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1.
Clin Chim Acta ; 512: 58-62, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear if implementation of biosafety action plans in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has affected laboratory quality metrics. METHODS: This retrospective study used quality data, including turnaround time (TAT) and number/type of unacceptable specimens from a stat laboratory supporting an outpatient medical clinic serving predominantly elderly cancer patients. Four months of data from the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-June 2020) were compared to the same months in 2019. RESULTS: March-May 2020 test volumes were decreased compared to 2019. June 2020 test volume was slightly increased compared to 2019. TATs in 2020 were similar/ slightly improved compared to the same months in 2019, due to shortened collect to receive and receive to verify TATs. The number and types of unacceptable specimens were similar in 2020 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges to the system caused by the pandemic, laboratory quality metrics were maintained.


Assuntos
Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Humanos , Laboratórios/normas , Neoplasias , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Ann Anat ; 233: 151608, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022405

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, initially identified in the city of Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since then, the virus has spread to the continents, causing a major pandemic. The impacts of this pandemic on the education of human anatomy interfere in at least two aspects: (1) receiving and managing anatomical specimens in anatomy laboratories and (2) adaptations for classes on remote virtual teaching. Therefore, this study reviewed and discussed the legal and bioethical aspects, considering the scenario of a South American Country, aiming to stimulate the debate on these two relevant themes in the international community. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic and the impossibility of mass testing, anatomists and other workers in the field must deal with the risk of receiving bodies infected with SARS-CoV-2. In this situation, additional care measures in biosafety practices are essential to protect the staff. Such measures are: the bodies must be preserved by the perfusion of formaldehyde or other fixative solutions; embalming must be performed in ventilated rooms with a good air exhaust system; to avoid excessive manipulation of bodies and procedures such as pulmonary insufflation or craniotomy; and proper use of personal protective equipment, including lab coat, gloves and masks. As for exposure of body images in online classes, this review showed that there are no legal impediments to this end. However, anatomists must adopt measures aimed at protecting the memory of the deceased, such as using secure digital platforms with restricted access; family authorization/consent and student awareness.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Pandemias , Manejo de Espécimes/ética , Brasil , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Embalsamamento , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Legislação Médica , Segurança , Ventilação
3.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(3): 219-222, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346960

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in December 2019 and has been rapidly escalating throughout the world. Clinical findings show that the patients with either symptomatic or asymptomatic COVID-19 can be a potential source of infection. Although respiratory droplets and close contact are considered to be the main routes of transmission, there is the possibility of aerosol transmission in a relatively closed environment. The nucleic acid of the novel coronavirus can be detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum and other lower respiratory tract secretions, blood, feces, urine and so on, but whether it exists in the semen has not been confirmed. It is reported that the novel coronavirus may affect the testis that highly expresses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and theoretically the semen is a possible carrier of the virus considering the fact that it is discharged from the same channel as the urine. Andrology laboratorians are exposed to most of the specimens above, including semen, and some open operations in the laboratory increase the risk of aerosol generation. Therefore, corresponding protective procedures are necessitated in andrology laboratories to reduce the risk of infection during the outbreak of COVID-19. Based on the knowledge and experience available as regards the pandemic and the characteristics of the work in the andrology laboratory, we summarize some biosafety points for andrology laboratorians to attend to during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Andrologia/organização & administração , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(3)sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139852

RESUMO

La vacunación continúa siendo una de las vías más sostenibles y utilizadas en el control de enfermedades infectocontagiosas en medicina veterinaria, dado por su mayor factibilidad económica y por el problema que representa el residuo de antibióticos en productos animales de consumo humano. El surgimiento de vacunas de nuevas generaciones ha motivado la instrumentación de medidas de bioseguridad y la necesidad de realizar estudios de evaluaciones de los riesgos que acometemos en la obtención y producción de vacunas, existiendo puntos críticos importantes en el proceso de obtención de las mismas. El área de vacunas inactivadas que se encuentra ubicada en la Empresa Productora de Vacunas Virales y Bacterianas UP-7, perteneciente al grupo empresarial LABIOFAM de La Habana, Cuba, se encarga de la producción y control de la calidad de las vacunas y los medios diagnósticos. Las inspecciones previas realizadas a dicha área mostraron, en el personal involucrado, desconocimiento y baja percepción del riesgo biológico existente en los procesos productivos que allí se llevan a cabo, lo que sugirió la realización de la presente investigación. Se identificaron y caracterizaron los peligros y se realizó una evaluación del riesgo, utilizando una matriz de estimación del riesgo; mediante un método cualitativo de posibilidad de ocurrencia del peligro y se evaluó de bajo, moderado o alto. Se identificaron las vulnerabilidades presentes empleando para ello una lista de chequeo, detectándose, entre otras, aquellas relacionadas con el diseño del área, con el tratamiento de los desechos y la organización de la bioseguridad, lo que confirmó puntos críticos dentro del proceso productivo con riesgo alto y moderado(AU)


Vaccination continues being one of the most sustainable and used ways in the control of infectious and contagious diseases in veterinary medicine because of both its greater economic feasibility and thwarting animal products from having antibiotics residues, a big-time issue for human ingestion. The appearance of new generation vaccines has motivated the application of biosafety measures and the need to carry out studies of risk assessments that we undertake to obtaining and producing vaccines, being important critical points in the process of acquiring them. The inactivated vaccines' area is located in the UP-7 Viral and Bacterial Vaccine Production Company, belonging to LABIOFAM business group in Havana, Cuba; this area is responsible for vaccines, diagnostic means production and quality control. Previous checkups carried out showed that the personnel involved had lack of knowledge and low perception of the existing biological risk in the productive processes carried out there; leading to suggest the investigation. Hazards were identified and characterized and a risk assessment was carried out, using a qualitative estimate risk matrix. Such hazards were assessed as low, moderate or high. Vulnerabilities were identified using a checklist to this purpose, detecting those related to area design, treatment of waste and the biosafety organization, which established the existence of critical points within the production process with high and moderate risk(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Riscos Ocupacionais , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Vacinas
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50721, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103402

RESUMO

Objetivo: apresentar atualizações para a ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes suspeitos e confirmados com COVID-19. Método: revisão compreensiva da literatura, com síntese narrativa das evidências de diretrizes e recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma e National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: as principais atualizações trazem informações sobre especificidades das manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar; preparação do ambiente, recursos humanos e materiais, reconhecimento da parada cardiorrespiratória e ações iniciais; estratégias de ventilação e acesso invasivo da via aérea; ajustes do ventilador mecânico e manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes pronados. Considerações finais: profissionais de saúde envolvidos no atendimento à parada cardiorrespiratória de pacientes suspeitos e/ou confirmados com COVID-19 podem encontrar inúmeros desafios, portanto devem seguir com rigor o protocolo estabelecido para maximizar a efetividade das manobras de ressuscitação e minimizar o risco de contágio pelo vírus e sua disseminação.


Objective: to present updates for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19. Method: comprehensive literature review with narrative synthesis of the evidence of guidelines and recommendations from World Health Organization, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Results: the main updates bring information about the specifics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers; preparation of the environment and human and material resources, recognition of cardiorespiratory arrest and initial actions; ventilation and invasive airway access strategies; mechanical ventilator adjustments and cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers in patients in the prone position. Final considerations: health professionals involved in the care of cardiorespiratory arrest of suspected and/or confirmed patients with COVID-19 can face numerous challenges, so they must strictly follow the protocol established to maximize the effectiveness of resuscitation maneuvers and minimize the risk of contagion by the virus and its spread.


Objetivo: apresentar actualizaciones para la reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes sospechos os y confirmados con COVID-19. Método: revisión exhaustiva de la literatura con síntesis narrativa de la evidencia de guías y recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: las principales actualizaciones aportan información sobre los detalles de las maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar; preparación del medio ambiente y recursos humanos y materiales, reconocimiento de paro cardiorrespiratorio y acciones iniciales; estrategias de ventilación y acceso invasivo a las vías aéreas; ajustes del ventilador mecánico y maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes en decúbito prono. Consideraciones finales: los profesionales de la salud involucrados en la atención del paro cardiorrespiratorio de pacientes sospechosos y/o confirmados con COVID-19 pueden enfrentar numerosos desafíos, por lo que deben seguir estrictamente el protocolo establecido para maximizar la efectividad de las maniobras de reanimación y minimizar el riesgo de contagio por el virus y supropagación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Parada Cardíaca/reabilitação , Massagem Cardíaca/métodos , Equipe de Enfermagem/normas
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1097275

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Riscos Ocupacionais , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Máscaras/normas
7.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(3): 29-32, set./dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1121740

RESUMO

Introdução: O SARS-CoV-2 apresenta-se como um tipo de coronavírus que teve seus primeiros relatos no fim do ano de 2019, sendo declarado como uma emergência de saúde pública internacional no início do ano 2020 pela Organização mundial de saúde. Trata-se de um vírus com alto potencial de transmissibilidade, dessa forma novas medidas e protocolos de biossegurança foram empregadas durante o atendimento odontológico, com a finalidade de minimizar os danos e riscos aos profissionais e pacientes. Objetivo: Relatar as principais medidas de proteção e recomendações que devem existir em ambientes que prestam atendimentos odontológicos durante a pandemia de Covid-19. Metodologia: Foi realizada revisão de artigos presentes nas bases de dados Pubmed e Scielo do ano de 2020, assim como nos manuais atuais de biossegurança em atendimentos odontológicos. Foram utilizados os descritores COVID-19 e Dentistry, e em adicional foram utilizados 14 documentos, sendo 8 artigos e 6 manuais oficiais sobre o tema. Conclusão: Medidas de proteção devem ser empregadas durante o atendimento odontológico, sendo importante que durante a pandemia do COVID-19 haja um reforço na biossegurança dos cirurgiões dentistas, para minimizar dessa forma o risco de contágio(AU)


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 presents itself as a type of coronavirus that had its first reports at the end of 2019, being declared as an international public health emergency at the beginning of 2020 by the WHO. It is a virus with a high potential for transmissibility, so new biosafety measures and protocols were used during dental care, in order to minimize the damage and risks to professionals and patients. Objective: To report the main protection measures and recommendations that should exist in environments that provide dental care during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methodology: A review of articles in the Pubmed and Scielo databases for the year 2020 was carried out, as well as in the current biosafety manuals for dental care. The descriptors COVID-19 and Dentistry were used, and in addition 14 documents were used, 8 articles and 6 official manuals on the subject. Conclusion: Protective measures should be used during dental care, it is important that during the COVID-19 pandemic there is a reinforcement in the biosafety of dental surgeons, in order to minimize the risk of contagion(AU)


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Protocolos
8.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 76: 102036, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208233

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced forensic practitioners to consider how we perform our normal duties, especially when those duties involve humans. The potential for contracting the virus from working in close contact with living sufferers is high, and we have yet to fully determine the risk of infection from the deceased. In an attempt to support the community, the Journal of Forensic & Legal Medicine has drawn together three articles which underline the importance of continued forensic medical practice during the pandemic and highlight some factors to consider in a Roadmap towards safe practice. Our Roadmap has intentionally taken an international perspective and supports other work we have published in the Journal on our collective response to the COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Práticas Mortuárias/organização & administração , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1378-1380, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076587

RESUMO

Biosafety is an important guarantee of the new coronavirus laboratory test. The accident treatment of sample overflow and sprinkle is a necessary part of the emergency plan for testing activities. Beijing Preventive Medicine Association coordinated biosafety experts of COVID-19 laboratories from Beijing CDC, to write up "The standard for handling of accidents of corona virus disease 2019 sample (T/BPMA 0005-2020)" . The group standard was based on the guidelines of China and WHO, and combined with the practical experience of COVID-19 epidemic and the principle of "scientific, normative, applicable and feasible" . Through all kinds of risk Assessment, it included the spillover of samples caused by the packing of COVID-19 (highly pathogenic) samples, the overflow and sprinkle in the laboratory during the detection operation, and the spillage accident occurred during the transfer of samples in the same building. The standard could guide and standardize the handling methods of accidental overflow and sprinkle that may occur in the SARS-CoV-2 testing laboratories in the city.


Assuntos
Derramamento de Material Biológico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Pequim , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos
14.
Curr Protoc Microbiol ; 59(1): e126, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048448

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has been responsible for a million deaths worldwide as of September 2020. At the time of this writing, there are no available US FDA-approved therapeutics for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to generate recombinant (r)SARS-CoV-2 using reverse-genetics approaches based on the use of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). This method will allow the production of mutant rSARS-CoV-2-which is necessary for understanding the function of viral proteins, viral pathogenesis and/or transmission, and interactions at the virus-host interface-and attenuated SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the discovery of effective countermeasures to control the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: Generation of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 using a bacterial artificial chromosome Support Protocol: Validation and characterization of rSARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlorocebus aethiops , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Transfecção , Células Vero
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079964

RESUMO

The initial phase dynamics of an epidemic without containment measures is commonly well modelled using exponential growth models. However, in the presence of containment measures, the exponential model becomes less appropriate. Under the implementation of an isolation measure for detected infectives, we propose to model epidemic dynamics by fitting a flexible growth model curve to reported positive cases, and to infer the overall epidemic dynamics by introducing information on the detection/testing effort and recovery and death rates. The resulting modelling approach is close to the Susceptible-Infectious-Quarantined-Recovered model framework. We focused on predicting the peaks (time and size) in positive cases, active cases and new infections. We applied the approach to data from the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Fits on limited data before the observed peaks illustrate the ability of the flexible growth model to approach the estimates from the whole data.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128054, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113645

RESUMO

Triazophos (TAP), methamidophos (MAP) and carbofuran (CF) pesticides are highly toxic, soluble and absorbable. Efficient co-degradation of multi-pesticides is rare reported. The objectives of this study were to investigate TAP, MAP and CF co-degradative ability of Enterobacter sp. Z1 and study the degradation mechanisms. Strain Z1 was shown to efficiently co-degrade TAP, MAP and CF when they were used as primary carbon sources. The degradation occurred over a wide range of temperatures, pH values and pesticide concentrations and followed first-order kinetics. Under the optimum conditions (37 °C, pH 7 and 100 mg/L of each pesticide), the degradation efficiencies were 100%, 100%, and 95.3% for TAP, MAP and CF, respectively. In addition, strain Z1 could simultaneously degrade TAP, MAP, CF and total nitrogen in wastewater in a batch bioreactor, with high removal efficiencies of 98.3%, 100%, 98.7% and 100%, respectively. Genomics, proteomics, qRT-PCR and gene overexpression analyses revealed that the degradation mechanisms involved the activities of multiple proteins, among which, organophosphorus hydrolase (Oph) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (PaaC) are primarily responsible for TAP and MAP degradation, while carbofuran hydrolase (Mcd) and amidohydrolase (RamA) primarily degrade CF. Among these enzymes, PaaC and RamA are newly identified pesticide-degrading enzymes. Toxicity assays of strain Z1 using reporter recombinase gene (recA) and zebrafish showed that there was no accumulation of toxic metabolites during the degradation process. Biosafety test using zebrafish showed that the strain was nontoxic toward zebrafish. Strain Z1 provides a good purification effect for pesticides-containing wastewater and novel microbial pesticide-degrading mechanisms were discovered.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Praguicidas , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbofurano/análise , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Organotiofosfatos/análise , Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade , Compostos Organotiofosforados/análise , Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Triazóis/análise , Triazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Pathology ; 52(7): 790-795, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070960

RESUMO

The current public health emergency surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, that is the illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in thousands of cases in Australia since 25 January 2020 when the first case was diagnosed. This emerging virus presents particular hazards to researchers and laboratory staff in a clinical setting, highlighted by rapid and widespread global transmission. Based on the epidemiological and clinical data that have become available in mid-2020, we propose the interim classification of SARS-CoV-2 as a Risk Group 3 organism is reasonable, and discuss establishing Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) regulations accordingly. Despite its global spread, the reported mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 ranging from 0.13% to 6.22% is considerably less than that of other Risk Group 4 agents including Ebola and Marburg viruses with fatality rates as high as 90%. In addition, studies have demonstrated that approximately 86% of patients presenting with severe courses of the disease are aged 70 years or above, with the presence of comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases in the majority of all fatal cases. In contrary to recent discussions surrounding the protective and administrative measures needed in a laboratory, the emerging evidence surrounding mortality rate, distinct demographics of severe infections, and the presence of underlying diseases does not justify the categorisation of SARS-CoV-2 as a Risk Group 4 organism. This article summarises biosafety precautions, control measures and appropriate physical containment facilities required to minimise the risk of laboratory-acquired infections with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Laboratórios , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , /classificação , Austrália , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador
18.
Haemophilia ; 26(6): 1031-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify lessons learned from haemophilia care experience in Wuhan (COVID-19 outbreak epicenter in China) and Tianjin (with relatively low COVID-19 incidence) in the pandemic. METHODS: We compared the challenges in haemophilia management attributed to local COVID-19 containment policies, healthcare resource availability, clotting factors supply, daily living restrictions and coping strategies employed. RESULTS: Wuhan was in lockdown with strict traffic controls, enforced quarantine and overwhelmed resources. Tianjin was in relatively relaxed countermeasures to COVID-19. In Wuhan, haemophilia treatment (for bleeding, prophylaxis, multidisciplinary team care, immune tolerance induction) and patient education were severely affected, while the challenges in Tianjin were less. In both cities, patients' fear for COVID-19 infection also affected their management. Coping strategy in Wuhan included channelling of clotting factors supply from hospitals to nine pharmacies; timely transfers of in-need patients to healthcare facilities by a volunteer service network jointly coordinated by the government, hospitals and the community. Although factor concentrate supply in each city was adequate, patients still worried whether there would be enough supply to last through the pandemics. Consequently, many downgraded their treatment regimens resulting in increased bleeding episodes. In both cities, telemedicine was promoted for patient care and education. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had varying adverse impacts on haemophilia care depending on the local infection incidence. Our experience suggests that haemophilia management strategies in the pandemic need to be established according to the local virus containment/mitigation policies, daily living restrictions and resource availability.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Hemofilia A/epidemiologia , Quarentena/métodos , /fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Política de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Assistência ao Paciente , Telemedicina , Voluntários
19.
Arch Med Res ; 51(7): 623-630, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948378

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which started in China, has created a panic among the general public and health care/laboratory workers. Thus far, there is no medication or vaccine to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19. As the virus is airborne and transmitted through droplets, there has been significant demand for face masks and other personal protective equipment to prevent the spread of infection. Health care and laboratory workers who come in close contact with infected people or material are at a high risk of infection. Therefore, robust biosafety measures are required at hospitals and laboratories to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Various diagnostic platforms including of serological, molecular and other advanced tools and techniques have been designed and developed for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 and each has its own merits and demerits. Molecular assays such as real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has been used worldwide for diagnosis of COVID-19. Samples such as nasal swabs or oropharyngeal swabs are used for rRT-PCR. Laboratory acquired infection has been a significant problem worldwide, which has gained importance during the current pandemic as the samples for rRT-PCR may contain intact virus with serious threat. COVID-19 can spread to workers during the sampling, transportation, processing, and disposal of tested samples. Here, we present an overview on advances in diagnosis of COVID-19 and details the issues associated with biosafety procedures and potential safety precautions to be followed during collection, transportation, and processing of COVID-19 samples for laboratory diagnosis so as to avoid virus infection.


Assuntos
/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Humanos , Laboratórios/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
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