was found to have a significant effect on both ewe FEC (p<0.001) and lamb FEC (p = 0.001) with the group receiving the long-acting anthelmintic having the lowest ewe and lamb FECs. There was no significant effect on the DLWGs of the lambs. Pasture larval counts at the end of the study period were lowest in the long-acting wormer treatment group. The use of long-acting moxidectin may be helpful as part of a parasite control programme by reducing the worm burdens of ewes and their lambs, decreasing the number of anthelmintic treatments required in that year and by reducing pasture contamination for those sheep which will graze the pasture in the next year. However, like all anthelmintics, its use should be judicious to avoid selection for resistance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacocinética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Larva , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107978, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853633

RESUMO

One hundred and twenty one-day-old chukar partridges were randomly divided into eight groups which received diets with different supplementations. There were four unchallenged groups. One group received salinomycin (50 ppm), two groups received cinnamaldehyde (CINN) (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet), and another one received only the basal diet from the 1st to the 31st day. There were also four corresponding groups orally challenged by 3 × 105Eimeria kofoidi sporulated oocysts at the 21st day. Three samplings were done at the 24th, 26th, and 31st days of rearing for pathological and biochemical assessments. Fecal samples were daily taken to check the pattern of oocyst shedding from the 26th to 31st day. The body weight of birds was measured at 21st and 31st days. Along with the in vivo experiment, an in vitro sporulation inhibition test was carried out. The in vitro results showed that CINN decreased sporulation rate at 1 and 0.5 mg/ml. In vivo, it was found that CINN did not prevent the oocyst shedding. Furthermore, the histopathological findings revealed that CINN and salinomycin had no effect on infection establishment. However, our findings showed that CINN (200 mg/kg of diet) could enhance the body weight and improve antioxidant status. Although our results did not support the in vivo anticoccidial activity of CINN, it had a promising potential to improve antioxidant status and body weight in the chukar partridge.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Galliformes/parasitologia , Acroleína/farmacologia , Acroleína/uso terapêutico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Peso Corporal , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Piranos/farmacologia , Piranos/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Esporos de Protozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos de Protozoários/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2539-2548, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562068

RESUMO

Strongylida are gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of greatest importance in small ruminants throughout the world. Differences in resistance and resilience to GIN among goat breeds were reported. This study aims to investigate the mechanism underlying the breed-associated differences using a cosmopolitan (Alpine, AB) and an autochthonous (Nera di Verzasca, NV) goat breed. At first, fifteen goats from the same herd (NV = 7, AB = 8) at day 0 were infected with infective larvae (L3) of mixed GIN. From the 15th day post-infection (DPI), individual parasite egg excretion (faecal egg counts, FEC) was performed on all goats, once per week, until the 63rd DPI. Afterwards, in goats under field conditions (30 AB and 30 NV reared on the same farm), individual faecal and blood samples were collected; FEC-specific antibody and PCV levels were explored. In goats with experimental GIN infection, mean eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) values were consistently lower in NV goats. In goats with natural GIN infection, EPG and prevalence values showed high variability in both breeds; among individual variables, breed had a significant influence on EPG. Further, PCV and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by the breed. Lower PCV values were also associated with higher strongyle EPG in AB goats, and anti-T. circumcincta IgA levels were influenced by both strongyle EPG and breed, with IgA levels being higher in AB vs. NV goats and positively associated with EPG. Neither EPG nor breed had any influence on IgE levels. Both studies on experimental and natural infection confirmed that goats of NV are more resistant to infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Cabras/classificação , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236331

RESUMO

An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
11.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12707, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118305

RESUMO

AIMS: Most breeds of goat are more susceptible to nematode infection than sheep, and this appears to be a consequence of less effective immune responses. Several papers have considered the effectiveness of eosinophils and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in goats but differences in the induction of responses have not been studied in the same detail. The aim of this study was to look at the induction of eosinophil and IgA responses in Boer goats reared indoors under intensive conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The goats were experimentally infected with a low dose of 2400 Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. at a 6:1:1 ratio. Faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), IgA activity against third-stage larvae and peripheral eosinophilia were measured twice a week for eight weeks. The infection generated an IgA response but did not significantly increase peripheral eosinophilia in the 25 infected kids compared with the 4 control animals. FEC was not associated with IgA activity or eosinophilia. CONCLUSION: A detailed analysis of IgA and eosinophil responses to deliberate nematode infection in Boer goats showed that there was an increase in nematode-specific IgA activity but no detectable eosinophil response. In addition, there was no association between increased IgA activity or eosinophilia with egg counts and worm burdens. These suggest that IgA and eosinophils do not act to control nematode infection in goats.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/imunologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/imunologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hematócrito/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Oesophagostomum/imunologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Trichostrongylus/imunologia
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108607, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122611

RESUMO

Parasitic infections are associated with profound changes in the structure and function of the gut microbiome in various host-parasite systems. Here we examined the microbial composition and function in the abomasum, proximal colon and feces of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats after a partial anthelmintic drug clearance. A single-dose treatment of H. contortus-infected goats with Cydectin (moxidectin) resulted in an 83.9 % and 61.8 % reduction in fecal egg counts (EPG) and worm burden, respectively (P < 0.01), and restored abomasal pH to a normal baseline level. The treatment significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly that of Campylobacter, in the proximal colon. It also significantly affected several basic pathways, including bacterial secretion, butyrate metabolism, and LPS biosynthesis, and seemingly reduced the cellulolytic capacity in the colon. Several network modules displayed a strong correlation with EPG and worm burden. The Mantel test indicated a strong correlation between treatment related network topologies of the operational taxonomic units (OTU) belonging to Actinobacteria and Rikenellaceae and EPG and worm burden levels, respectively. Furthermore, microbial signatures that may better predict anthelmintic efficacy were identified. A signature or balance represented by the log ratio of the abundance of Verrucomicrobiaceae and Camplyobacteraceae had a strong correlation with EPG (r = 0.80). These novel insights into the interactions between H. contortus and gut microbiome in the caprine host and the consequence of a partial anthelmintic clearance on animal health and well-being may facilitate the design of more effective next-generation anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 86, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wild Amur tigers are a sparsely populated species, and the conservation of this species is of great concern worldwide, but as an important health risk factor, parasite infection in them is not fully understanding. RESULTS: In this study, sixty-two faecal samples were collected to investigate the frequency and infection intensity of Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina in wild Amur tigers. The T. cati and T. leonina eggs were preliminary identified by microscopy, and confirmed by molecular techniques. Infection intensity was determined by the modified McMaster technique. Phylogenetic trees demonstrated that T. cati of wild Amur tiger had a closer relationship with which of other wild felines than that of domestic cats. T. leonina of Amur tiger and other felines clustered into one clade, showing a closer relationship than canines. The average frequency of T. cati was 77.42% (48/62), and the frequency in 2016 (100%) were higher than those in 2013 (P = 0.051, < 0.1; 66.6%) and 2014 (P = 0.079, < 0.1; 72.2%). The infection intensity of T. cati ranged from 316.6 n/g to 1084.1 n/g. For T. leonina, only three samples presented eggs when the saturated sodium chloride floating method was performed, indicating that the frequency is 4.83% (3/62). Unfortunately, the egg number in faecal smears is lower than the detective limitation, so the infection intensity of T. leonina is missed. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ascarids are broadly prevalent, and T. cati is a dominant parasite species in the wild Amur tiger population.


Assuntos
Tigres/parasitologia , Toxascaríase/veterinária , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Filogenia , Toxascaríase/epidemiologia , Toxascaris/classificação , Toxascaris/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação
14.
Zoolog Sci ; 37(1): 31-41, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068372

RESUMO

Immune defense is costly to maintain and deploy, and the optimal investment into immune defense depends on risk of infection. Altitude is a natural environmental factor that is predicted to affect parasite abundance, with lower parasite abundance predicted at higher altitudes due to stronger environmental stressors, which reduce parasite transmission. Using high and low altitude populations of the Turkish blind mole-rat (TBMR) Nannospalax xanthodon, we tested for effects of altitude on constitutive innate immune defense. Field studies were performed with 32 wild animals in 2017 and 2018 from two low- and one high-altitude localities in the Central Taurus Mountains, at respective altitudes of 1010 m, 1115 m, and 2900 m above sea level. We first compared innate standing immune defense as measured by the bacteria-killing ability of blood serum. We then measured corticosterone stress hormone levels, as stressful conditions may affect immune response. Finally, we compared prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of field-captured TBMR. We found that the bacteria-killing ability of serum is greater in the mole-rat samples from high altitude. There was no significant difference in stress (corticosterone) levels between altitude categories. Coccidian prevalence and abundance were significantly higher in 2017 than 2018 samples, but there was no significant difference in prevalence, abundance, or intensity between altitudes, or between sexes. Small sample sizes may have reduced power to detect true differences; nevertheless, this study provides support that greater standing innate immunity in high altitude animals may reflect greater investment into constitutive defense.


Assuntos
Altitude , Imunidade Inata , Ratos-Toupeira/imunologia , Animais , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Teste Bactericida do Soro/métodos , Teste Bactericida do Soro/veterinária
15.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 9, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024529

RESUMO

The study aimed to compare the gastrointestinal helminthofauna of free-ranging wild boars from arable lands and forests, which are the natural habitats for wild boar in Poland and further to investigate if wild boars living in agricultural environments could acquire helminths commonly detected in domestic pigs. In 2011-2014, a total of 57 wild boars were examined post-mortem for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. Altogether, all but two of the animals were infected, and seven nematode species were found. The mean infection burden was 68.9 parasites, ranging from 1 to 381 worms. In forest areas, Ascarops strongylina, Physocephalus sexalatus, and Globocephalus urosubulatus were common, whereas on arable lands, the animals were more frequently infected (P < 0.05) by Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis, which are parasites that commonly occur in domestic pigs. Oesophagostomum dentatum was observed only in wild boars on arable lands, and Bourgelatia diducta, which is alien to European suids, appeared irrespective of habitat type. These results show significant differences in parasite spectra among wild boars living in forests or arable lands in Poland and indicates the risks of parasite transfer from domestic pigs to free-ranging wild boars. Furthermore, in farmed game, organic farming, or in the case of agritourism farms, one should be aware of the risk of related animals acquiring new and alien parasite infections by being kept outdoors.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Agricultura , Animais , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Polônia , Suínos
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 36, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is one of the most important parasites that cause huge economic losses to small ruminant industry worldwide. Effective prognosis and treatment depend upon the early diagnosis of H. contortus infection. To date, no widely-approved methods for the identification of prepatent H. contortus infection are available to identify prepatent H. contortus infection properly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of recombinant cold shock H. contortus protein (rHc-CS) during early and late infections of H. contortus in goat. RESULTS: Purified rHc-CS exhibited a clear band, with a molecular weight about 38 kDa. H. contortus eggs were not detected by fecal egg count technique from feces collected at 0 to 14 days post infection (D.P.I). However, eggs were detected at 21, 28 and 35 D.P.I. Hence, results of immunoblotting assay showed specific anti rHc-CS antibody detection in all goat sera collected at early stage (14 D.P.I) and late stage (21-103 D.P.I) of H. contortus infection. Furthermore, no cross reactivity was observed against Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Toxoplasma gondii or uninfected goats. Among several evaluated rHc-CS indirect-ELISA format variables, favorable antigen coating concentration was found 0.28 µg/well at 37 °C 1 h and overnight at 4 °C. Moreover, optimum dilution ratio of serum and rabbit anti-goat IgG was recorded as 1:100 and 1:4000, respectively. The best blocking buffer was 5% Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) while the best time for blocking, serum incubation and TMB reaction were recorded as 60, 120 and 10 min, respectively. The cut-off value for positive and negative interpretation was determined as 0.352 (OD450). The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the rHc-CS, both were recorded as 100%. CONCLUSION: These results validated that rHc-CS is a potential immunodiagnostic antigen to detect the specific antibodies during early and late H. contortus infections in goat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Hemoncose/imunologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Domínios Proteicos , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1733-1738, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898020

RESUMO

The influence of shade in the silvopastoral system on the performance and degree of parasitism by endo- and ectoparasites in Angus x Nellore heifers was assessed. The experiment was conducted with 72 heifers, with an initial mean weight of 276 ± 5.67 kg and 9 months of age, in a total area of 25 ha, divided into 12 paddocks, with three treatments and four replicates. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, to evaluate the conventional grazing system (CGS) without shade and silvopastoral systems with simple line (SPS1) or triple lines (SPS3) of eucalyptus. The evaluations were carried out every 28 days, from June 2017 to April 2018. During the trial, the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) presented a gradual increase in the three systems. Differences (P < 0.05) in the variables analyzed were recorded only in two occasions: the CGS group EPG mean ± standard error (1269 ± 105) was higher than the SPS1 group mean (402 ± 129 EPG) in March, and tick average of the CGS group (13 ± 2.7) was lower than the SPS3 (32 ± 5.3) in October. There were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between groups in relation to horn fly counts, the numbers of infective nematode larvae on pasture, hematological variables, and weight gain. It was concluded that in comparison with the CGS system, the shading in the SPS1 and SPS3 systems did not have any major influence on the degree of parasitism or in the performance of the heifers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Óvulo , Luz Solar , Ganho de Peso
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1787-1793, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898027

RESUMO

An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal nematodes was carried out in naturally infected goats in the North West of Algeria. Coprological analyses were performed for 2 years from January 2014 to December 2015.Examination of 1591 goat samples revealed an overall prevalence of parasite eggs in feces of 96%; the values were very similar in both years at 97% in 2014 and 94.96% in 2015. Five types of nematode eggs were identified: strongyle (95.5%), Nematodirus spp. (19.4%), Marshallagia spp. (3.9%), Trichuris spp. (0.6%), and Skrjabinema spp. (2%).Also, fecal cultures showed the presence of Teladorsagia spp. (56%), Trichostrongylus spp. (20%), Chabertia spp. (10%), Haemonchus spp. (9%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (5%).Season, age, type of grazing, and area affected the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The season did not influence the prevalence observed in the 2 years, since no significant differences between the four seasons were observed. On the other hand, egg production was highest in winter and spring. The level of infection decreased with the animal's age. There were no significant differences between the prevalence in animals on irrigated and non-irrigated pastures, but there were differences in egg excretion. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the coastal (Oran) and lowland (Mascara) regions in the prevalence or in average egg excretion.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(2): 133-144, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981671

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant threat to the economic and environmental sustainability of keeping livestock, as adequate control becomes increasingly difficult due to the development of anthelmintic resistance in some systems and climate-driven changes to infection dynamics. To mitigate any negative impacts of climate on gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology and slow anthelmintic resistance development, there is a need to develop effective, targeted control strategies that minimise the unnecessary use of anthelmintic drugs and incorporate alternative strategies such as vaccination and evasive grazing. However, the impacts climate and gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology may have on the optimal control strategy are generally not considered, due to lack of available evidence to drive recommendations. Parasite transmission models can support control strategy evaluation to target field trials, thus reducing the resources and lead-time required to develop evidence-based control recommendations incorporating climate stochasticity. Gastrointestinal nematode population dynamics arising from natural infections have been difficult to replicate and model applications have often focussed on the free-living stages. A flexible framework is presented for the parasitic phase of gastrointestinal nematodes, GLOWORM-PARA, which complements an existing model of the free-living stages, GLOWORM-FL. Longitudinal parasitological data for two species that are of major economic importance in cattle, Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, were obtained from seven cattle farms in Belgium for model validation. The framework replicated the observed seasonal dynamics of infection in cattle on these farms and overall, there was no evidence of systematic under- or over-prediction of faecal egg counts. However, the model under-predicted the faecal egg counts observed on one farm with very young calves, highlighting potential areas of uncertainty that may need further investigation if the model is to be applied to young livestock. The model could be used to drive further research into alternative parasite control strategies such as vaccine development and novel treatment approaches, and to understand gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology under changing climate and host management.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Gado/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Clima , Fezes/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Ostertagia/isolamento & purificação , Ostertagíase/epidemiologia , Ostertagíase/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Strongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação
20.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(2): 125-132, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981673

RESUMO

Horses are infected by a wide range of parasite species that form complex communities. Parasite control imposes significant constraints on parasite communities whose monitoring remains, however, difficult to track through time. Postmortem examination is a reliable method to quantify parasite communities. Here, we compiled 1,673 necropsy reports accumulated over 29 years, in the reference necropsy centre from Normandy (France). The burden of non-strongylid species was quantified and the presence of strongylid species was noted. Details of horse deworming history and the cause of death were registered. Building on these data, we investigated the temporal trend in non-strongylid epidemiology and we determined the contribution of parasites to the deaths of horses throughout the study period. Data analyses revealed the seasonal variations of non-strongylid parasite abundance and reduced worm burden in race horses. Beyond these observations, we found a shift in the species responsible for fatal parasitic infection from the year 2000 onward, whereby fatal cyathostominosis and Parascaris spp. infection have replaced cases of death caused by Strongylus vulgaris and tapeworms. A concomitant break in the temporal trend of parasite species prevalence was also found within a 10 year window (1998-2007) that has seen the rise of Parascaris spp. and the decline of both Gasterophilus spp. and tapeworms. A few cases of parasite persistence following deworming were identified, which all occurred after 2000. Altogether, these findings provide insights into major shifts in non-strongylid parasite prevalence and abundance over the last 29 years. They also underscore the critical importance of Parascaris spp. in young equids.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/parasitologia , Autopsia , Fezes/parasitologia , França/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/epidemiologia , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Strongylus/parasitologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...