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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966310

RESUMO

Mycotoxin management in agriculture is an essential challenge for maintaining the health of both animals and humans. Choosing the right adsorbent is still a question for many breeders and an important criterion for feed manufacturers. New adsorbents are still being sought. Graphene oxide is a promising material in the field of nanotechnology, which excels in its adsorption properties. Presented in vitro study investigates graphene oxide for the binding of mycotoxins from crushed wheat. The results show that graphene oxide has an adsorption capacity for aflatoxin 0.045 mg/g, zearalenone 0.53 mg/g and deoxynivalenol 1.69 mg/g at 37° C. In vitro simulation of crushed wheat digestion showed rapid adsorption during the gastric phase. Of the minerals, Mg, Cu and Zn were the most adsorbed. The applied dose of graphene oxide of 10 mg/g caused only a slight inhibition of the digestive enzymes α-amylase and trypsin compared to pepsin and gastric lipase. In vitro results indicated the suitability of graphene oxide in the adsorption of the aflatoxin, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Aflatoxina B1/isolamento & purificação , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Digestão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/química , Tricotecenos/isolamento & purificação , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Triticum/química , Triticum/toxicidade , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação , Zearalenona/toxicidade
3.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127732, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739689

RESUMO

Over the last 30 years, bottled water has gained in popularity reaching high sales world-wide. Most of this water is sold in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. About 15 years ago, the presence of antimony in water in those PET bottles raised concerns and studies on the subject have been regularly published since then. This review aims to evaluate whether the use of good analytical practices and the correct design of these studies support the accepted facts (i.e., PET is the origin of antimony presence in bottled waters, antimony concentrations are usually below regulated values, temperature increasing favours antimony leaching). The detailed analysis of published data has confirmed these facts but has also revealed frequency of faulty analytical practices and a lack of well-designed studies. A better understanding of the structure of PET polymer in the bottles, coupled with statistically-robust antimony release experiments, is required to progress in the field.


Assuntos
Antimônio/análise , Água Potável/química , Água Potável/normas , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antimônio/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 815-824, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641608

RESUMO

Approximately 900 tonne of crude palm oil (CPO) underwent washing using 5 to 10% hot water (90 to 95°C) at a palm oil mill. The aim of the CPO washing was to eliminate and/or reduce total chlorine content present in the conventional CPO, as it is known as the main precursor for the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol esters (3-MCPDE). By a simple hot water washing, more than 85% of the total chlorine was removed. However, washing did not have significant (p > 0.05) effect on other oil quality parameters such as the deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI), free fatty acid (FFA) content and diacylglycerol (DAG) content of the oil. The latter has been established as the main precursor for glycidyl esters (GE) formation. The treated CPO was then transported using tankers and further refined at a commercial refinery. Refining of washed CPO resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) lower formation of 3-MCPDE, but GE content remained slightly high. Post-treatment of refined oil significantly reduced the GE content (p < 0.05) to an acceptable level whilst almost maintaining the low 3-MCPDE level. The study has proven that water washing of CPO prior to refining and subsequent post-refining is so far the most effective way to produce good quality refined oil with considerably low 3-MCPDE and GE contents. Dry fractionation of refined palm oil showed these contaminants partitioned more into the liquid olein fraction compared to the stearin fraction.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cloro/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Água , alfa-Cloridrina/isolamento & purificação , Diglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 851-858, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641613

RESUMO

Phthalates (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants in environment and foodstuffs. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination possibility of phthalates and PAHs in packaged and canned fishes. For this purpose, tuna, salmon, sardine and mackerel canned and packaged with different liquid ingredients (water, olive oil, sunflower oil, mixture of sunflower and canola oil) attained from local markets in Turkey in 2019, were analyzed for presence of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), chrysene (Chr). The instrumental analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). In all analyzed samples, the levels of DBP, BBP, DINP and DIDP were less than their LOQ, so these phthalates were not quantified. The highest DEPH content was found 650 µg/kg in sample 2 (tuna in olive oil, packaged in plastic package). The highest sum of PAH 4 concentration was 9.97 µg/kg in sample 4 (salmon canned in sunflower oil). Some samples (19 samples) were free for all analyzed PAEs and PAHs. All levels of these persistent organic pollutants were lower than regulation limits of Turkey and EU.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Turquia
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 677-684, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522947

RESUMO

A simple screening method for discrimination between commercial extra virgin olive oils and their blends with other vegetable oils was developed. Squalene, which was contained relatively high amounts in virgin olive oil, was determined by HPLC after a simple pretreatment that was carried out by dilution of oil samples with 2-propanol. Tyrosol, which was contained at relatively high concentration in virgin olive oil among phenolic compounds, was determined by HPLC after a simple liquid-liquid extraction. When using squalene and tyrosol contents as axes, extra virgin olive oils could be discriminated from pure olive oils, blended oils (extra virgin olive oils with sunflower oil or grapeseed oil) and other vegetable oils. These results suggest that determining squalene and tyrosol in seed oil samples could be useful in distinguishing between extra virgin olive oil and blended oils as a screening method.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Esqualeno/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise
7.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(9): 1-6, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519031

RESUMO

The reactive electrophilic species (RES), typically the molecules bearing α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl group, are widespread in living organisms and notoriously known for their damaging effects. Many of the mycotoxins released from phytopathogenic fungi are RES and their contamination to cereals threatens food safety worldwide. However, due to their high reactivity, RES are also used by host organisms to synthesize specific metabolites. The evolutionary conserved glyoxalase (GLX) system scavenges the cytotoxic α-oxoaldehydes that bear RES groups, which cause host disorders and diseases. In cotton, a specialized enzyme derived from glyoxalase I (GLXI) through gene duplications and named as specialized GLXI (SPG), acts as a distinct type of aromatase in the gossypol pathway to transform the RES intermediates into the phenolic products. In this review, we briefly introduce the research progress in understanding the RES, especially the RES-type mycotoxins, the GLX system and SPG, and discuss their application potential in detoxification and synthetic biology.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Fungos/genética , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Aromatase/metabolismo , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Fenol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tricotecenos/metabolismo
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108666, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454365

RESUMO

Although Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are the main microorganisms of concern in peanuts, due to aflatoxin contamination, several Salmonella outbreaks from this product have been reported over the last ten decades. Thus, it is important to understand the relationship between microorganisms to predict, manage and estimate the diversity in the peanut supply chain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin production during the co-cultivation of Aspergillus section Flavi and Salmonella both isolated from peanuts. Three strains of A. section Flavi: A. flavus producing aflatoxin B, A. flavus non-producing aflatoxin and A. parasiticus producing aflatoxin B and G were co-cultivated with seven serotypes of Salmonella of which six were isolated from the peanut supply chain (S. Muenster, S. Miami, S. Glostrup, S. Javiana, S. Oranienburg and S. Yoruba) and one was S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028. First of all, each Salmonella strain was inoculated by pour plate (ca. 5 log cfu/mL) in PDA (potato dextrose agar). Then, each pre-cultured fungus was inoculated in the center of the petri dish. The plates were incubated at 30 °C and the fungal colony diameter was measured once a day for 7 days. As a control each Aspergillus strain was cultivated in the absence of Salmonella culture. All three strains of Aspergillus with absence of Salmonella (control) reached the maximum colony diameter and their growth rate was influenced when co-cultivated (p < 0.05) with all Salmonella serotypes tested. The maximum inhibition in the colony diameter was 20% for A. flavus aflatoxin B producer and A. parasiticus, and 18% for A. flavus non- aflatoxin producer when cultivated with Salmonella. However, no significant difference (p < 0.05) in reduction of colony diameter was observed among the Salmonella serotypes. Aflatoxin production was determined previously, by using the agar plug technique on thin layer chromatography (TLC). The production of aflatoxin G by A. parasiticus in co-cultivation with Salmonella was not observed. On the other hand, A. flavus preserved their characteristics of aflatoxin B production. The quantification of aflatoxin reduction by Salmonella interaction was evaluated using HPLC method. There was a maximum reduction of aflatoxin production of 88.7% and 72.9% in A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, when cultivated with Salmonella. These results indicate that some serotypes of Salmonella may interfere with aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in the peanut supply chain.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Salmonella/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
10.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103470, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336351

RESUMO

Particulates of harvest debris are common in tomato packinghouse dump tanks, but their role in food safety is unclear. In this study we investigated the survival of Salmonella enterica and the shifts in relative abundance of culturable mesophilic aerobic bacteria (cMAB) as impacted by particulate size and interaction with chlorine treatment. Particulates suspended in grape tomato wash water spanned a wide size range, but the largest contribution came from particles of 3-20 µm. Filtration of wash water through 330 µm, applied after 100 mg/L free chlorine (FC) wash, reduced surviving cMAB by 98%. The combination of filtration (at 330 µm or smaller pore sizes) and chlorinated wash also altered the cMAB community, with the survivors shifting toward Gram-positive and spore producers (in both lab-simulated and industrial conditions). When tomatoes and harvest debris inoculated with differentially tagged Salmonella were washed in 100 mg/L FC for 1 min followed by filtration, only cells originating from harvest debris survived, with 85 and 93% of the surviving cells associated with particulates larger than 330 and 63 µm, respectively. This suggests that particulates suspended in wash water can protect Salmonella cells from chlorine action, and serve as a vector for cross-contamination.


Assuntos
Cloro/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microbiota , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia
11.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336367

RESUMO

Artisanal cheese from southern Chile is made primarily by rural families who raise dairy cows and produce cheese as a way to add value to their milk. The most common cheese produced is chanco, a semi-hard cheese that is typically sold in unauthorized markets. The methods of chanco production do not always follow good manufacturing practices; however, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in this cheese has not been previously documented. To better understand production practices and L. monocytogenes contamination, 39 cheese producers were surveyed with regard to infrastructure, cleaning and sanitation, pest control, personal hygiene, training, raw materials, and manufacturing. During four sampling trips in 2016 (March, May, August, and November), 546 samples were collected (468 cheese samples and 78 milk samples). For producers that tested positive for L. monocytogenes, environmental monitoring was also conducted, for which 130 additional samples were collected. Presumptive L. monocytogenes isolates (N = 94) were further characterized and subtyped using standard techniques and qPCR-based species/subtype verification; a subset of 52 isolates were also subtyped by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). L. monocytogenes was found in 19 cheeses (4.1%) from five producers (12.8%). The most frequent serotypes were 1/2b (48.9%), group 4B (4b, 4d, 4e) (45.7%), and serotype 1/2a (5.4%). Although no milk samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes, all cheese samples from two producers tested positive during two of the samplings. Distinct PFGE types were recovered from each facility, demonstrating persistence of certain subtypes of the pathogen that ultimately caused end-product contamination. Environmental monitoring of the five positive producers revealed a prevalence of L. monocytogenes ranging from 0 to 30%, with food contact surfaces having the highest incidence of this organism. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of L. monocytogenes incidence in artisanal cheese in the region of southern Chile.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/normas , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Chile , Indústria de Laticínios , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Leite/microbiologia , Sorogrupo
12.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103449, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336370

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid for sanitization of Brazil nuts. To evaluate the natural microbiota of the nuts, the total bacteria and fungi as well as the Aspergillus section Flavi were counted. The moisture, water activity and the presence of aflatoxins was quantified. The response surface method was used to determine the influence of exposure time and sanitizers concentration on the reduction of Aspergillus nomius inoculated on the nuts. Microbiological, sensory and quantification analyzes of aflatoxins were performed under optimum conditions The evaluation of the initial contamination of the nuts, despite presenting high microbiological contamination, humidity and water activity, was not detected aflatoxins in any samples. In artificially inoculated samples, the response surface and the desirability function were obtained to determine the optimal point of use for each sanitizer. The nuts had high microbiological contamination, moisture content and water activity. Aflatoxins were not detected in any samples. The response surface and desirability function indicated the optimal sanitization conditions were 250 mg/L and 8.5 min and 140 mg/L and 15 min for sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, respectively. Reductions greater than 2 log CFU/g were obtained with sodium hypochlorite and of 1 log CFU/g for peracetic acid. In the tests performed with new Brazil nuts samples under the optimized conditions, reductions of less than 2 log CFU/g were obtained. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in one untreated sample (1.51 µg/kg), one sample treated with sodium hypochlorite (0.60 µg/kg) and two samples treated with peracetic acid (0.64 and 0.72 µg/kg). Demonstrating that the sanitizers in the concentrations used had no action on aflatoxins, despite being efficient for fungal control. The treatments did not cause an unacceptable sensorial impact on the samples.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bertholletia/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Aflatoxinas/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 792-798, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335690

RESUMO

In this study, the photodegradation of organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides in the honey medium was evaluated under sunlight irradiation. Some of the 22 samples collected at different sites contained OPs pesticides (Methyl parathion, Coumaphos and Fenitrothion) with an average of 8 ng/g. Moreover, three samples were found with pesticide residue levels exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL ≥ 50 ng/g) imposed by the standard water (WHO). Gas chromatography (GC) combined with a tritium electron capture detector system was used for the analysis of OPs pesticides in honey. Total degradation of the Methyl parathion was obtained in less than 60 min of irradiation. Moreover, the elimination of the other OPs found in the samples was also effective with a rate of 85% for Coumaphos and Fenitrothion after 50 min of sunlight irradiation. The kinetics of the photodegradation reaction of all OPs pesticides studied followed a pseudo-first order model.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Mel/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Luz Solar , Argélia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Mel/efeitos da radiação , Mel/normas , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fotólise
14.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(1): 63-73, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292004

RESUMO

There is a growing concern regarding the recurrent observation of aflatoxins (AFs) in the milk of lactating animals. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to assess the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)-binding ability of three species, namely Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and Saccharomyces boulardii, inAFM1-contaminatedmilk. The mentioned species were administeredatthe concentrations of107 and 109 CFU/mLto skimmed milk contaminated with 0.5 and 0.75 ng/mL AFM1 within the incubation times of 30 and 90 min at 4&deg;C and 37&deg;C. Lactobacillus rhamnosus was found to have the best binding ability at the concentrations of 107 and 109 (CFU/ml), rendering 82% and 90% removal in the milk samples with 0.5 and 0.75 ng/ml AFM1, respectively. Accordingly, this value at 107 and 109 CFU/ml of L. plantarum was obtained 89% and 82% with 0.75 ng/ml of AFM1, respectively. For S. boulardii at 107 and 109 CFU/ml, the rates were respectively estimated at 75% and 90% with 0.75 ng/ml of AFM1. The best AFM1-binding levels for L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and S. boulardii were 91.82&plusmn;10.9%, 89.33&plusmn;0.58%, and 93.20&plusmn;10.9, respectively, at the concentrations of 1&times;109, 1&times;107, and 1&times;107 CFU/ml at 37, 4, and 37&deg;C, respectively. In this study, the maximum AFM1 binding (100.0&plusmn;0.58) occurred while a combination of the aforementioned probiotics was employed at a concentration of 1&times;107 CFU/ml at 37&deg;C with 0.5 ng/ml AFM1, followed by the combination of L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum (95.86&plusmn;10.9) at a concentration of 1&times;109 CFU/ml at the same temperature with 0.75 ng/ml AFM1. It was concluded that the use of S. boulardii in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. plantarum, which bind AFM1 in milk, can decrease the risk of AFM1 in dairy products.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Leite/química , Saccharomyces boulardii/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013376, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate many food crops. Maize and groundnuts are prone to aflatoxin contamination, and are the major sources of human exposure to aflatoxins, due to their high intake as staple foods, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Observational studies suggest an association between dietary exposure to aflatoxins during pregnancy and early childhood and linear growth in infants and young children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on pre- and postnatal growth outcomes when agricultural and nutritional education interventions during the post-harvest period that aim to reduce aflatoxin exposure are compared to usual support or no intervention. We assessed this in infants, children, and pregnant and lactating women at the household or community level in LMICs. SEARCH METHODS: In July and August 2019, we searched: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection, Africa-Wide, LILACS, CAB Abstracts, Agricola, and two trials registers. We also checked the bibliographies of the included studies and contacted relevant mycotoxin organisations and researchers for additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs of agricultural education and nutritional education interventions of any duration, at the household or community level, aimed at reducing aflatoxin intake by infants, children, and pregnant and lactating women, in LMICs during the post-harvest period, compared to no intervention or usual support. We excluded studies that followed participants for less than four weeks. We assessed prespecified prenatal (at birth) and postnatal growth outcomes (during infancy, childhood, and adolescence), with linear growth (as the primary outcome), infectious disease morbidity, and unintended consequences. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study eligibility using prespecified criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias of included RCTs. We evaluated the certainty of the evidence using GRADE, and presented the main results in a 'Summary of findings' table. MAIN RESULTS: We included three recent cluster-RCTs reporting the effects of agricultural education plus post-harvest technologies, compared to usual agricultural support or no intervention. The participants were pregnant women and their children, lactating women and their infants (< 6 months), women of childbearing age, and young children (< 59 months), from rural, subsistence maize-farming communities in Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania. Two trials randomised villages to the intervention and control groups, including a total of at least 979 mother-child pairs from 60 villages. The third trial randomised 420 households, including 189 mother-child pairs and 231 women of childbearing age. Duration of the intervention and follow-up ranged between five and nine months. Due to risk of attrition bias, the overall risk of bias was unclear in one trial, and high in the other two trials. None of the included studies addressed the effects of nutritional education on pre- and postnatal growth. One trial reported outcomes not prespecified in our review, and we were unable to obtain unpublished growth data from the second trial, even after contacting the authors. The third trial, in lactating women and their infants in Tanzania, reported on the infants' weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) after six months. This trial found that providing agricultural education aimed at changing farmers' post-harvest practices to reduce aflatoxin exposure, by using demonstrations (e.g. handsorting, de-hulling of maize, drying sheets, and insecticides), may improve WAZ in infants from these farmers' households, on average, by 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.98; 1 study; 249 participants; very low-certainty evidence), compared to infants from households where the farmers received routine agricultural extension services. Another way of reporting the effect on WAZ is to compare the proportion of underweight infants (WAZ > 2 SD below the reference median value) per group. This trial found that the intervention may reduce the proportion of underweight infants in the intervention households by 6.7% (95% CI -12.6 to -1.4; 249 participants; very low-certainty evidence) compared to control households. No studies reported on unintended effects of agricultural and nutritional education. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on the effects on child growth in LMICs of agricultural or nutritional education interventions that reduce aflatoxin exposure was very limited; no included study reported on linear growth. Very low-certainty evidence suggested that agricultural education aimed at changing farmers' post-harvest practices to reduce aflatoxin exposure by using demonstrations, may result in an increase in WAZ, when compared to usual or no education.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/envenenamento , Agricultura/educação , Países em Desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Crescimento , Adulto , Agricultura/métodos , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tanzânia , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Zimbábue
16.
Meat Sci ; 165: 108131, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229407

RESUMO

Dry-cured ham is a shelf-stable product that can be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes due to post-processing operations, compromising the compliance of zero tolerance policies (e.g. US Listeria rule). The present study quantifies the behavior of L. monocytogenes in sliced Spanish dry-cured ham of different water activity (aw) during storage at different temperatures. Inactivation kinetics were estimated by fitting primary models to the experimental data. The effect of temperature and aw on kinetic parameters was characterized through secondary polynomial models. L. monocytogenes viability decreased in all the assayed conditions, confirming that dry-cured ham is not only listeriostatic but listericidal. The fastest and highest reductions were observed at 25 °C, with 1 Log reduction after 6 and 9 days in Iberian and Serrano ham respectively. The work provides scientifically-based data and models to design a low-cost control measure based on a corrective storage as a post-lethality treatment to enhance the accomplishment of zero-tolerance requirements.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Espanha , Suínos , Temperatura , Água/química
17.
J Food Prot ; 83(5): 754-761, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294761

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Two different potato chip coatings-aqueous extracts including Zataria multiflora and Allium hirtifolium at concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 7% and hydrocolloids individually or in combination-were used to decrease acrylamide content, and their effects on the characteristics of the product were then investigated. According to the results, the incorporation of hydrocolloids as the coating was more efficient in the reduction of acrylamide production than with the extracts. Also, the application of each extract and hydrocolloids individually can be considered a more efficient technique for acrylamide reduction than their mixture. In this regard, the economic aspects of the application of hydrocolloids in the coating of fried potato crisps can be evaluated.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Solanum tuberosum , Acrilamida/análise , Coloides , Manipulação de Alimentos , Solanum tuberosum/química
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 322: 108564, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163798

RESUMO

Campylobacter is one of the most important causative agents of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The poultry reservoir is the main source of Campylobacter. Within the broiler production chain, campylobacters can only multiply in the chicken's intestinal tract. Intervention at farm level to reduce Campylobacter is thus preferred, but despite extensive study, no highly effective solutions have been found to combat Campylobacter at farm level. Slaughterhouses are experiencing great pressure to deliver carcasses with low Campylobacter contamination even when they receive and slaughter Campylobacter colonized flocks. Since 2018, a process hygiene criterion (EU 2017/1495) with the critical limit of <1000 cfu/g neck skin has been implemented in EU Member States based on the calculation done at the time of the study that human campylobacteriosis cases could be halved if all carcasses would comply with a criterion of <1000 cfu/g neck skin. This review covers Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses from transport through the different slaughter steps. Possible intervention methods during slaughter are discussed with a focus on the European situation, where chemicals are not allowed to disinfect carcasses.


Assuntos
Matadouros/normas , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Higiene/normas
19.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 568-575, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221560

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica at meat processing plants poses a potential risk of meat product contamination. Many common sanitizers are unable to completely eradicate biofilms formed by these foodborne pathogens because of the three-dimensional biofilm structure and the presence of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). A novel multifaceted approach combining multiple chemical reagents with various functional mechanisms was used to enhance the effectiveness of biofilm control. We tested a multicomponent sanitizer consisting of a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), hydrogen peroxide, and the accelerator diacetin for its effectiveness in inactivating and removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica biofilms under meat processing conditions. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilms on common contact surfaces were treated with 10, 20, or 100% concentrations of the multicomponent sanitizer solution for 10 min, 1 h, or 6 h, and log reductions in biofilm mass were measured. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to directly observe the effect of sanitizer treatment on biofilm removal and bacterial morphology. After treatment with the multicomponent sanitizer, viable E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilm cells were below the limit of detection, and the prevalence of both pathogens was low. After treatment with a QAC-based control sanitizer, surviving bacterial cells were countable, and pathogen prevalence was higher. SEM analysis of water-treated control samples revealed the three-dimensional biofilm structure with a strong EPS matrix connecting bacteria and the contact surface. Treatment with 20% multicomponent sanitizer for 10 min significantly reduced biofilm mass and weakened the EPS connection. The majority of the bacterial cells had altered morphology and compromised membrane integrity. Treatment with 100% multicomponent sanitizer for 10 min dissolved the EPS matrix, and no intact biofilm structure was observed; instead, scattered clusters of bacterial aggregates were detected, indicating the loss of cell viability and biofilm removal. These results indicate that the multicomponent sanitizer is effective, even after short exposure with dilute concentrations, against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli O157 , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella/fisiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevalência , Sorogrupo
20.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 637-643, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221569

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Contamination of fresh produce with the foodborne pathogens Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 continues to be problematic, resulting in outbreaks of foodborne illness and costly corporate recalls. Various individual concentrations of citric or lactic acids (0.35 to 0.61%) or isopropyl citrate (0.16 to 0.54%) combined with two generally recognized as safe surfactants, 0.025% sodium-2-ethyl-hexyl sulfate and 0.025% sodium dodecylbenzene-sulfonate, were tested against these three pathogens in suspension and when inoculated and dried on the surface of grape tomatoes. The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO; at 46 ppm) was also evaluated under dirty and clean conditions in suspension after addition of 0.3 or 0.03% bovine serum albumin, respectively, as an organic load. NaClO (46 ppm) inactivated the three pathogens in suspension by <0.76 log CFU/mL after 5 min in the presence of 0.3% bovine serum albumin, whereas 9 and 15 ppm of free chlorine inactivated the pathogens by 0.64 and 2.77 log CFU/mL, respectively, after 5 min under clean conditions. Isopropyl citrate (0.16% acidulant) plus 0.05% total concentration of the two surfactants inactivated the pathogens in suspension by up to 7.0 log CFU/mL within 2 min. When applied to grape tomatoes for 2 min, 0.54% isopropyl citrate plus 0.025% concentrations of each of the two surfactants reduced Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes by as much as ca. 5.47, 4.89, and 4.19 log CFU/g, respectively. These reductions were significantly greater than those achieved with 49 ppm of free chlorine. Citric acid and lactic acid plus surfactant washes achieved greater inactivation than water-only washes, reducing Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes on tomatoes by up to 4.90, 4.37, and 3.98 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that these combinations of acidulants and surfactants may be an effective tool for preventing cross-contamination during the washing of grape tomatoes, for reducing pathogens on the fruit itself, and as an alternative to chlorine for washing fresh produce.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aderência Bacteriana , Cloro , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia
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