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1.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e232701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076161

RESUMO

The present study objectified to evaluate the trophic relationships and the possible aggressive mimicry involving Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae and Gnathocharax steindachneri, in lowland forest streams. Samplings occurred in November 2002, March and August 2003 in Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR). The total of 943 fish was caught, being 79.43% of C. marthae, 3.18% of C. strigata and 17.39% of G. steindachneri. Stomach contents, degree of stomach repletion, relative volume and frequency of occurrence of food items were evaluated. Thirteen food items were identified, and the presence of terrestrial and aquatic insects indicates the high dependence of these species and the flooded forest. Low feeding overlap was observed between Carnegiella strigata and C. marthae compared to Gnathocharax steindachneri. However, the overlap between the two Carnegiella species was relatively high, which could explain the low frequency of syntopic occurrence among these species, suggesting a possible case of competitive exclusion.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Animais , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Lagos , Rios
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924310

RESUMO

Stable isotope analysis (SIA) and stomach content analysis (SCA) were conducted to understand ontogenetic niche shifts in silver croaker Pennahia argentata inhabiting the southern coastal waters of the Korean peninsula. Sampled P. argentata were classified into three groups based on their total length (TL; 60-80 mm TL, 80-120 mm TL, and 120-210 mm TL). Carbon isotope (δ13C) ratios were distinguishable, whereas nitrogen isotope (δ15N) ratios were not significantly different among size classes, and Standard Ellipse Area (SEA), estimated by δ13C and δ15N, was expanded with increasing TL from 0.2 ‰2 (60-80 mm TL) to 2.0 ‰2 (120-210 mm TL). SCA results showed variable contribution of dietary items to each size class. In particular, higher dietary contribution of Polychaeta to P. argentata of 80-120 mm TL than 120-210 mm TL mirrored variation in δ13C values of P. argentata in those size classes. Based on the combined analyses involving SIA and SCA, we concluded that P. argentata underwent ontogenetic niche shifts, particularly dietary shifts, with growth stages. Ontogenetic niche shifting is a representative survival strategy in fish, and, therefore, represents essential information for managing fisheries. The present study demonstrated applicability of combined SIA and SCA analyses, not only for dietary resource tracing, but also for ecological niche studies.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Prata , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Isótopos de Nitrogênio
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112337, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894457

RESUMO

Five of the seven extant sea turtle species in the world forage on the coast of Southern Brazil at least in some stage of their life cycle. The green turtle Chelonia mydas frequently strands on beaches of Rio Grande do Sul State. The species is currently classified as vulnerable to extinction in the region, and pollution by marine debris is one of the most conspicuous threats to its conservation. In this study, we quantified and characterized plastic ingestion by juvenile green turtles in waters off the southern Brazilian coast between 2013 and 2016. We analysed the gastrointestinal content of 17 beached carcasses and registered debris ingestion in 15 individuals (88%). On average, each green turtle ingested 38.4 ± 88.5 plastic fragments. White and transparent plastic bags and plastic sheets were predominant. Our results indicate a high interaction between juvenile green turtles and marine debris off the coast of Southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Tartarugas , Animais , Brasil , Ingestão de Alimentos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 321: 110745, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676237

RESUMO

We present a case of fatal poisoning from accidental ingestion of Gelsemium elegans (G. elegans), a rarely toxic plant. A 41-year-old man was found dead, at his home, 6 h after drinking homemade herbal liqueur during lunch. Autopsy and routine toxicological analyses identified neither significant pathological findings nor routine poisons. However, a local botanist revealed that the homemade herbal liqueur contained G. elegans, a poisonous plant specific to Asia. To ascertain whether the decedent had ingested G. elegans, we performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and found two alkaloids (gelsemine and koumine) in his blood, gastric contents, as well as the suspected herbal liqueur. The cause of death was therefore confirmed to be G. elegans poisoning. Case reports of fatal poisoning due to ingestion of G. elegans are quite rare in English. Therefore, the present case broadens the scope on the possibility of death due to ingestion of G. elegans for forensic pathologists and toxicologists.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Gelsemium/envenenamento , Adulto , Alcaloides/análise , Bebidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Evolução Fatal , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/análise , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Plantas Tóxicas
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 321: 110746, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676238

RESUMO

A more than 500% increase in the number of deaths involving methamphetamine occurred between 2016 and 2018 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As such, this report employed a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify methamphetamine and its metabolites in bodily fluids from 47 postmortem cases in which methamphetamine was involved. The mean age of the deceased was 33 years old (median: 30, range: 16-63), and 94% were male. Methamphetamine was co-ingested with another drug in 32 of the cases (68%); however, the deaths were only due to the combined toxicity of methamphetamine and another drug in 15 of the cases (32%). Of note, 13 of these deaths (28% of all deaths) involved heroin. When methamphetamine was the sole cause of death (32% of the studied cases), the median concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine were 527 and 128 ng/mL. When methamphetamine was combined toxicity with another drug, the median concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine decreased to 161 and 53 ng/mL. When deaths were unrelated to methamphetamine, the median concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine were 130 and 44 ng/mL, respectively. The highest median methamphetamine concentration was found in urine (5281 ng/mL), followed by stomach contents (878 ng/mL), bile (762 ng/mL), vitreous humor (3 ng/mL), and blood (208 ng/mL). Almost 40% of the studied cases involved violence, 61% were accidental, 21% were suicides, 17% were homicides, and 2% were natural deaths. Methamphetamine is highly addictive. Increases in deaths have been seen in various countries. More awareness, education and treatment programs are required to reduce the likelihood of addiction, crimes, suicide, and other fatalities resulting from methamphetamine abuse.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/mortalidade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/envenenamento , Metanfetamina/envenenamento , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Bile/química , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/análise , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Vítreo/química , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146313, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721646

RESUMO

Although it has been suggested that plastic may act as a vector for pollutants into the tissue of seabirds, the bioaccumulation of harmful contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), released from ingested plastics is poorly understood. Plastic ingestion by the procellariiform species northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is well documented. In this study, we measured PBDEs levels in liver tissue of northern fulmars without and with (0.13-0.43 g per individual) stomach plastics. PBDE concentrations in the plastic sampled from the same birds were also quantified. Birds were either found dead on beaches in southern Norway or incidentally caught in longline fisheries in northern Norway. PBDEs were detected in all birds but high concentrations were only found in liver samples from beached birds, peaking at 2900 ng/g lipid weight. We found that body condition was a significant factor explaining the elevated concentration levels in livers of beached birds. BDE209 was found in ingested plastic particles and liver tissue of birds with ingested plastics but was absent in the livers of birds without ingested plastics. This strongly suggests a plastic-derived transfer and accumulation of BDE209 to the tissue of fulmars, levels of which might prove useful as a general indicator of plastic ingestion in seabirds.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Plásticos , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Noruega
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112183, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647846

RESUMO

Southeast Alaska sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have had a rapid rise in their population. As they feed primarily on sessile prey, they are excellent sentinels for examining metals contamination. Objectives of this study on sea otters were to determine: (1) concentrations of metals in different tissues; (2) whether metals biomagnify from stomach contents (i.e., the prey) to other tissues; (3) whether selenium and mercury concentrations indicate an overall health benefit or risk; and (4) if metals concentrations in tissues vary with body size. Brain, kidney, gonad, liver, and stomach contents were collected from freshly harvested sea otters in Icy Strait, Alaska, and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), total mercury (THg), and selenium (Se). Metals concentrations varied significantly, and some were biomagnified, with livers and kidneys harboring the highest concentrations. Lead and arsenic appeared to be readily excreted. This study represents baseline metals concentrations to assist in monitoring the health of sea otters.


Assuntos
Lontras , Alaska , Animais , Encéfalo , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Gônadas , Rim , Fígado
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112246, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774479

RESUMO

Monitoring plastic in stomachs of beached northern fulmars for OSPAR's Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs) has been incorporated into the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This paper aims to provide the appropriate tools to interpret the monitoring results. MSFD requires a data-derived threshold value (Fulmar-TV) representing 'Good Environmental Status'. Such Fulmar-TV was calculated from near-pristine Canadian Arctic data where 10.06% of fulmars exceeded the level of 0.1 g ingested plastic. This Fulmar-TV is almost identical to the earlier OSPAR EcoQO, arbitrarily set at 10%. The MSFD approach was evaluated for 2661 North Sea fulmars in 2002-2018. Between 2014 and 2018, 51% of 393 fulmars exceeded 0.1 g plastic, significantly above the proposed Fulmar-TV. Linear regression of individual ingested plastic mass over the 2009-2018 period indicates a significant decrease. Over the longer term 2002-2018, logistic regression of annual EcoQ% shows a significant decline and predicts compliance with the Fulmar-TV by 2054.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Animais , Canadá , Ingestão de Alimentos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Mar do Norte
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 173: 104778, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771257

RESUMO

Azadirachtin is a good growth inhibitor for Lepidopteran larvae, but its effect on the brain neurons, intestinal flora and intestinal contents caused by the growth inhibition mechanism has not been reported yet. This study explored the mechanism of azadirachtin on the growth and development of Spodoptera litura larvae and brain neurons through three aspects: intestinal pathology observation, intestinal flora sequencing, and intestinal content analysis. The results showed that the treatment of azadirachtin led to the pathological changes in the structure of the midgut and the goblet cells in the intestinal wall cells to undergo apoptosis. Changes in the host environment of the intestinal flora lead to changes in the abundance value of the intestinal flora, showing an increase in the abundance value of harmful bacteria such as Sphingomonas and Enterococcus, as well as an increase in the abundance value of excellent flora such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Changes in the abundance of intestinal flora will result in changes in intestinal contents and metabolites. The test results show that after azadirachtin treatment, the alkane compounds in the intestinal contents of the larvae are greatly reduced, and the number of the long carbon chain and multi-branched hydrocarbon compounds is increased, unsaturated fatty acids, silicon­oxygen compounds and ethers. The production of similar substances indicates that azadirachtin has an inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes in the intestines, which results in the inhibition of substance absorption and energy transmission, and ultimately the inhibition of larval growth and brain neurons.


Assuntos
Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Encéfalo , Intestinos , Larva , Limoninas , Neurônios , Spodoptera
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2261: 1-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420980

RESUMO

In the past 40 years, mass spectrometry has seen a stunning development regarding increased sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy, especially for biomolecule analysis. These days without any doubt mass spectrometry is the most powerful analytical tool as a standalone technique or in conjunction with separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), or capillary electrophoresis (CE). It is literally used to analyze any kind of small or large molecules ranging from basic elements to metabolites, pesticides, toxins, small or large molecule drugs, oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins, and many other molecule classes.Here, various modern mass spectrometry techniques such as LC-MS , GC-MS, ICP-MS, and elemental bio-imaging are briefly described how they were used for the first complex multi-omics study of the oldest human ice mummy, the 5300-year-old Iceman or Oetzi. The study comprised of mass spectrometry-driven proteomics (protein profiling and characterization), metabolomics, lipidomics, glycomics, and metallomics.


Assuntos
Dieta , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Múmias , Proteínas/análise , Proteômica , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502309

RESUMO

Four novel bacterial strains (ST-M6T, L-033, L-031T and Z-333) were isolated from the intestinal contents of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) collected on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, PR China. Cells were aerobic, non-motile, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, capsuled and short-rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences and 387 core genes indicated that the four isolates belong in the genus Microbacterium and clearly separate from recognized species. The two type strains (ST-M6T and L-031T) shared low 16S rRNA similarity, average nucleotide identity values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness with their phylogenetic neighbours (Microbacterium ginsengisoli DSM 18659T, Microbacterium hatanonis DSM 19179T, Microbacterium rhizomatis JCM 30598T, Microbacterium radiodurans CCTCC M208212T, Microbacterium oleivorans DSM 16091T and Microbacterium arborescens DSM 20754T). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains ST-M6T and L-031T were 70.4 and 70.7 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of strain ST-M6T were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, in contrast to anteiso-C17 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 1 ω9c of strain L-031T. Both type strains (ST-M6T and L-031T) were glycolate test positive and shared the following common features: MK-11 and MK-12 as major menaquinones; rhamnose, ribose, mannose and galactose as major cell-wall sugars; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two glycolipids as polar lipids; and ornithine, alanine, glycine and glutamic acid as cell-wall amino acids. Comparing the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic features of the four strains and their related taxa, strains ST-M6T and L-031T represent two novel species of the genus Microbacterium, for which the names Microbacterium caowuchunii sp. nov. (type strain ST-M6T=CGMCC 1.16364T=DSM 104058T) and Microbacterium lushaniae sp. nov. (type strain L-031T =CGMCC 1.16363T=DSM 106170T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Lagomorpha/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tibet , Vitamina K 2/química
15.
J Nutr ; 151(2): 352-360, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prebiotic dietary fibers change the intestinal microbiome favorably and provide a health benefit to the host. OBJECTIVES: Polylactose is a novel fiber, synthesized by extrusion of lactose. We evaluated its prebiotic activity by determining its fermentability, effect on the microbiota, and effects on adiposity and liver lipids in a diet-induced obesity animal model. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (4-5 wk old) were fed normal-fat (NF, 25% fat energy) or high-fat (HF, 51% fat energy) diets containing different fibers (6% fiber of interest and 3% cellulose, by weight), including cellulose (NFC and HFC, negative and positive controls, respectively), polylactose (HFPL), lactose matched to residual lactose in the HFPL diet, and 2 established prebiotic fibers: polydextrose (HFPD) and fructooligosaccharide (HFFOS). After 10 wk of feeding, organs were harvested and cecal contents collected. RESULTS: HFPL animals had greater cecum weight (3 times greater than HFC) and lower cecal pH (∼1 pH unit lower than HFC) than all other groups, suggesting that polylactose is more fermentable than other prebiotic fibers (HFPD, HFFOS; P < 0.05). HFPL animals also had increased taxonomic abundance of the probiotic species Bifidobacterium in the cecum relative to all other groups (P < 0.05). Epididymal fat pad weight was significantly decreased in the HFPL group (29% decrease compared with HFC) compared with all other HF groups (P < 0.05) and did not differ from the NFC group. Liver lipids and cholesterol were reduced in HFPL animals when compared with HFC animals (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Polylactose is a fermentable fiber that elicits a beneficial change in the gut microbiota as well as reducing adiposity in rats fed HF diets. These effects of polylactose were greater than those of 2 established prebiotics, fructooligosaccharide and polydextrose, suggesting that polylactose is a potent prebiotic.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Lactose/análogos & derivados , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Adipocinas/sangue , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Glicemia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gluconeogênese , Lactose/química , Lactose/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1725-1730, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1143678

RESUMO

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Bronchoaspiration of gastric content is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but evaluating this complication is a difficult task. However, gastric ultrasonography can safely assess gastric content and prevent bronchoaspiration. Therefore, a systematic review was performed in order to verify the efficacy of ultrasonography in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of gastric content. METHODS: A literature review of articles published between 2009 and 2019 in the PubMed and LILACS databases was conducted using combinations of the keywords "gastric ultrasound," "gastric emptying," and "gastric content." RESULTS: Of the 20 articles found, 19 chose the antral region as the best site for qualitative analysis of the gastric content. Regarding quantitative measurement, the most commonly used method to calculate the gastric volume in eight articles was the formula "Gastric Volume = 27 + (14.6 × ATAG) − (1.28 × Age)," in which the area of the transverse section of the gastric antrum (ATAG) could also be calculated by the largest antral diameters or by free tracing. CONCLUSION: An efficient evaluation of the gastric content can be performed by ultrasonography of the antral region, contributing to greater safety in the clinical management of patients with increased risk for bronchoaspiration during airway management.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: A broncoaspiração do conteúdo gástrico associa-se à alta morbimortalidade, porem a avaliação desta complicação é tarefa dificil. Por outro lado, a ultrassonografia gástrica avalia o conteúdo gástrico com segurança, podendo evitar a broncoaspiração. Portanto, foi realizada revisão sistemática com objetivo de verificar a aplicabilidade da ultrassonografia na análise qualitativa e quantitativa do conteúdo gástrico. MÉTODOS: Revisão de literatura de artigos publicados entre 2009 e 2019 nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS usando combinações das palavras chave: "Gastric ultrasound", "gastric emptying" e "gastric content". RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 20 artigos. A região antral foi escolhida em 19 artigos como melhor local do ponto de vista qualitativo para analisar o conteúdo gástrico. A respeito da mensuração quantitativa, o método mais utilizado para cálculo do volume gástrico, escolhido em 8 artigos, foi através da fórmula Volume gástrico = 27 + (14,6 x ATAG) - (1,28 x Idade), em que a Área da Secção Transversa do Antro Gástrico (ATAG) pode ser igualmente calculada pelos maiores diâmetros antrais ou pelo seu traçado livre. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia da região antral permite boa avaliação do conteúdo gástrico, trazendo maior segurança ao manejo clínico de pacientess com risco aumentado para broncoaspiração no manejo da via aerea.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antro Pilórico/diagnóstico por imagem , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia , Esvaziamento Gástrico
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(12): 1725-1730, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bronchoaspiration of gastric content is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but evaluating this complication is a difficult task. However, gastric ultrasonography can safely assess gastric content and prevent bronchoaspiration. Therefore, a systematic review was performed in order to verify the efficacy of ultrasonography in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of gastric content. METHODS: A literature review of articles published between 2009 and 2019 in the PubMed and LILACS databases was conducted using combinations of the keywords "gastric ultrasound," "gastric emptying," and "gastric content." RESULTS: Of the 20 articles found, 19 chose the antral region as the best site for qualitative analysis of the gastric content. Regarding quantitative measurement, the most commonly used method to calculate the gastric volume in eight articles was the formula "Gastric Volume = 27 + (14.6 × ATAG) - (1.28 × Age)," in which the area of the transverse section of the gastric antrum (ATAG) could also be calculated by the largest antral diameters or by free tracing. CONCLUSION: An efficient evaluation of the gastric content can be performed by ultrasonography of the antral region, contributing to greater safety in the clinical management of patients with increased risk for bronchoaspiration during airway management.


Assuntos
Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Antro Pilórico , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Antro Pilórico/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13487, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368874

RESUMO

We used castrated and fistulated Japanese Black beef cattle (n = 9) to measure the pH and bacterial communities in the rumen liquid, rumen solid, and reticulum liquid during early, middle, and late fattening stages (10-14, 15-22, and 23-30 months of age, respectively). The pH was measured in the rumen and reticulum during the last 13 days of each fattening stage and was significantly lower in the rumen at the early and middle fattening stage and in the reticulum during the late stage. Sequencing analysis indicated similar bacterial compositions in the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions and stability of bacterial diversity in the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions and rumen solid fraction. By contrast, major operational taxonomic units (OTUs), such as Ruminococcus bromii strain ATCC 27255 (OTU1, OTU10, and OTU15), were differently correlated to the fermentation parameters among the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions. Therefore, the long-term feeding of Japanese Black beef cattle with a high-concentrate diet might reverse the trend of pH in the rumen and reticulum during the late fattening stage, and the bacterial communities adapted to changes in fermentation by preserving their diversity throughout fattening.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/microbiologia , Fermentação , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Retículo/metabolismo , Retículo/microbiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Japão , Masculino , Ruminococcus/metabolismo
19.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 711-714, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001235

RESUMO

The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus is predator fish subjected to be impacted due to the contamination of their habitats. A viable source of metal contamination, i.e., copper (Cu), in this species is the ingestion of contaminated food. The objective of this work was to verify the toxic effects of Cu contaminated feed in dusky grouper. A 15 days trial was conducted with three treatments: control, 1 g and 2 g Cu/kg of fish feed. After the trial, the gut was analyzed for Cu concentration and the liver for SOD and GST activity. The Cu concentration in the intestinal tract was significantly greater in fish from contaminated treatments when compared with control. The SOD was significantly lower in contaminated fish, and the GST did not show differences among treatments. Copper showed to be toxic for the species, as evidenced by gut accumulation and suggested by SOD response.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cobre/toxicidade , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Perciformes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/análise , Ecossistema , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Modelos Teóricos , Alimentos Marinhos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 685-691, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067667

RESUMO

Owls are predators that perform important ecological functions. There are several threats to owl conservation such as the bioaccumulation of chemicals through environmental contamination. The high probability of bioaccumulation in these animals is related to their role as predators and high trophic positions. The objective of this study was to quantify four elements (cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead) as the biomarkers of environmental exposure in owls. To this end, we analyzed pellets and feathers of different owl species. These matrices were contaminated with all four elements, with chromium most commonly detected. Chromium and nickel were found in the pellets in all 10 months of the study, and May was the month with the highest concentrations of all the elements. Tyto furcata appears to bioaccumulate more elements in its feathers than Megascops spp. and Athene cunicularia. Our findings showed bioaccumulation of these four elements in owls and their environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plumas/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Estrigiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Níquel/análise
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