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1.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1629-1634, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468625

RESUMO

Tea, a popular aromatic infusion and food supplement, prepared from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves, is often subjected to adulteration with various undeclared inorganic and plant-derived materials. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut husk is one of the most common plant tea adulterants. To date, there are limited DNA-based technologies for tea authentication and quantitative detection of adulterants. Herein, we used a universal plant DNA barcoding marker coupled with High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) analysis to authenticate tea products from cashew ground nut. Additionally, cashew-specific markers coupled with HRM technology were used to detect and quantify adulteration of tea with cashew DNA. This methodology can reliably detect admixtures as low as 1% v/v cashew in commercial tea products. Overall, our results demonstrate that the HRM technology is a strong molecular approach in tea authentication, capable of detecting very low adulterations in DNA admixtures. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, we established the use of high-resolution DNA-based technologies for the detection of cashew adulteration in tea, even in very low quantities. The technology could be applied to a greater range of plant-based tea adulterants. This work is expected to facilitate the traceability and authenticity of tea products and form the basis for the development of strategies against fraudulent practices.


Assuntos
Anacardium/genética , Camellia sinensis/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chá/química , Anacardium/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Marcadores Genéticos , Chá/economia , Temperatura de Transição
2.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 692-701, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855450

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We evaluated the performance of a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantifying 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives have considered to be of concern to human health and used the method to determine the PAH concentrations in smoked foods. Eighty-seven samples of smoked fish, smoked meat, smoked eggs, dried bonito flakes, and dried bonito-related soup-stock products (disposable powder packets for infusion, instant bouillons, and liquids) were purchased in Japan to analyze their content of the 16 PAHs. Because of the low certainty of some results, the analytical values for some PAHs (e.g., benzo[c]fluorene, chrysene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) are given for informational purposes only. The highest median concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of all the 16 PAHs (29 and 760 µg/kg, respectively) were found in the disposable powder packets, followed by dried bonito flakes (24 and 512 µg/kg, respectively), and instant bouillons (11 and 227 µg/kg, respectively). These concentrations were much higher than those in the other products tested. We also investigated the percentages of the PAHs transferred from dried bonito flakes and a disposable powder packet to soup stocks commonly prepared at home. These were extremely low (<4%), even though they contained relatively high concentrations of the PAHs. Finally, the intake of benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of the intakes of four PAHs, as a marker proposed by the European Food Safety Authority, were estimated based on the data from a Japanese food consumption survey and the mean concentrations found in smoked fish and smoked fish products. These estimates suggest intakes of PAHs pose a low concern for consumer health.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros , Humanos , Japão , Carne , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
3.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2705-2718, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546281

RESUMO

The food industry is advancing at a rapid pace and consumer sensitivity to food safety scares and food fraud scandals is further amplified by rapid communication such as by social media. Academia, regulators, and industry practitioners alike struggle with an evolving issue regarding new terms and definitions including food fraud, food authenticity, food integrity, food protection, economically motivated adulteration, food crime, food security, contaminant, adulterant, and others. This research addressed some of the global need for clarification and harmonization of commonly used terminology. The 150 survey responses were received from various food-related workgroups or committee members, communication with recognized experts, and announcements to the food industry in general. Overall food fraud was identified as a "food safety" issue (86%). The food quality and manufacturing respondents focused mainly on incoming goods and adulterant-substances (<50%) rather than the other illegal activities such as counterfeiting, theft, gray market/diversion, and smuggling. Of the terms included to represent "intentional deception for economic gain" the respondents generally agreed with food fraud as the preferred term. Overall, the preference was 50% "food fraud," 15% "economically motivated adulteration" EMA, 9% "food protection," 7% "food integrity," 5% "food authenticity," and 2% "food crime." It appears that "food protection" and "food integrity" are terms that cover broader concepts such as all types of intentional acts and even possibly food safety or food quality. "Food authenticity" was defined with the phrase "to ensure" so seemed to be identified as an "attribute" that helped define fraudulent acts. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Food Fraud-illegal deception for economic gain using food-is a rapidly evolving research topic and is facing confusion due to the use of different terms and definitions. This research survey presented common definitions and publication details to gain insight that could help provide clarity. The insight from this report provides guidance for others who are harmonizing terminology and setting the overall strategic direction.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/legislação & jurisprudência , Terminologia como Assunto , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/economia , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536534

RESUMO

The survey described in this research paper aimed to investigate the economic and health impacts of birds on dairies. Birds are common pests on dairies, consuming and contaminating feed intended for cattle. As a result, dairy operators experience increased feed costs and increased pathogen and disease risk. We surveyed dairy operators attending the 2017 Washington Dairy Conference to examine the impact of birds on dairies in Washington State. Dairy operators reported feed losses valued at $55 per cow resulting in annual losses totaling $5.5 million in the Western region of the state and $9.2 million in the Eastern region of the state. Shooting was the most commonly used bird management method and European starlings (Sternus vulgaris) were the most frequently implicated species statewide. Bird abundance greater than 10,000 birds per day was associated with larger herd size and with self-reported presence of Johne's disease and Salmonella.


Assuntos
Aves , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8253-8267, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294564

RESUMO

The study focused on the determination of arsenic species in the top ten most consumed seafoods in the United States. Fifty-four samples were collected from local supermarkets, and their species identities were confirmed by DNA barcoding. The total arsenic in the samples varied greatly in the range of 8-22200 ng/g (wet mass). Speciation analysis based on extraction of water-soluble and nonpolar arsenic showed that inorganic arsenic (iAs) was found only in clams and crabs, while arsenobetaine (AsB) predominates in most samples. Among the other arsenicals, trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP) was found in most matrices with higher concentrations in crabs, and arsenosugars existed in most clams and crabs. Nonpolar arsenic accounted for 1-46% of the total arsenic in the samples. The accuracy of the analytical results was evaluated using standard reference materials and spike recovery tests. The survey showed that the iAs concentrations in America's most consumed seafood products are much lower than the tolerable intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee, even at the highest levels found in this study.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Bivalves/química , Braquiúros/química , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espectrometria de Massas , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Estados Unidos
6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 6067-6080, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273413

RESUMO

Rapid detection of trace Salmonella is urgently needed to ensure food safety. We present an innovative pretreatment strategy, based on a two-step enrichment culture and immunomagnetic separation, combined with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect at least one proliferative Salmonella cell in 25 mL (25 g) food. The capture performance of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) of sizes for Salmonella was investigated, and the IMBs of size 2.8 µm showed a high capture efficiency of 60.7% in 25 mL milk and 74.5% in 25 mL chicken culture filtrate, which ensured the successful capture of trace Salmonella after 2.5 h in situ enrichment even from only one Salmonella cell. The separated Salmonella cells, reaching an amount of 103 colony-forming units (CFU) by a secondary enrichment for 3 h, were detected by a horseradish peroxidase chemiluminescence reaction with 4-(1-imidazolyl)phenol as an enhancer, which evidenced a linear response for Salmonella concentrations ranging from 2.3 × 102 to 7.8 × 104 CFU/mL. The entire detection process was completed within 8 h, with a very low detection limit of 1 CFU/25 mL (25 g), which was verified by colony counting, and a small degree of interference of 0.17-1.06%. Trace Salmonella from five different serovars in milk and chicken was successfully detected without false negative or false positive results. Furthermore, this study provides a basis to develop a fully automated instrument based on IMBs that includes all steps from sample preparation to chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay for high-throughput screening of foodborne pathogens. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Leite/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Imunoensaio/economia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Separação Imunomagnética/economia , Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes/economia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Risk Anal ; 39(10): 2227-2236, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245865

RESUMO

An optimization model was used to gain insight into cost-effective monitoring plans for aflatoxins along the maize supply chain. The model was based on a typical Dutch maize chain, with maize grown in the Black Sea region, and transported by ship to the Netherlands for use as an ingredient in compound feed for dairy cattle. Six different scenarios, with different aflatoxin concentrations at harvest and possible aflatoxin production during transport, were used. By minimizing the costs and using parameters such as the concentration, the variance of the sampling plan, and the monitoring and replacement costs, the model optimized the control points (CPs; e.g., after harvest, before or after transport by sea ship), the number of batches sampled at the CP, and the number of samples per batch. This optimization approach led to an end-of-chain aflatoxin concentration below the predetermined limit. The model showed that, when postharvest aflatoxin production was not possible, it was most cost-effective to collect samples from all batches and replace contaminated batches directly after the harvest, since the replacement costs were the lowest at the origin of the chain. When there was aflatoxin production during storage, it was most cost-effective to collect samples and replace contaminated batches after storage and transport to avoid the duplicate before and after monitoring and replacement costs. Further along the chain a contaminated batch is detected, the more stakeholders are involved, the more expensive the replacement costs and possible recall costs become.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Análise Custo-Benefício , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Zea mays/química , Países Baixos
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121952

RESUMO

Today, we have been witnessing a steady tendency in the increase of global demand for maize, wheat, soybeans, and their products due to the steady growth and strengthening of the livestock industry. Thus, animal feed safety has gradually become more important, with mycotoxins representing one of the most significant hazards. Mycotoxins comprise different classes of secondary metabolites of molds. With regard to animal feed, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, and zearalenone are the more prevalent ones. In this review, several constraints posed by these contaminants at economical and commercial levels will be discussed, along with the legislation established in the European Union to restrict mycotoxins levels in animal feed. In addition, the occurrence of legislated mycotoxins in raw materials and their by-products for the feeds of interest, as well as in the feeds, will be reviewed. Finally, an overview of the different sample pretreatment and detection techniques reported for mycotoxin analysis will be presented, the main weaknesses of current methods will be highlighted.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Micotoxinas/classificação , Micotoxinas/economia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 126: 72-78, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735750

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to increase the understanding of mercury exposure via rice commonly consumed in a major North American city. Rice samples were collected from Montreal markets (n = 89) between 2016 and 2017 and analyzed for total mercury (THg) content. THg content ranged from 0.7 ±â€¯0.1 to 9.3 ±â€¯0.5 ng g-1 dw. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were recorded among the various rice types and countries of origin. Overall, cooking had little effect on the THg concentrations in rice. Thiols play a major role in the fate of Hg, therefore thiol contents in rice were measured, and a weak but significant relationship between thiol and THg contents in rice (p < 0.05) was observed. An in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion method was used to assess the bioaccessibility rate of THg in cooked rice samples, and less than 44.5% of THg from the initial rice samples was bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. Dietary exposure to Hg through rice consumption was calculated for the typical Canadian population and values were all below current provisional tolerable weekly intake guidelines. This study improves our understanding of Hg exposures via rice in a large North American city.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Oryza/química , Canadá , Culinária , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
12.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(1): 347-354, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648590

RESUMO

A risk-based prioritization of chemical hazards in monitoring programs allows regulatory agencies to focus on the most potentially concerned items involving human health risk. In this study, a risk-based matrix, with a scoring method using multiple factors for severity and probability of exposure, was employed to identify the pesticides presented in crops that may pose the greatest risk to human health. Both the probability of exposure and the severity were assessed for 91 pesticides detected in a Taiwanese postmarketing monitoring program. Probability of exposure was evaluated based on the probability of consumption and evidence of pesticide residues in crops. Severity was assessed based on the nature of the hazard (i.e., the description of toxic effects), and the acceptable daily intake (ADI) reported by available toxicological reports. This study showed that the nature of the hazard and probability of consumption had the strongest contribution to risk score. Dithiocarbamates, endosulfan, and carbofuran were identified as the pesticides with the highest concern for human health risks in Taiwan. These pesticides should be monitored more frequently than others in crops during the postmarketing monitoring program. However, some uncertainties shall be noted or improved when this methodology is applied for risk prioritization in the future.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Carbofurano/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Praguicidas , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
13.
Risk Anal ; 39(4): 926-939, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278118

RESUMO

The presence of hazards (e.g., contaminants, pathogens) in food/feed, water, plants, or animals can lead to major economic losses related to human and animal health or the rejection of batches of food or feed. Monitoring these hazards is important but can lead to high costs. This study aimed to find the most cost-effective sampling and analysis (S&A) plan in the cases of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) in a wheat batch and aflatoxins (AFB1 ) in a maize batch. An optimization model was constructed, maximizing the number of correct decisions for accepting/rejecting a batch of cereals, with a budget as major constraint. The decision variables were the choice of the analytical method: instrumental method (e.g., liquid chromatography combined with mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)), enzyme-linked-immuno-assay (ELISA), or lateral flow devices (LFD), the number of incremental samples collected from the batch, and the number of aliquots analyzed. S&A plans using ELISA showed to be slightly more cost effective than S&A plans using the other two analytical methods. However, for DON in wheat, the difference between the optimal S&A plans using the three different analytical methods was minimal. For AFB1 in maize, the cost effectiveness of the S&A plan using instrumental methods or ELISA were comparable whereas the S&A plan considering onsite detection with LFDs was least cost effective. In case of nonofficial controls, which do not have to follow official regulations for sampling and analysis, onsite detection with ELISA for both AFB1 in maize and DON in wheat, or with LFDs for DON in wheat, could provide cost-effective alternatives.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Micotoxinas/análise , Análise Custo-Benefício
14.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 72(10): 697-703, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376918

RESUMO

Meat has been identified as one of the food categories at most risk of food fraud. Meat species substitution has been in the spotlight with the European horse meat scandal in 2013. Analysis of cases reported on the web shows that incidents of meat substitution are still recurring worldwide. Altogether these cases highlight significant weaknesses in the supply chain transparency and traceability of raw meat materials. This has triggered recent progress from the food industry to apply new software tools enabling the mapping of meat supply chains. Nevertheless, a meat vulnerability assessment showed that meat and derivatives are highly susceptible to many fraudulent malpractices. Therefore, more effective measures are needed to manage the risk and new analytical solutions are required to increase the deterrence of meat adulteration and rapid detection of fraud. DNA-based methods have evolved rapidly as shown with the application of the new LCD array and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in order to detect broad meat species adulteration. Moreover, new technologies such as NGS together with the Rapid Evaporative Ionization Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) are emerging as a really promising association of analytical approaches for rapid detection of several malpractices.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Carne/economia
15.
Plant Dis ; 102(12): 2394-2406, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351226

RESUMO

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop in Malawi and Zambia. The crop is valued for soil improvement in cereal-based cropping systems, for improving the livelihoods of farming households who consume it and also sell it for cash, and for earning foreign exchange when exported. Research and development efforts have resulted in an increase in both peanut production area and productivity. However, a key challenge that still needs to be solved in these countries is how to produce peanuts with acceptable levels of aflatoxin contamination. Data continues to show that aflatoxin continues to be a problem in both formal and informal trade. As a result, unlike 30 years ago, most of the peanut trade has now shifted to domestic and regional markets that do not restrict the sale of aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts. Impacts of aflatoxin contamination on health and also on the full cost burden of control are not well documented. Technologies are available for mitigating against aflatoxin contamination. The advantages, disadvantages, and gaps associated with these technologies are discussed. Considerable money and effort continues to be invested in Malawi and Zambia into mitigating aflatoxin contamination, but evidence of long-term success is limited. Based on past and current initiatives, the prospects of eliminating aflatoxin in the near future at the household level and in trade are not promising.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Arachis/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malaui , Zâmbia
16.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 15: 228-231, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An alarming rate of emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally has urged Bhutan to take firm steps towards antibiotic stewardship through rational use in humans, animals and agriculture. This study aimed to investigate the use of three important antibiotic classes in animal feeds in Bhutan. METHODS: Thirteen samples were selected randomly from a pool of feed samples submitted by bidders for Annual Animal Feed Tender (fiscal year 2015-2016) of the Department of Livestock. The 13 samples were tested for nitrofurans and their metabolites, tetracyclines and sulphonamides. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the feed samples for the presence of three antibiotic classes and, if present, to understand the level of presence (mg/kg) in terms of AMR emergence and spread in a Bhutanese context. RESULTS: Two feed samples, belonging to Indian Feed Agents, tested positive for oxytetracycline at levels of 0.072mg/kg and 0.037mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the Feed Additive Compendium recommended dose (10-50g/ton) of oxytetracycline for poultry, the levels found in these two feeds were low. Samples testing positive for antibiotics were rejected in the bidding procedure as being medicated at prophylactic levels and could be the cause of emergence and spread of AMR in the country. CONCLUSION: Although the samples containing antibiotics were rejected by the Department of Livestock for use in government farms, some farmers may still use medicated feeds. Therefore, more screening needs to be conducted to further confirm and to prevent antibiotic abuse in animal feed in Bhutan.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nitrofuranos/análise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Tetraciclina/análise , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Butão , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Índia , Nitrofuranos/economia , Aves Domésticas , Sulfonamidas/economia , Tetraciclina/economia
17.
J Food Sci ; 83(8): 2028-2038, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020548

RESUMO

Brazil is one of the world's largest food producers. Adulteration of foods is often reported and represent an important potential threat to food safety. Because of this, reduction of the vulnerability of foods to adulteration is of high priority to Brazil. This study analyzes economically motivated food fraud and adulterations in Brazil between 2007 and 2017, based on academic journal reports. In addition, alternatives are proposed to minimize these incidents through good practices, traceability systems and the development of methods to detect food fraud and adulteration. Complex supply chains for foods of animal origin, such as milk and dairy products, were the main targets of food fraud and adulterations. Other products prone to fraudulent activities were vegetable oils, especially olive oil, which are high value products. Meat and fish, as well as their respective by-products, were also involved in some food fraud and adulteration, especially substitution. Cases of extraneous ingredient addition were also reported in the coffee and tea sectors. Comprehensive food fraud and adulteration prevention requires the enforcement of regulatory systems, increased sampling and monitoring, training of food producers and handlers, and development of precise, rapid, and cost-effective methods of fraud detection. The availability of robust methods to identify the chemical constituents of foods could be a decisive step, both to detect and prevent fraud in producer countries and to open up new markets to these products. The results of this study can be used to analyze food safety risks and prioritize target areas for food research and policy-making in order to enforce food safety regulations in Brazil. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A food fraud and adulteration review was conducted based on scientific literature in Brazil. Milk and its products were the main targets of food fraud and adulterations. Food fraud and adulteration causes and suggestions for good practice are presented. The results can be used to analyze food safety and protect consumer rights.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Fraude/economia , Animais , Brasil , Café , Laticínios , Carne , Azeite de Oliva , Chá
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 125(4): 1175-1185, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802669

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the microbiological quality of imported fresh leaves on retail sale during 2017 with respect to Salmonella, Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and levels of E. coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy-nine samples of imported edible leaves (69 banana, 77 betel, 118 curry and 15 other types) were tested. Salmonella spp. were confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and isolated from 44 samples, 26% from curry leaves, 14% from betel and 2·4% from all other leaf types: 80% of all samples contained ≥102 , 44% ≥103 and 22% ≥104 CFU of E. coli CFU per g. All samples where Salmonella were detected also yielded ≥20 CFU of E. coli/g. 54 samples were tested for STEC which was detected in six samples and isolated from three: one was identified as STEC O157:H7. CONCLUSIONS: This report further highlights an ongoing problem of Salmonella contamination of imported fresh edible leaves. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Among all food tested by Public Health England (approximately 11 000 per annum), curry leaves were the herb most commonly contaminated with Salmonella, and betel leaves were the most commonly contaminated ready-to-eat food. The high proportion with unsatisfactory E. coli levels and the detection of STEC suggests risks of contamination by multiple enteric pathogens.


Assuntos
Areca/microbiologia , Helichrysum/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especiarias/microbiologia , Inglaterra , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Especiarias/economia
19.
Food Funct ; 9(4): 2121-2135, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644368

RESUMO

The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of detoxification on the nutrients and antinutrients of wild apricot kernel followed by its hypocholesterolemic effect in male Wistar albino rats. The results revealed a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect of detoxification on the proximate composition except total carbohydrates and protein content. However, detoxification led to a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in l-ascorbic acid (76.82%), ß-carotene (25.90%), dietary fiber constituents (10.51-28.92%), minerals (4.76-31.08%) and antinutritional factors (23.92-77.05%) (phenolics, tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity, saponins, phytic acid, alkaloids, flavonoids, oxalates) along with the complete removal (100%) of bitter and potentially toxic hydrocyanic acid (HCN). The quality parameters of kernel oil indicated no adverse effects of detoxification on free fatty acids, lipase activity, acid value and peroxide value, which remained well below the maximum permissible limit. Blood lipid profile demonstrated that the detoxified apricot kernel group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of HDL-cholesterol (48.79%) and triglycerides (15.09%), and decreased levels of total blood cholesterol (6.99%), LDL-C (22.95%) and VLDL-C (7.90%) compared to that of the raw (untreated) kernel group. Overall, it can be concluded that wild apricot kernel flour could be detoxified efficiently by employing a simple, safe, domestic and cost-effective method, which further has the potential for formulating protein supplements and value-added food products.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/análise , Antimetabólitos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimentos Especializados/análise , Prunus armeniaca/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/economia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Ingredientes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/economia , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Alimentos Especializados/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Especializados/economia , Humanos , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Partícula , Prunus armeniaca/efeitos adversos , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/efeitos adversos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Selvagem , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/uso terapêutico
20.
Food Microbiol ; 73: 209-215, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526205

RESUMO

Sliced cooked poultry products are susceptible to bacterial spoilage, notwithstanding their storage under modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) in the cold chain. Although the prevailing bacterial communities are known to be mostly consisting of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), more information is needed about the potential variation in species diversity within national markets. In the present study, a total of 42 different samples of sliced cooked poultry products were collected in the Belgian retail and their bacterial communities were analysed at expiration date. A total of 629 isolates from four different culture media, including plate count agar for the total microbiota and de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS), modified MRS, and M17 agar as three selective agar media for LAB, were subjected to (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting and identification by gene sequencing. Overall, Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc were the dominant genera. Within each genus, the most encountered isolates were Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum. When comparing samples from chicken origin with samples from turkey-derived products, a higher dominance of Carnobacteria spp. was found in the latter group. Also, an association between the dominance of lactobacilli and the presence of added plant material and lactate salts was found.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiota , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bélgica , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Embalagem de Alimentos/economia , Produtos Avícolas/economia , Perus/microbiologia
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