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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48400

RESUMO

Celebrado em 8 de agosto, o Dia Nacional de Prevenção e Controle do Colesterol acende alerta para o que é, atualmente, a principal causa de morte no Brasil e no mundo: as doenças cardiovasculares.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
2.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110579, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399550

RESUMO

Food safety problems caused by pesticide residues in vegetables have become a top issue to raise public concern. In this study, bell peppers were grown in an experimental field and sprayed with two systemic (azoxystrobin and difenoconazole) and one contact (chlorothalonil) fungicides. Ozone (ozonated water and water continuously bubble with ozone) or conventional domestic (washing with distilled water, detergent, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium hypochlorite solutions) procedures were investigated to identify the most effective way to remove fungicide residues in bell peppers. The residues in the fruits and the washing solutions were determined by solid-liquid extraction with a low-temperature partition (SLE/LTP) and liquid-liquid extraction with a low-temperature partition (LLE/LTP), respectively, and analyzed by gas chromatography. Water continuously bubbled with ozone a concentration of 3 mg L-1 was the most efficient treatment with removal of fungicides residues ranging from 67% to 87%. However, similar treatment at a lower concentration (1 mg L-1) did not only efficiently removed fungicide residues (between 53% and 75%) but also preserving the quality of the fruit along a storage time of 13 days. Among the conventional solutions, sodium bicarbonate at 5% showed good efficiency removing between 60% and 81% of the fungicide residues from bell peppers, affecting the color quality of the fruit. Overall, the most affected physicochemical parameters in bell peppers after the treatments were weight loss, color, and vitamin C content.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Fungicidas Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise
3.
Talanta ; 234: 122632, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364441

RESUMO

Polyurethane adhesives are used to bond agglomerated cork and natural disk cork to produce cork stoppers that are used in champagne bottles. These adhesives are manufactured by reacting polyols with an excess of diisocyanates. Isocyanates are highly reactive compounds that have a propensity to form non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in the end product. In this work, ion mobility-time of flight-mass spectrometry was used to elucidate such NIAS, through the comparison of accurate mass spectra with the fragmentation patterns of proposed candidates. Twelve neo-formed compounds, including amines, amides and urethanes, resulting from the reaction of isocyanates with acetic acid and ethanol used as food simulants, were identified. Additionally, markers from champagne vs. champagne after its exposure to the adhesive were investigated using the supervised multivariate analysis method of Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures - Discriminant Analysis. Four neo-formed compounds, resulting from the reaction of diisocyanates with malic acid or tartaric acid contained in the champagne, were identified for the first time in this work. All of the compounds identified were subsequently quantified using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Limits of detection were below 5 µg/kg in the food simulants and below 30 µg/kg in champagne samples. Migration levels ranged from 70 to 721 µg/kg, with most of them exceeding the specific migration limit established for Cramer class III compound (90 µg/kg).


Assuntos
Adesivos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Adesivos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Poliuretanos
4.
Talanta ; 234: 122653, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364462

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in wheat flour induces a number of adverse health effects to consumers and livestock, even at very low concentrations. Direct detection methods for massive screening of DON in wheat flour is still lacking. A new methodology integrating multi-molecular infrared spectroscopy (MM-IR) with two-trace two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2T-2DCOS) was developed for in-situ qualitative and quantitative determination of DON in wheat flour as a whole. Typical spectral variation of wheat flour samples with diverse concentration of DON were stepwise characterized by MM-IR and tiny spectral profile differences resulting from concentration variation of DON were visually disclosed by 2T-2DCOS. Based on the obtained key spectral features of DON, 180 of wheat flour samples with DON higher and lower than 1.00 mg/kg were undoubtedly classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) with an accuracy rate up to 100% (for Second derivative spectra consisted of selected bands, SD-SS). Furthermore, a robust quantitative prediction model was established based on partial least squares (PLS) of SD-SS (Rc: 0.998, RMSEC: 0.135; Rp: 0.968, RMSEP: 0.421), and its excellent predictive capacity of model was validated by both residual prediction deviation (RPD) value of 3.2 and t-test. It was demonstrated that the developed methodology was applicable for screening and quantitative detection of DON in wheat flour based on the novel correlation analysis methods (SD-2DCOS-IR and 2T-2DCOS-IR) with chemometrics tools, which could be utilized both at laboratory and industrial level for quality control purposes of a large wheat flour sample set.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Farinha/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10321-10328, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436881

RESUMO

The halal food market is globally growing along with the increased risk of adulteration. We proposed an amplification-free and mix-to-read CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid analytical strategy allowing rapid identification and analysis of pork components, thus enriching the toolbox for ensuring halal food authenticity. We designed and optimized guide RNA (gRNA) targeting the pork cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. gRNA allowed specific identification of the target Cyt b gene from pork components followed by activation of Cas12 protein to abundantly cleave single-stranded DNA probes with terminally labeled fluorophore and quencher groups, thus turning on fluorescence. The presence of the pork Cyt b gene thus can be mix-and-read- and only-one-step-detected, which may indicate the risk of halal food adulteration. The method allowed specific discrimination of pork meat from beef, mutton, and chicken and yielded a detection limit of 2.7 ng/µL of total DNA from pork meat. The reliability of the method was tested using the following processed meat products: halal foods beef luncheon meat and spiced beef and non-halal foods sausage and dried pork slices. The CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid test strategy is promising for rapid food authentication.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444558

RESUMO

Chloramphenicol has been used in veterinary medicine, where its residues can remain in food of animal origin, thus potentially causing adverse health effects. This facilitated the ban for its use in food-producing animals globally, but its residues have remained ubiquitous. In this study, food commodities possibly contaminated with chloramphenicol, including livestock meat, poultry, edible viscera, fish, shrimp and crab, molluscs, milk, and eggs, were collected from domestic retail shops in all the 11 districts of Guangzhou and tested for its residue. Probabilistic risk assessment model calculations for its dietary exposure, and the margin of exposure (displayed as mean values and 5th percentile to 95th percentile ranges) were performed by using @RISK software based on a Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations. The results indicated the detection of chloramphenicol in 248 out of 1454 samples (17.1%), which averaged to a level of 29.1 µg/kg. The highest average value was observed in molluscs (148.2 µg/kg, with the top value as 8196 µg/kg); meanwhile, based on the dietary structure of a typical Cantonese, pond fish, pork, and poultry meat contributed most (about 80%) to the residents' dietary exposure to chloramphenicol. The margin of exposure for dietary chloramphenicol exposure in Guangzhou residents was 2489, which was apparently below 5000 (the borderline for judging a health risk), particularly low in preschool children (2094, suggesting an increased risk). In conclusion, the study suggests that chloramphenicol exposure in Guangzhou residents is considerable, and its relevant health hazard, especially for preschool children, is worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Cloranfenicol , Exposição Dietética , Animais , China , Cloranfenicol/toxicidade , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medição de Risco
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(8): 999-1005, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445840

RESUMO

To optimize the quantitative detection method for Salmonella enterica and analyze the quantitative contamination level of Salmonella enterica in raw pork samples from farmer's markets in Chengdu. Based on qualitative detection standard method of Salmonella enterica in China (GB 4789.4-2016) and the quantitative detection method of FSIS in the United States (MLG 4.08 and MLG appendix 2.05 MPN), the selective enrichment broth, screening plate, identification method and quantitative dilution ratio in quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica were optimized using 70 samples of raw pork. The optimized method compared by student's t-test was used to detect 40 samples of raw pork collected from farmer's markets in Chengdu from June to October 2020. For isolation of Salmonella from raw pork samples, the coincidence degree of TTB enrichment solution was significantly higher than that of RV enrichment solution (0.93±0.32 vs 0.35±0.62,t=8.324,P=0.001) and the consistency of suspicious colonies screened by XLT4 plate was significantly higher than that of Salmonella chromogenic medium (0.77±0.09 vs 1.00±0.00,t=2.971,P =0.017). The MPN method used 4 successive gradient dilutions, namely 12 tube method, could obtain more accurate quantitative value for Salmonella enterica. The combined use of selective enrichment broth TTB, XLT4 plate, Real-time PCR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry could get better results for screening and identifying Salmonella enterica. The detection rate for Salmonella enterica isolated from raw pork in farmer's markets was 92.5% (37/40). The most of the Salmonella positive samples (83.8%, 31/37) were detected with a contamination level ranged from 0.1 to 55 MPN/g. The optimized quantitative detection method for Salmonella enterica in raw pork in this study can effectively screen the target bacteria and obtain more accurate quantitative value.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Fazendeiros , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Suínos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112572, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352571

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have associated chronic exposure to arsenic (As) from drinking water with increased risk of hypertension. However, evidence of an association between As exposure from food and hypertension risks is sparse. To quantify the association between daily As intake from both food (rice, wheat and potatoes) and drinking water (Aswater) along with total exposure (Astotal) and hypertension risks in a study population in Bihar, India, we conducted an individual level cross-sectional analysis between 2017 and 2019 involving 150 participants. Arsenic intake variables and three indicators of hypertension risks (general hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) were derived, and any relationship was quantified using a series of crude and multivariable log-linear or logistic regression models. The prevalence of general hypertension was 40% for the studied population. The median level of HDL was 45 mg/dL while median value of LDL was 114 mg/dL. Apart from a marginally significant positive relationship between As intake from rice and the changes of LDL (p-value = 0.032), no significant positive association between As intake and hypertension risks could be ascertained. In fact, Astotal was found to be associated with lower risks of general hypertension and higher levels of HDL (p-value = 0.020 and 0.010 respectively) whilst general hypertension was marginally associated with lower Aswater (p-value = 0.043). Due to limitations regarding study design and residual confounding, all observed marginal associations should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Hipertensão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(2): 91-97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: On 17th Dec 2019 gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in two Pragues neighbouring institutions. Investigation aimed to describe outbreak, identify etiological agent, vehicle and propose control measures. METHODS: Routine outbreak investigation and retrospective cohort study was done. Data collected via online questionnaire were analysed using descriptive, univariate and stratified analysis. RESULTS: Of 960 employees, 276 responded (29%). We identified 39 (14%) cases, one tested norovirus positive. Canteen staff didnt report illness. No food item or environmental sample was tested. Sichuan pork served for lunch on 17th Dec was the most likely vehicle of outbreak (odds ratio (OR) 5.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98-12.64). Eating Sichuan pork and Chinese soup showed OR 31.5, 95% CI 5.0-320.7. Twenty-two (56%) cases can be explained by consumption of these food items. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological analytical method provided evidence of likely vehicle. We did not find the source. Control measures were early ensured and outbreak ceased. We emphasise full outbreak investigation using analytical epidemiology, environmental screening and microbiological testing of cases and possibly all kitchen staff.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 192: 113538, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343740

RESUMO

Constructing multifunctional immunochromatographic assays (ICA) carriers with multiple signals and retaining bioactivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are conducive to the sensitive and accurate point-of-care testing (POCT). To fulfill this pressing need, a microorganism-based microsphere mediated dual-modal ICA (DICA) was developed for sensitive and reliable detection of zearalenone (ZEN). As the key to the biosensor, a superb biotag with an intact coccus morphology was designed based on Staphylococcus aureus biosynthesized quantum dots incorporating Ru(bpy)32+ (SAQDsRu), in which SA offered a specific recognition capacity for Fc region of mAbs, QDs endowed a naked-eye discernible colorimetric signal on the SA, and robust fluorescence signal that remedied for the insufficient brightness of QDs was derived from Ru(bpy)32+. The characterization of SAQDsRu-labeled mAb (SAQDsRu-mAb) probe demonstrated strong luminescence, excellent stability and high affinity with ZEN (affinity constant was approximately 1.723 × 109 M-1), which can significantly improve the detection sensitivity. Impressively, a portable sensing system was developed by the integration of SAQDsRu-DICA with a smartphone-based readout. After optimization, this DICA indicated a limit of detection reaching down to 0.008 ng/mL (colorimetric mode) and 0.0058 ng/mL (fluorescent mode), which were much lower than that of conventional gold nanoparticles-based ICA (0.1029 ng/mL), possessing favorable specificity and repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 10%). Moreover, the feasibility of the immunoassay was further assessed by measuring ZEN in real samples with satisfactory recoveries, and the results are good consistent with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Zearalenona , Bactérias , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ouro , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Zearalenona/análise
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 609, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459996

RESUMO

Trace metals contamination has recently been a major issue due to its damaging effects on public health and environmental receptors. This study focussed on the health risk assessment of trace metals (As, Pb, Cr, and Ni) associated with the direct intake of some selected food crops (namely cocoyam and plantain) at Abuakwa South Municipal, Ghana. The food crops and soil samples were selected randomly from three reclaimed mined sites and one non-mining site in the study area. Results from the trace metal concentration analyses in the soil samples showed that As, Cr, and Ni were above the control. The daily intake of metals (DIM), target hazard quotient (THQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) assessments of health risks accompanied by the continuous ingestion of the selected food crops polluted through these trace metals were evaluated. 0.23 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg, 0.11 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, 0.78 mg/kg and 0.65 mg/kg, and 0.23 mg/kg and 0.09 mg/kg were recorded for As, Cr, Ni, and Pb in that order in the cocoyam and plantain, respectively. The As and Pb concentrations in the food crops were above the WHO recommended limits. This implies that individuals within the vicinity are exposed to high levels of As and Pb through food intake which could result in varying health implications. The DIM and THQ for the studied trace metals were below their permissible limits suggesting that there is a tolerable non-carcinogenic adverse health risk level for adults and children within the studied area. In addition, the lifetime probability of contracting cancer by ingesting Ni, Pb, and Cr in plantain grown in the study area is high. It is recommended that regular monitoring of these trace metals in food crops be carried out in preventing their excessive accumulation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Gana , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371868

RESUMO

Infants and toddlers are highly sensitive to contaminants in food. Chronic exposure can lead to developmental delays, disorders of the nervous, urinary and immune systems, and to cardiovascular disease. A literature review was conducted mainly in PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus databases, and took into consideration papers published from October 2020 to March 2021. We focused on contaminant content, intake estimates, and exposure to contaminants most commonly found in foods consumed by infants and children aged 0.5-3 years. In the review, we included 83 publications with full access. Contaminants that pose a high health risk are toxic elements, acrylamide, bisphenol, and pesticide residues. Minor pollutants include: dioxins, mycotoxins, nitrates and nitrites, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In order to reduce the negative health effects of food contamination, it seems reasonable to educate parents to limit foods that are potentially dangerous for infants and young children. An appropriate varied diet, selected cooking techniques, and proper food preparation can increase the likelihood that the foods children consume are safe for their health. It is necessary to monitor food contamination, adhere to high standards at every stage of production, and improve the quality of food for children.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Lactente
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361757

RESUMO

Detection of relevant contaminants using screening approaches is a key issue to ensure food safety and respect for the regulatory limits established. Electrochemical sensors present several advantages such as rapidity; ease of use; possibility of on-site analysis and low cost. The lack of selectivity for electrochemical sensors working in complex samples as food may be overcome by coupling them with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs are synthetic materials that mimic biological receptors and are produced by the polymerization of functional monomers in presence of a target analyte. This paper critically reviews and discusses the recent progress in MIP-based electrochemical sensors for food safety. A brief introduction on MIPs and electrochemical sensors is given; followed by a discussion of the recent achievements for various MIPs-based electrochemical sensors for food contaminants analysis. Both electropolymerization and chemical synthesis of MIP-based electrochemical sensing are discussed as well as the relevant applications of MIPs used in sample preparation and then coupled to electrochemical analysis. Future perspectives and challenges have been eventually given.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos/síntese química , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Micotoxinas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Polimerização , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
14.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361796

RESUMO

Meat is a rich source of energy that provides high-value animal protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of carbohydrates. Globally, different types of meats are consumed to fulfill nutritional requirements. However, the increasing burden on the livestock industry has triggered the mixing of high-price meat species with low-quality/-price meat. This work aimed to differentiate different meat samples on the basis of metabolites. The metabolic difference between various meat samples was investigated through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis approaches like principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In total, 37 metabolites were identified in the gluteal muscle tissues of cow, goat, donkey and chicken using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PCA was found unable to completely differentiate between meat types, whereas OPLS-DA showed an apparent separation and successfully differentiated samples from all four types of meat. Lactate, creatine, choline, acetate, leucine, isoleucine, valine, formate, carnitine, glutamate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and α-mannose were found as the major discriminating metabolites between white (chicken) and red meat (chevon, beef and donkey). However, inosine, lactate, uracil, carnosine, format, pyruvate, carnitine, creatine and acetate were found responsible for differentiating chevon, beef and donkey meat. The relative quantification of differentiating metabolites was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Our results showed that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for the identification of novel signatures (potential biomarkers) to characterize meats from different sources and could potentially be used for quality control purposes in order to differentiate different meat types.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Colina/análise , Creatina/análise , Equidae , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manose/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 578, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398280

RESUMO

Risks from combined exposure to multiple chemicals in food have prompted a growing concern for their effect on human health. Risk management of chemical mixtures should be based on developing and harmonizing methodologies to scientifically evaluate their cumulative adverse effects. In this study, a simplified tiered approach of cumulative exposure assessment is described along with a case study of vegetables in China's Hainan province during 2012-2014. This case study could be a reference for the Chinese National Risk Assessment Programs for vegetable and fruit products. In the proposed assessment approach, Tier 1 acts as a screening tier to categorize and evaluate chemicals under a conservative scenario, and it prioritizes the pesticides of most concern. Tier 2 refines the grouping of substances from Tier 1 and normalizes the toxic potency of the chemicals to sum the exposure of chemical mixtures in a given assessment group. Tier 3 applies the refined exposure model and the input parameter distribution to create probabilistic models using Monte Carlo simulation. This approach will be helpful in the cumulative exposure assessment where data on pesticide residues are sufficient, but the individual dietary consumption is inadequate.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Verduras
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 561, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379206

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate pesticide residues on peach and nectarine. For method verification, samples were spiked at 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 times of maximum residue limit (MRL) for each pesticide. The Quick-Easy-Cheap-Efficient-Rugged-Safe (QuEChERS)-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection revealed that limit of quantifications (LOQs) of pesticides were below the MRL. The overall recovery was 113.51% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 17.33% for peach and 113.61% with RSD of 11.44% for nectarine. These figures were within the Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (SANTE) recovery limits (60-140%) and the values specified for the repeatability (RSD ≤ 20%). Samples were collected from 5 different stands at Çanakkale open markets for 12 weeks. None of the residues was not ≥ MRL in any samples. Maximum levels of 567.80 and 322.10 µg/kg boscalid were detected in peach and nectarine, respectively, corresponding approximately 1/10 and 1/15 of the MRL. Maximum levels for tebuconazole were about 1/12 and 1/10 of the MRL for peach (47.53 µg/kg) and nectarine (56.90 µg/kg), respectively. Chlorpyrifos residues of all samples were below LOQ. According to our findings and the World Health Organisation Guideline, chronic exposure levels of pesticides were low and there is no risk to human health in terms of 3 pesticides.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Prunus persica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Turquia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360308

RESUMO

Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites toxic to humans as well as animals. The environmental conditions, conventional agricultural practices, and illiteracy are the main factors which favor the production of AFs in food and feed. In the current study 744 samples of vegetable seeds and oils (soybean, sunflower, canola, olive, corn, and mustard) were collected and tested for the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total AFs. Liquid-liquid extraction was employed for the extraction of AFs from seeds and oil samples. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used for the analysis. The results have shown that 92 (56.7%) samples of imported and 108 (57.0%) samples of local edible seeds were observed to be contaminated with AFs. All samples of edible seeds have AFB1 levels greater than the proposed limit set by the European Union (EU, 2 µg/kg) and 12 (7.40%) samples of imported seeds and 14 (7.40%) samples of local seeds were found in the range ≥ 50 µg/kg. About 78 (43.3%) samples of imported edible oil and 103 (48.3%) sample of local edible oil were observed to be positive for AFs. Furthermore, 16 (8.88%) and six (3.33%) samples of imported vegetable oil have levels of total AFs in a range (21-50 µg/kg) and greater than 50 µg/kg, respectively. The findings indicate significant differences in AFs levels between imported and local vegetable oil samples (t = 22.27 and p = 0.009) at α = 0.05 and a significant difference in AFs levels were found between vegetable seeds and oil samples (t = -17.75, p = 0.009) at α = 0.05. The highest dietary intake was found for a local sunflower oil sample (0.90 µg/kg/day) in female individuals (16-22 age group). The results have shown considerably high levels of AFB1 and total AFs in seeds and oil samples and emphasise the need to monitor carefully the levels of these toxic substances in food and feed on regular basis.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Aflatoxinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes/química , Verduras
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372298

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to establish the usefulness of an electronic tongue based on cyclic voltammetry e-tongue using five working electrodes (gold, silver, copper, platinum and glass) in honey adulteration detection. Authentic honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, tilia, sunflower, polyfloral and raspberry) were adulterated with agave, maple, inverted sugar, corn and rice syrups in percentages of 5%, 10%, 20% and 50%. The silver and copper electrodes provided the clearest voltammograms, the differences between authentic and adulterated honey samples being highlighted by the maximum current intensity. The electronic tongue results have been correlated with physicochemical parameters (pH, free acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural content-5 HMF and electrical conductivity-EC). Using statistical methods such as Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and Support vector machines (SVM), an accuracy of 94.87% and 100% respectively was obtained in the calibration step and 89.65% and 100% respectively in the validation step. The PLS-R (Partial Least Squares Regression) model (constructed from the minimum and maximum current intensity obtained for all electrodes) was used in physicochemical parameters prediction; EC reached the highest regression coefficients (0.840 in the calibration step and 0.842 in the validation step, respectively), being followed by pH (0.704 in the calibration step and 0.516 in the validation step, respectively).


Assuntos
Mel , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Língua
19.
Toxicon ; 200: 78-86, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252445

RESUMO

Fungi in the Fusarium genus produce trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxin which may elicit their damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract following the consumption of contaminated cereal-based foods. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of these commonly occurring fusarotoxins alone and in combination using the human, non-cancerous intestinal epithelial cell line HIEC-6. Based on our experimental data, 24 h after treatment with fusarotoxins, hydrogen peroxide levels, intracellular oxidative stress and the amounts of inflammatory interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 significantly increased. Cell membrane localization of the tight junction protein claudin-1 decreased, whereas distribution of occludin remained unchanged. Taken together, the HIEC-6 cell line appears to be a suitable experimental model for monitoring the combined effects of mycotoxins at the cellular level including changes in the redox states of cells.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Toxina T-2 , Células Epiteliais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Tricotecenos
20.
Toxicon ; 200: 110-117, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280411

RESUMO

Aflatoxins (AFs) are one of the most harmful carcinogenic natural toxins that affect food. Crops containing reasonably high oil content may be affected by Aspergillus species and consequently by AF contamination. In this study, a proposed testing method for AF detection in oilseed was developed, validated, and used for a market survey to assess the probabilistic risk exposure caused by consuming contaminated oilseeds including corn, sunflower seed, and soybean. The test method was optimized for selective extraction and then validated for fitness of purpose; the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.2, 0.4, 0.2, and 0.2 µg kg-1 for aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), respectively. The method was linear from the LOQs up to 20 µg kg-1, and its budget of measurement uncertainties were estimated at 25, 24, 26, and 30 for AFG1, AFB1, AFG2, and AFB2, respectively. The contamination levels were from  10,000 body weight (BW) day-1, respectively. The main finding of the present study highlights the possibility of some risk of AF exposure from corn consumption, which may represent a health concern.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
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