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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2261: 1-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420980

RESUMO

In the past 40 years, mass spectrometry has seen a stunning development regarding increased sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy, especially for biomolecule analysis. These days without any doubt mass spectrometry is the most powerful analytical tool as a standalone technique or in conjunction with separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), or capillary electrophoresis (CE). It is literally used to analyze any kind of small or large molecules ranging from basic elements to metabolites, pesticides, toxins, small or large molecule drugs, oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins, and many other molecule classes.Here, various modern mass spectrometry techniques such as LC-MS , GC-MS, ICP-MS, and elemental bio-imaging are briefly described how they were used for the first complex multi-omics study of the oldest human ice mummy, the 5300-year-old Iceman or Oetzi. The study comprised of mass spectrometry-driven proteomics (protein profiling and characterization), metabolomics, lipidomics, glycomics, and metallomics.


Assuntos
Dieta , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Múmias , Proteínas/análise , Proteômica , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13487, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368874

RESUMO

We used castrated and fistulated Japanese Black beef cattle (n = 9) to measure the pH and bacterial communities in the rumen liquid, rumen solid, and reticulum liquid during early, middle, and late fattening stages (10-14, 15-22, and 23-30 months of age, respectively). The pH was measured in the rumen and reticulum during the last 13 days of each fattening stage and was significantly lower in the rumen at the early and middle fattening stage and in the reticulum during the late stage. Sequencing analysis indicated similar bacterial compositions in the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions and stability of bacterial diversity in the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions and rumen solid fraction. By contrast, major operational taxonomic units (OTUs), such as Ruminococcus bromii strain ATCC 27255 (OTU1, OTU10, and OTU15), were differently correlated to the fermentation parameters among the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions. Therefore, the long-term feeding of Japanese Black beef cattle with a high-concentrate diet might reverse the trend of pH in the rumen and reticulum during the late fattening stage, and the bacterial communities adapted to changes in fermentation by preserving their diversity throughout fattening.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/microbiologia , Fermentação , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Retículo/metabolismo , Retículo/microbiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Japão , Masculino , Ruminococcus/metabolismo
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 711-714, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001235

RESUMO

The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus is predator fish subjected to be impacted due to the contamination of their habitats. A viable source of metal contamination, i.e., copper (Cu), in this species is the ingestion of contaminated food. The objective of this work was to verify the toxic effects of Cu contaminated feed in dusky grouper. A 15 days trial was conducted with three treatments: control, 1 g and 2 g Cu/kg of fish feed. After the trial, the gut was analyzed for Cu concentration and the liver for SOD and GST activity. The Cu concentration in the intestinal tract was significantly greater in fish from contaminated treatments when compared with control. The SOD was significantly lower in contaminated fish, and the GST did not show differences among treatments. Copper showed to be toxic for the species, as evidenced by gut accumulation and suggested by SOD response.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cobre/toxicidade , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Perciformes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/análise , Ecossistema , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Modelos Teóricos , Alimentos Marinhos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 685-691, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067667

RESUMO

Owls are predators that perform important ecological functions. There are several threats to owl conservation such as the bioaccumulation of chemicals through environmental contamination. The high probability of bioaccumulation in these animals is related to their role as predators and high trophic positions. The objective of this study was to quantify four elements (cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead) as the biomarkers of environmental exposure in owls. To this end, we analyzed pellets and feathers of different owl species. These matrices were contaminated with all four elements, with chromium most commonly detected. Chromium and nickel were found in the pellets in all 10 months of the study, and May was the month with the highest concentrations of all the elements. Tyto furcata appears to bioaccumulate more elements in its feathers than Megascops spp. and Athene cunicularia. Our findings showed bioaccumulation of these four elements in owls and their environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plumas/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Estrigiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Níquel/análise
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 595-601, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242255

RESUMO

Total mercury (THg) and selenium (TSe) levels were measured in stomach contents (SC) and twelve tissues of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) occurring in three high-elevation lakes of Colorado, USA, inhabiting watersheds absent past and current mining activities. For 32 of 36 tissues, including muscle, mean THg wet weight (ww) concentrations were greater than in the diet (SC) for all sites, indicating biomagnification. Ranges of THg (µg/kg ww) for SC and stomach tissue (ST) were 1.23-73.54 and 14.55-61.35, respectively. Selenium concentrations in fish muscle were not greater than in the SC indicating a trophic transfer factor < 1.0. However, in several other tissues, mean Se dry weight (dw) levels were greater than in SC for all three lakes. Ranges of TSe for SC and ST were 166-7544 and 797-7523 (µg/kg dw), respectively. The muscle to egg/ovary ratio for Se averaged 2.30, 4.60, and 2.68 for the three populations. The variability of SC (planktonic vs. benthic) and differential distributions of THg and TSe in SC and organ-tissues generated questions focusing on the seasonal, physiological, and genetic drivers of these organometal(loid)s in subalpine trout.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Colorado , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Plâncton/química , Selênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6250-6257, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331876

RESUMO

The use of alternative sources of protein to substitute for milk proteins in milk replacers (MR) can increase the synthesis of endogenous proteins and therefore alter ileal or total-tract digestibility calculations. Mucin is the main component of gastrointestinal mucus and represents the greatest contribution to total endogenous protein. Mucin is difficult to isolate and has not been extensively studied in dairy calves. We explored 3 different procedures to analyze and estimate mucin protein (MUP) in ileal digesta of young dairy calves. Ileal digesta samples were collected from nine 30-d-old ileal-cannulated calves that were enrolled in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square with 5-d periods. The 3 diets were a control whey protein-based MR (WPC), an isonitrogenous MR in which 50% of the protein was from enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM), and an N-free MR (NFREE). Mucin protein concentration and flow were analyzed by fractionation of the digesta and ethanol precipitation; this process served as the reference method. Alternative methods to estimate MUP consisted of using commercial enzymatic kits to analyze glucosamine (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc) and galactosamine (N-acetylgalactosamine, GalNAc), 2 amino-sugars that are highly enriched in mucin. Before GlcNAc determination, samples were processed using 3 different procedures: sample clarification (GLCL), clarification plus hydrolysis (GLCH), and hydrolysis alone (GLHL). The MUP was estimated by regression of the GlcNAc and GalNAc values using previously validated equations. According with the bias and agreement analysis, none of the methods yielded MUP values similar to the reference method. However, GLHL showed a strong association with the reference method (ρ = 0.73). It allowed identifying the smaller MUP flows with NFREE compared with the other 2 diets and detecting the greater flow of ESBM than WPC, as observed with the reference method. Using the GlcNAc values from GLHL and the MUP measured with the reference method, we were able to establish a linear relationship between both methods (adjusted R2 = 0.75). We found that the GLHL method enabled detecting differences in MUP ileal flows between diets differing in protein level and source. Inferences about MUP secretions must be done cautiously because many dietary and physiological factors are involved. The adoption of practical techniques to determine MUP can help to increase our knowledge about gastrointestinal tract function and to improve the accuracy of MR digestibility calculations.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Íleo/fisiologia , Mucinas/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Masculino , Leite/química , Mucinas/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 153: 110974, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275532

RESUMO

Plastics pollution is ubiquitous. Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) and mesoplastics (5-20 mm in diameter) are emerging as the most common plastic particulates found in the marine environment. In this study, the occurrence of microplastics and mesoplastics in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) of some commercially important fish collected from Chennai and Nagapattinam of Tamil Nadu, Southeast coast of Bay of Bengal was assessed. A new and improved alkaline digestion method, using alcoholic potassium hydroxide (KOH) was carried out to destroy the organic matter. Following this method, twenty plastic particulates were isolated from the GI tract of 17 individual fish. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation analysis (FTIR) showed that polymers found in GI tracts were of Polyethylene, Polyamide and Polyester types. Given the dry fish is India's biggest market and popular delicacy, the presence of microplastics in the fish gut is a potential serious human health concern, as they are directly consumed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Baías , Índia , Plásticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008077, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus and Canis familiaris are respectively the only confirmed vector and reservoir for the transmission of Leishmania (L.) infantum MON-1 in Tunisia. However, the vector and reservoir hosts of the two other zymodemes, MON-24 and MON-80, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the L. infantum life cycle in a Tunisian leishmaniasis focus. For this purpose, we have focused on: i) the detection, quantification and identification of Leishmania among this sand fly population, and ii) the analysis of the blood meal preferences of Larroussius (Lar.) subgenus sand flies to identify the potential reservoirs. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 3,831 sand flies were collected in seven locations from the center of Tunisia affected by human visceral leishmaniasis. The collected sand flies belonged to two genus Phlebotomus (Ph.) (five species) and Sergentomyia (four species). From the collected 1,029 Lar. subgenus female sand flies, 8.26% was positive to Leishmania by ITS1 nested PCR. Three Leishmania spp. were identified: L. infantum 28% (24/85), L. killicki 13% (11/85), and L. major 22% (19/85). To identify the blood meal sources in Ph. Lar. subgenus sand flies, engorged females were analyzed by PCR-sequencing targeting the vertebrate cytochrome b gene. Among the 177 analyzed blood-fed females, 169 samples were positive. Sequencing results showed seven blood sources: cattle, human, sheep, chicken, goat, donkey, and turkey. In addition, mixed blood meals were detected in twelve cases. Leishmania DNA was found in 21 engorged females, with a wide range of blood meal sources: cattle, chicken, goat, chicken/cattle, chicken/sheep, chicken/turkey and human/cattle. The parasite load was quantified in fed and unfed infected sand flies using a real time PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA. The average parasite load was 1,174 parasites/reaction and 90 parasites/reaction in unfed and fed flies, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the role of Ph. longicuspis, Ph. perfiliewi, and Ph. perniciosus in L. infantum transmission. Furthermore, these species could be involved in L. major and L. killicki life cycles. The combination of the parasite detection and the blood meal analysis in this study highlights the incrimination of the identified vertebrate in Leishmania transmission. In addition, we quantify for the first time the parasite load in naturally infected sand flies caught in Tunisia. These findings are relevant for a better understanding of L. infantum transmission cycle in the country. Further investigations and control measures are needed to manage L. infantum transmission and its spreading.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Animais , DNA/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Masculino , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tunísia
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 221: 105427, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044545

RESUMO

Local population frequently consumes moray eels and dusky groupers from the Canary Islands. These species are top predators and the interactions between them include predation but also, in some cases, collaborative hunting. These fish are well known to cause ciguatera (CFP) outbreaks in several marine areas such as Japan, Hawaii, French Polynesia and Caribe. Groupers have been involved in CFP events in the Canary Islands, however, moray eels have not yet been well studied in this regard. The present research seeks to describe the finding of a black moray in the stomach of a positive dusky grouper during its necropsy, and to clarify the implication of groupers and moray eels in the food webs, accumulating CTXs in the Canarian environment. The study also updates statistics on the presence of toxic groupers in this archipelago. For these purposes, 248 grouper samples from the CFP official control in the Canary Islands (2018-2019) were analysed and 36 moray eels (5 species) were collected under the EuroCigua project and one was obtained during a dusky grouper necropsy. All samples were analysed with the Neuro-2a cell-based assay (CBA) to evidence CTX-like toxicity. Regarding the necropsied grouper and the moray eel found in its stomach content, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of CCTX1 in both fish at similar levels while none of the P-CTXs for which standards were available were detected. Among groupers, 25.4 % displayed CTX-like toxicity with differences between islands. For moray eels 38.9 % showed toxicity, involving 4 species. Black moray exhibited a high proportion of positives (9/12) and a positive correlation was found between CTX-like toxicity quantification and the black moray weight. Regarding the grouper, and the moray eel found in its stomach, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of C-CTX1 in both fish at similar levels. This found suggests a trophic interaction between these species and their role in maintaining CTXs in the Canary waters where local population commonly demand those species for consumption. The island of El Hierro stands out above all the other Canary Islands with the concerning percentage of positive grouper samples and the high CTX toxicity levels obtained in moray eel specimens analysed in this marine area. This is the first report of CTX-like toxicity in flesh of moray eels fished in the Canary archipelago and the confirmation of the presence of C-CTX1 by LCMS/MS in a black moray from this marine area.


Assuntos
Ciguatoxinas/análise , Enguias/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/etiologia , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Músculos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999323

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to 1) test the hypothesis that a minimum adaptation period to diets used in ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility experiments with pigs is needed and 2) to test the null-hypothesis that ileal digestibility and basal endogenous losses of AA are not affected by the indigestible marker used. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows with an initial BW of 58.1 ± 4.3 kg were randomly allotted to a 2-period crossover design with 2 diets and 4 pigs per diet in each period. A soybean meal-based diet and an N-free diet were prepared. Both diets contained 0.4% chromium oxide, 0.4% titanium dioxide, and 0.4% Celite (a source of acid insoluble ash; AIA). Pigs were provided feed in a daily amount of 3 times the maintenance requirement for metabolizable energy, and 2 equal meals were provided each day. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0800 to 2000 h on each day during the two 9-d collection periods. There was no period by diet interactions observed. Marker concentrations in ileal digesta were analyzed separately for each day, and the point where the concentration of each marker was stabilized in the digesta was determined using a linear broken-line analysis. For pigs fed the soybean meal diet, the breakpoints for Cr, Ti, and AIA in ileal digesta were 2.70, 2.45, and 3.77 d, respectively. In pigs fed the N-free diet, the breakpoints for Cr, Ti, and AIA in ileal digesta were 2.52, 2.39, and 2.29 d, respectively. Based on the pooled data, the basal endogenous losses of most AA calculated using Cr as an indigestible marker were less (P < 0.05) than the values calculated using Ti, but greater (P < 0.05) compared with values calculated based on AIA. The standardized ileal digestibility of most AA in soybean meal calculated using Cr or Ti as a digestibility marker were greater (P < 0.05) than the digestibility values calculated using AIA. In conclusion, 3 d of adaptation is required before markers are stabilized in the ileal outflow if Cr or Ti is used as an indigestible marker and 4 d of adaptation is required if AIA is the marker. Values for AA digestibility calculated using Cr or Ti as the marker are not different, but greater compared with values calculated using AIA as the marker.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cromo/administração & dosagem , Digestão/fisiologia , Íleo/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Titânio/administração & dosagem , Aclimatação , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromo/química , Cromo/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Masculino , Soja/química , Titânio/química
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1100: 12-21, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987132

RESUMO

This article discusses the application of Single-Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) to study the effect of different types of food (orange juice and chicken breast) on the fate of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) migrated from two widely employed food packaging materials (polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)). The gastrointestinal stability of ZnONPs was also evaluated. The idea behind this study is to track for first time the transformations underwent of nanoparticles in the different steps of their route from packaging to the consumer. The presence of high amount of dissolved zinc in the samples notably influenced size detection limit and the accuracy of SP-ICP-MS measurements. The diameter limits of detection (LODd) were 26 nm, 95 nm, 108 nm and 129 nm for aqueous solution, chicken breast extract and for oral and intestinal extracts, respectively. ZnONPs characterization in juice was not possible with SP-ICP-MS due to nanoparticles size was below LODd. Besides difficulties, SP-ICP-MS after extraction with Tris-HCl allowed us to determine that a 72% of the ZnONPs that migrated to chicken breast were smaller than 95 nm. Complementary to SP-ICP-MS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enabled to detect small nanoparticles (<3 nm). The combination of TEM and SP-ICP-MS measurements indicated that nanoparticles in chicken reach the intestine wall as small particles (<10 nm), as aggregates (>200 nm) and as ionic zinc whereas in case of juice only small nanoparticles (<3 nm) and ionic zinc were detected in the intestinal step.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Animais , Galinhas , Citrus sinensis/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110772, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787340

RESUMO

Through collaboration with Inuit hunters, we examined the stomach contents of 142 seals (ringed seals [Phoca hispida; n = 135], bearded seals [Erignathus barbatus; n = 6], and one harbour seal [Phoca vitualina; n = 1]) hunted between 2007 and 2019 from communities around Nunavut to assess whether seals in the eastern Canadian Arctic ingest and retain plastics in their stomachs. The seals in this study ranged from juveniles to adults of up to 30 years of age, and 55% of the seals were males. We found no evidence of plastic ingestion in any of the seals suggesting that seals in Nunavut are not accumulating plastics (>425 µm) in their stomachs. These data provide important baseline information for future plastic pollution monitoring programs in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Phoca , Plásticos/análise , Focas Verdadeiras , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Estômago
14.
J Pediatr ; 217: 165-171.e2, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of gastric residual aspiration and evaluation on preterm very low birth weight infants' gastrointestinal function, intestinal inflammation, and gastrointestinal mucosal bleeding. STUDY DESIGN: This single-center, randomized trial compared omission of gastric residuals vs prefeed gastric residuals in 143 infants ≤32 weeks of gestation with a birthweight of ≤1250 g for 6 weeks after birth. Serum levels of gastrin and motilin were collected between 14 and 21 days of life. Stools were collected at 3 and 6 weeks of age and analyzed for calprotectin and S100A12 levels. All stools were tested for occult blood for 6 weeks. RESULTS: Means for gastrin (P = .999) and motilin (P = .694) were similar between groups and there were no statistically significant differences in adjusted means for transformed calprotectin (P = .580), and S100A12 (P = .212). Both calprotectin (P = .003) and S100A12 (P = .002) increased from week 3 to week 6. The mean percentage of stools positive for occult blood (P = .888) were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal function, intestinal inflammation, and gastrointestinal mucosal bleeding were similar whether aspiration and evaluation of gastric residuals were eliminated or not, suggesting routinely evaluating gastric residuals before every feeding may be unnecessary. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS.GOV:: NCT01863043.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 204-211, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762103

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the influence of exogenous acid protease (EAP) on growth performance, blood profiles, excreta noxious gas emissions, ileum digesta viscosity and apparent ileal digestibility in broilers. A total of 600 1-d-old broilers with average initial body weight of 47.0 ± 0.2 g were used in a 5-week feeding trial. The broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 10 replicate pens per treatment and 15 birds per cage. Dietary treatments consisted of: CON, basal diets; EAP1, CON + 2,700 exogenous acid protease unite (APU)/kg; EAP2, CON + 5,400 APU/kg; EAP3, CON + 8,100 APU/kg. The body weight gain (BWG) had a linear improvement when chicks fed 8,100 AP/kg diets from d 18 to 35 and overall (p < .05). Lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained in broilers fed 5,400 APU/kg and 8,100 APU/kg as compared with the CON during overall (p < .05). Birds fed diets supplemented with EAP diet led to a linear increase in the ileal digestibility of crude protein, energy and amino acids (lysine, methionine, cystine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine and tryptophan) compared with CON group (p < .05). In conclusion, based on our results, we suggest that supplementation with EAP diet was effective in improving growth performance through increasing ileal digestibility of some nutrients (crude protein, energy and amino acids) in broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Peptídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Soja , Zea mays , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão/fisiologia , Feminino , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Íleo , Masculino , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Reologia
16.
J Food Prot ; 83(1): 89-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855615

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time to our knowledge, Listeria monocytogenes CFU changes, as well as to determine the transcription of key virulence genes, namely, sigB, prfA, hly, plcA, plcB, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, inlP, and lmo2672 after in vitro exposure to human gastric and duodenal aspirates. Furthermore, investigations of the potential correlation between CFU changes and gene regulation with factors influencing gastric (proton pump inhibitor intake and presence of gastric atrophy) and duodenal pH were the secondary study aims. Gastric and duodenal fluids that were collected from 25 individuals undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were inoculated with L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain LQC 15257 at 9 log CFU·mL-1 and incubated at 37°C for 100 min and 2 h, respectively, with the time corresponding to the actual exposure time to gastric and duodenal fluids in the human gastrointestinal tract. Sampling was performed upon gastric fluid inoculation, after incubation of the inoculated gastric fluids, upon pathogen resuspension in duodenal fluids and after incubation of the inoculated duodenal fluids. L. monocytogenes CFU changes were assessed by colony counting, as well as reverse transcription quantitative PCR by using inlB as a target. Gene transcription was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. In 56% of the cases, reduction of the pathogen CFU occurred immediately after exposure to gastric aspirate. Upregulation of hly and inlC was observed in 52 and 58% of the cases, respectively. On the contrary, no upregulation or downregulation was noticed regarding sigB, prfA, plcA, plcB, inlA, inlB, inlJ, inlP, and lmo2672. In addition, sigB and plcA transcription was positively and negatively associated, respectively, with an increase of the pH value, and inlA transcription was negatively associated with the presence of gastric atrophy. Finally, a positive correlation between the transcriptomic responses of plcB, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, inlP, and lmo2672 was detected. This study revealed that the CFU of the pathogen was negatively affected after exposure to human gastroduodenal aspirates, as well as significant correlations between the characteristics of the aspirates with the virulence potential of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Atrofia , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Sorogrupo , Transcrição Genética , Virulência/genética
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(2): 570-579, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566759

RESUMO

Only limited data exist concerning the utility of complementary specimens in heroin-related deaths. As such, this report employed a validated LC-MS-MS method to quantify 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC), and their metabolites morphine and codeine in blood with (BN) and without preservative (B) and the additional unpreserved specimens of vitreous humor, urine, stomach contents, and bile from 20 postmortem cases in which heroin was the primary cause of death. The median concentration of 6-MAM in BN was 0.011 mg/L, B was 0.008 mg/L, urine was 0.186 mg/L, vitreous humor was 0.022 mg/L, stomach contents was 0.147 mg/L, and bile was 0.012 mg/L. Only one case was found to be positive for 6-AC in B (case 6, 0.002 mg/L), and the median concentration of 6-AC was 0.002 mg/L in BN, 0.012 mg/L in urine, 0.003 mg/L in vitreous humor, 0.057 mg/L in stomach contents, and 0.004 mg/L in bile. These findings present new information on the distribution of these analytes in complementary matrices and support their inclusion for accurately determining the role of heroin in opioid-related deaths.


Assuntos
Codeína/análogos & derivados , Codeína/análise , Dependência de Heroína/diagnóstico , Derivados da Morfina/análise , Morfina/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bile/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Dependência de Heroína/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Corpo Vítreo/química , Adulto Jovem
18.
Animal ; 14(2): 269-276, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405398

RESUMO

Rheological properties of digesta play a role in digesta passage kinetics through the gastrointestinal tract, in turn affecting nutrient absorption kinetics. Therefore, we studied the effects of diet viscosity on digesta passage and physicochemical properties in pigs. Twenty male growing pigs (35 kg body weight at the start) were assigned to one of five diets with increasing dietary concentrations of ß-glucans (BG; from 0 % to 10 %), in exchange for maize starch. After a 17-day adaptation period, pigs were euthanised and the mean retention time (MRT) of digesta solids (TiO2) and liquids (Cr-EDTA) in the stomach, and proximal and distal half of the small intestine was quantified. In the stomach, the MRT of liquids, but not of solids, increased when dietary BG level increased (6 min per % dietary BG, P = 0.008 and R2 = 0.35). Concomitantly, stomach DM content (5 g/kg per % dietary BG, P < 0.001 and R2 = 0.53) and apparent digesta viscosity (56 Pa × s at 1/s shear rate per % dietary BG, P = 0.003 and R2 = 0.41) decreased. In the proximal half of the small intestine, no effects of dietary BG level were observed. In the distal half of the small intestine, water-binding capacity (WBC) of digesta increased (0.11 g/g digesta DM per % dietary BG, P = 0.028 and R2 = 0.24) and starch digestibility decreased (0.3% per % dietary BG, P = 0.034 and R2 = 0.23) when dietary BG level increased. In the colon, apparent digesta viscosity at 45/s shear rate increased (0.1 Pa × s per % dietary BG, P = 0.03 and R2 = 0.24) in the proximal half of the colon, and digesta WBC increased (0.06 g/g digesta DM per % dietary BG, P = 0.024 and R2 = 0.26) in the distal half of the colon when dietary BG level increased. To conclude, increasing dietary BG level caused the MRT of liquids, but not that of solids, to increase in the stomach, resulting in reduced separation of the solid and liquid digesta fractions. This caused dilution of the stomach content and reduction in digesta viscosity when dietary BG levels increased. Effects of dietary BG level on physicochemical properties in the proximal small intestine were absent and may have been due to a low DM content. The WBC of digesta in the distal small intestine and colon increased when dietary BG level increased, as did apparent digesta viscosity in the proximal colon. This likely reflects the concentration of BG in digesta when moving through the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Suínos/fisiologia , beta-Glucanas/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/fisiologia , Cinética , Masculino , Reologia , Estômago/fisiologia , Viscosidade
20.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(6): 927-933, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707596

RESUMO

Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is the vector of the pathogenic bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., the causative agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Because predatory insects have been historically neglected in biological control programs for D. citri, the impact of generalist predators on D. citri population densities is little understood. A useful tool to evaluate the dynamics of predator-prey interactions is molecular analysis of predators' gut content. We constructed a specific molecular marker to detect D. citri DNA in the gut content of predator insects, for use in estimating the predation rate of field-collected predators in citrus orchards on D. citri. Bioassays of the DNA half-life detection time were carried out with two predatory species, the ladybird beetle Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and the lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen). The D. citri DNA half-life detection time (DT50) was 6.11 h for H. convergens and 5.46 h for C. externa. One hundred and seven field-collected predators were used for gut-content analysis (52 larvae/adults of ladybirds and 55 larvae of lacewings). The assays showed that 17.3% of ladybirds but no lacewings tested positive for D. citri DNA. These results show that generalist predators can contribute to biological control of D. citri and should be considered for use in pest management programs in citrus orchards.


Assuntos
Besouros/química , DNA/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Hemípteros/genética , Neópteros/química , Animais , Citrus , Marcadores Genéticos , Meia-Vida , Larva/química , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Densidade Demográfica , Comportamento Predatório
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