Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 602
Filtrar
3.
Food Chem ; 317: 126409, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087516

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to screen, for the first time, the natural occurrence of non-regulated fungal metabolites in 204 maize samples harvested in Serbia in maize growing seasons with extreme drought (2012), extreme precipitation and flood (2014) and moderate drought conditions (2013 and 2015). In total, 109 non-regulated fungal metabolites were detected in examined samples, whereby each sample was contaminated between 13 and 55 non-regulated fungal metabolites. Moniliformin and beauvericin occurred in all samples collected from each year. In samples from year 2012, oxaline, questiomycin A, cyclo (l-Pro-l-Val), cyclo (l-Pro-l-Tyr), bikaverin, kojic acid and 3-nitropropionic acid were the most predominant (98.0-100%). All samples from 2014 were contaminated with 7-hydroxypestalotin, 15-hydroxyculmorin, culmorin, butenolid and aurofusarin. Bikaverin and oxaline were quantified in 100% samples from 2013 and 2015, while 3-nitropropionic acid additionally occurred in 100% samples from 2015.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Zea mays/microbiologia , Ciclobutanos/análise , Depsipeptídeos/análise , Secas , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Sérvia , Zea mays/química
4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(10): 1677-1692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907623

RESUMO

Nowadays acrylamide is known not only as synthetic material used in industry, but also as carcinogenic, cyto- and genotoxic compound which forms during heat-induced process (due to Maillard reaction) mostly in foodstuff such as potato, bakery, plant derivatives products and coffee. The International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1994 declared acrylamide as a probable carcinogenic agent in humans. After metabolic process, acrylamide is distributed to all organs and tissues in human body. Acrylamide is classified as human neurotoxin, because this effect was observed in humans occupationally exposed to this compound. Acrylamide was found to cause apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods of acrylamide inactivation by microorganisms and bioactive diet compounds have also been reviewed. Moreover, there is still deficit of the European Union legal regulation concerning acrylamide mitigation strategies in food. Regulation 2017/2158 from 20 November 2017 is a step in the right direction when it comes to ensuring food safety and maximum levels of acrylamide in foodstuffs, however when exceeding those, it should result in elimination of such food from the market.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/metabolismo , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Dieta , União Europeia , Humanos
5.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124404, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545201

RESUMO

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin responsible for countless human intoxications and deaths around the world. The distribution of TTX and its analogues is diverse and the toxin has been detected in organisms from both marine and terrestrial environments. Increasing detections seafood species, such as bivalves and gastropods, has drawn attention to the toxin, reinvigorating scientific interest and regulatory concerns. There have been reports of TTX in 21 species of bivalves and edible gastropods from ten countries since the 1980's. While TTX is structurally dissimilar to saxitoxin (STX), another neurotoxin detected in seafood, it has similar sodium channel blocking action and potency and both neurotoxins have been shown to have additive toxicities. The global regulatory level for the STX group toxins applied to shellfish is 800 µg/kg. The presence of TTX in shellfish is only regulated in one country; The Netherlands, with a regulatory level of 44 µg/kg. Due to the recent interest surrounding TTX in bivalves, the European Food Safety Authority established a panel to assess the risk and regulation of TTX in bivalves, and their final opinion was that a concentration below 44 µg of TTX per kg of shellfish would not result in adverse human effects. In this article, we review current knowledge on worldwide TTX levels in edible gastropods and bivalves over the last four decades, the different methods of detection used, and the current regulatory status. We suggest research needs that will assist with knowledge gaps and ultimately allow development of robust monitoring and management protocols.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Gastrópodes/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Tetrodotoxina/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Neurotoxinas/análise , Neurotoxinas/farmacocinética , Saxitoxina/análise , Tetrodotoxina/farmacocinética
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2705-2718, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546281

RESUMO

The food industry is advancing at a rapid pace and consumer sensitivity to food safety scares and food fraud scandals is further amplified by rapid communication such as by social media. Academia, regulators, and industry practitioners alike struggle with an evolving issue regarding new terms and definitions including food fraud, food authenticity, food integrity, food protection, economically motivated adulteration, food crime, food security, contaminant, adulterant, and others. This research addressed some of the global need for clarification and harmonization of commonly used terminology. The 150 survey responses were received from various food-related workgroups or committee members, communication with recognized experts, and announcements to the food industry in general. Overall food fraud was identified as a "food safety" issue (86%). The food quality and manufacturing respondents focused mainly on incoming goods and adulterant-substances (<50%) rather than the other illegal activities such as counterfeiting, theft, gray market/diversion, and smuggling. Of the terms included to represent "intentional deception for economic gain" the respondents generally agreed with food fraud as the preferred term. Overall, the preference was 50% "food fraud," 15% "economically motivated adulteration" EMA, 9% "food protection," 7% "food integrity," 5% "food authenticity," and 2% "food crime." It appears that "food protection" and "food integrity" are terms that cover broader concepts such as all types of intentional acts and even possibly food safety or food quality. "Food authenticity" was defined with the phrase "to ensure" so seemed to be identified as an "attribute" that helped define fraudulent acts. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Food Fraud-illegal deception for economic gain using food-is a rapidly evolving research topic and is facing confusion due to the use of different terms and definitions. This research survey presented common definitions and publication details to gain insight that could help provide clarity. The insight from this report provides guidance for others who are harmonizing terminology and setting the overall strategic direction.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/legislação & jurisprudência , Terminologia como Assunto , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/economia , Humanos
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546931

RESUMO

Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species that can contaminate human food and animal feed. Due to the harmful effects of FBs on animals, the European Union (EU) defined a recommendation of a maximum of 5 mg FBs (B1 + B2)/kg for complete feed for swine and 1 µg FBs/kg body weight per day as the tolerable daily intake for humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of dietary exposure to low doses of FBs, including a dose below the EU regulatory limits. Four groups of 24 weaned castrated male piglets were exposed to feed containing 0, 3.7, 8.1, and 12.2 mg/kg of FBs for 28 days; the impact was measured by biochemical analysis and histopathological observations. Dietary exposure to FBs at a low dose (3.7 mg/kg of feed) significantly increased the plasma sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio. FBs-contaminated diets led to histological modifications in the intestine, heart, lung, lymphoid organs, kidney, and liver. The histological alterations in the heart and the intestine appeared at the lowest dose of FBs-contaminated diet (3.7 mg/kg feed) and in the kidney at the intermediate dose (8.1 mg/kg feed). At the highest dose tested (12.2 mg/kg feed), all the organs displayed histological alterations. This dose also induced biochemical modifications indicative of kidney and liver alterations. In conclusion, our data indicate that FBs-contaminated diets at doses below the EU regulatory limit cause histological lesions in several organs. This study suggests that EU recommendations for the concentration of FBs in animal feed, especially for swine, are not sufficiently protective and that regulatory doses should be modified for better protection of animal health.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Animais , União Europeia , Regulamentação Governamental , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Suínos
10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934002

RESUMO

Illnesses caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) can be life threatening, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The STECs most frequently identified by USDA's Microbiological Data Program (MDP) carried toxin gene subtypes stx1a and/or stx2a. Here we described the genome sequences of 331 STECs isolated from foods regulated by the FDA 2010-2017, and determined their genomic identity, serotype, sequence type, virulence potential, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Isolates were selected from the MDP archive, routine food testing by FDA field labs (ORA), and food testing by a contract company. Only 276 (83%) strains were confirmed as STECs by in silico analysis. Foods from which STECs were recovered included cilantro (6%), spinach (25%), lettuce (11%), and flour (9%). Phylogenetic analysis using core genome MLST revealed these STEC genomes were highly variable, with some clustering associated with ST types and serotypes. We detected 95 different sequence types (ST); several ST were previously associated with HUS: ST21 and ST29 (O26:H11), ST11 (O157:H7), ST33 (O91:H14), ST17 (O103:H2), and ST16 (O111:H-). in silico virulome analyses showed ~ 51% of these strains were potentially pathogenic [besides stx gene they also carried eae (25%) or 26% saa (26%)]. Virulence gene prevalence was also determined: stx1 only (19%); stx2 only (66%); and stx1/sxt2 (15%). Our data form a new WGS dataset that can be used to support food safety investigations and monitor the recurrence/emergence of E. coli in foods.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Toxina Shiga/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Virulência/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Alimentos/classificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Regulamentação Governamental , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Toxina Shiga/classificação , Transcriptoma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(3): 308-341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976059

RESUMO

Current legislation governing monitoring of drug residues in foodstuff of animal origin is being revised at the European level. This study provides a qualitative comparison of the legislation, public and private standards in the European Union, the United States of America (USA) and the Eurasian Customs Union/Russia. We made a quantitative comparison of Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) applied in each region for pork kidneys for tetracycline (with a focus on doxycycline), penicillin and chloramphenicol. The Customs Union generally applied lower levels than the other regions, with MRLs for tetracyclines in pig kidneys being 1200 times lower than those applied in the USA. Growing consumer interest and concern about chemicals in their food could be leveraged to support and enhance the implementation of new initiatives to improve veterinary public health. Farmers and veterinarians could help reduce findings of drug residues in meat through the judicious use of preventive actions when using veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Drogas Veterinárias/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cloranfenicol/análise , Doxiciclina/análise , União Europeia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Rim/química , Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne/análise , Penicilinas/análise , Federação Russa , Suínos , Tetraciclina/análise , Estados Unidos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
12.
Eur J Public Health ; 29(5): 821-825, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Live bivalve molluscs, echinoderms, tunicates and marine gastropod are referred in EU food laws, and require member states to implement official controls in classified production areas, with the monitoring and classification of those areas. If, due to contaminant tests results, a production area is closed, any product from there is prohibited to be commercialized. Mobile applications optical character recognition (OCR) functionalities could ease the access to contaminant levels and production area classifications. This study verifies what information is available in live bivalves' labels, describes an OCR algorithm for those labels and evaluates it. METHODS: 86 labels were selected from four sale points in Lisbon, and photographed using smartphones. Each label was evaluated by a human to determine what data was available (either required or not). An OCR algorithm was developed and applied on the collected labels and validated against the data extracted by the human analysis. RESULTS: The analysis shows that all the labels included the required information, and 63% of the labels included the identifier for the production zone. The label-reading algorithm performs with an accuracy of 79.85% for the individual values. CONCLUSION: High accuracy of the developed label-reading algorithm shows potential for providing instant automatic access to the date and production area, but is affected by the variability on the label structure. Although not required by food laws, the majority of the sampled labels included complementary information (classified production area) that will allow access to more precise information about the existing biotoxin tests and analysis results.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Frutos do Mar/normas , Algoritmos , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle/métodos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos
13.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 12(2): 105-115, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727848

RESUMO

Resorcylic Acid Lactones, including zeranol, anabolics listed in the group A4 of Directive 96/23/EC, are banned in Europe for use in animals since 1985. Zeranol, after administration to animals, is metabolized to taleranol and zearalanone. It can also naturally occur in the urine due to conversion of zearalenone that may be present in animal feed. In 2010-2017, in Poland, 7746 animal samples were tested for zeranol residues within the official monitoring program. In 13, zeranol was detected after screening. Re-examinations confirmed resorcylic acid lactones in six samples. The recommendations state that only the presence of zeranol and/or taleranol gives the basis for non-compliance. Confirmation should cover the entire profile of six resorcylic acid lactones. In case of detection, the relationship ratio should be verified. Following the proposed criteria, it could be concluded that zeranol detected in urine samples in Poland originated from contamination of feed with mycotoxin, not from illegal use.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Lactonas/urina , Zearalenona/análise , Animais , Bovinos/urina , Galinhas/urina , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Micotoxinas/análise , Polônia , Suínos/urina , Zearalenona/urina , Zeranol/administração & dosagem , Zeranol/urina
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(7): 7284-7299, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721433

RESUMO

To ensure public safety against veterinary drug residues in food products from animal sources, maximum residue limits (MRLs) should be established by scientific evidence and a transparent estimation process. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) developed an Excel workbook-based tool for MRLs evaluation in 2003. In this study, we developed a web-based tool for MRL evaluation, called Korean MRL evaluation tools (KMET). While KMET used algorithms of JECFA workbook, it added some databases (e.g., Korean food consumption database) and provided additional functions (e.g., selection of target marker residue). Web-based KMET enabled regulatory policy makers to update the database. All input data and output results related to MRL evaluation based on residue depletion and food consumption datasets were archived and provided overall processes from the initial depletion data entry to MRL establishment with user-friendly interface. Our results demonstrated the stepwise processes whereby MRL for trichlorfon in the muscle of Paralichthys olivaceus was established with functional descriptions of KMET. MRL for trichlorfon derived from KMET was proposed and notified by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2018.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Triclorfon/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Agricultura , Animais , Resíduos de Drogas/normas , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentares , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Internet , Resíduos de Praguicidas , República da Coreia , Triclorfon/normas , Drogas Veterinárias/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 12(2): 97-104, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700225

RESUMO

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were determined in 51 milk powder samples purchased from different grocery stores located in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Analysis was conducted using QuEChERS extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Results from the analytical method showed recovery ranges from 65% to 110% and relative standard deviations lower than 20%. AFM1 was detected in 100% of the milk samples (0.20-1.19 µg/kg) and 55% exceeded the maximum level in milk (0.5 µg/kg) set by the Colombian and European regulations. AFB1 was not detected in any of the analysed samples. Considering the measured contamination the maximum AFM1 level that can be ingested by consumption of milk powder is 0.007-0.013 µg/person/day. These values are above the average dietary intake estimated in Latin America according to the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee, which is 0.0035 µg/person/day.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina M1/análise , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Leite/química , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Colômbia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Fatores de Risco
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 125: 462-466, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710599

RESUMO

Veterinary medicines, especially antibiotics, are among the most important components related to animal feed production. Generally, the main use of antibiotics in animals is for the treatment and prevention of diseases and growth promotion. Antibiotic usage in animals may result antibiotic residues in foodstuffs such as milk, egg and meat. These residues may cause various side effects such as transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria to humans, immunopathological effects, allergy, mutagenicity, nephropathy (gentamicin), hepatotoxicity, reproductive disorders, bone marrow toxicity (chloramphenicol) and even carcinogenicity (sulphamethazine, oxytetracycline, furazolidone). The most important adverse effect of antibiotic residues is the transfer or antibiotic resistant bacteria to the humans due to the mobile properties of resistance. Because of these undesirable effects, it is important to regulate the use of antibiotics in food animals. The individuals and the local procedures should be aware of the problem through education by authorities. In this review, antibiotic use in the foodstuffs and their effects on the human health will be discussed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos , Resíduos de Drogas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Drogas Veterinárias , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/normas , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/normas , Resíduos de Drogas/toxicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Drogas Veterinárias/efeitos adversos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/normas , Drogas Veterinárias/toxicidade
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(2)2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678361

RESUMO

Due to its divergent chemical composition and good nutritional properties, pollen is not only important as a potential food supplement but also as a good substrate for the development of different microorganisms. Among such microorganisms, toxigenic fungi are extremely dangerous as they can synthesize mycotoxins as a part of their metabolic pathways. Furthermore, favorable conditions that enable the synthesis of mycotoxins (adequate temperature, relative humidity, pH, and aw values) are found frequently during pollen collection and/or production process. Internationally, several different mycotoxins have been identified in pollen samples, with a noted predominance of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxins are, generally speaking, extremely harmful for humans and other mammals. Current EU legislation contains guidelines on the permissible content of this group of compounds, but without information pertaining to the content of mycotoxins in pollen. Currently only aflatoxins have been researched and discussed in the literature in regard to proposed limits. Therefore, the aim of this review is to give information about the presence of different mycotoxins in pollen samples collected all around the world, to propose possible aflatoxin contamination pathways, and to emphasize the importance of a regular mycotoxicological analysis of pollen. Furthermore, a suggestion is made regarding the legal regulation of pollen as a food supplement and the proposed tolerable limits for other mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Fungos/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Pólen/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Micotoxinas/análise , Pólen/química
18.
Adv Nutr ; 10(1): 80-88, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668620

RESUMO

Understanding the magnitude and impact of dietary pesticide exposures is a concern for some consumers. However, the ability of consumers to obtain and understand state-of-the-science information about how pesticides are regulated and how dietary exposure limits are set can be limited by the complicated nature of the regulations coupled with an abundance of sources seeking to cast doubt on the reliability of those regulations. Indeed, these regulations are sometimes not well understood within health care professions. As such, the objective of this review is to provide a historical perspective as to how modern pesticides were developed, current trends in pesticide use and regulation, and measures taken to reduce the risk of pesticide use to the consumer. Throughout the review, we provide specific examples for some of the concepts as they apply to glyphosate-a pesticide commonly used by both farmers and consumers. In addition, we describe current efforts to monitor pesticide use. We are confident that this succinct, yet thorough, review of this topic will be of interest to myriad researchers, public health experts, and health practitioners as they help communicate information about making healthful and sustainable food choices to the public.


Assuntos
Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos
20.
Food Microbiol ; 75: 126-132, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056957

RESUMO

Foodborne pathogens cause an important public health burden, which is estimated in 600 million cases and more than 400,000 deaths, globally every year. The most susceptible populations, such as children under the age of five, the elderly and immunocompromised, account for the majority of the deaths. Food safety incidents, outbreaks, sporadic cases, and recalls have recognized economic impact, estimated at 7 billion every year in the US. Food safety has become a priority, and the implementation of preventive controls and monitoring systems has raised the development of new tools to detect and prevent pathogens in the food chain. Detection tools have evolved quickly, from rapid testing methods to application of genomics and metagenomics. Importantly, to reduce food safety hazards at food processing, the food chain needs to be seen from farm to fork. This review summarized the main findings discussed during the 2016 OECD-sponsored symposium on food safety. These include i) trends in food safety that embrace the need to implement new tools in detection and prevention, ii) the very rapid evolution of technologies to detect foodborne pathogens, iii) holistic approaches to prevent pathogens require a whole chain approach, and iv) key pillars to facilitate global implementations of new tools in food safety.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Manipulação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Metagenômica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA