Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.498
Filtrar
2.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279334, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652490

RESUMO

Considering the consumer's anticipated regret caused by price discount, the impact of anticipated regret and manufacturers' fairness concerns on pricing and profits is explored, and a revenue-sharing contract to optimize the profits of supply chain is explored. In centralized decision-making model with manufacturer's fairness neutrality and retailer-led decentralized decision-making model with the manufacturer's fairness concerns, numerical simulation and model comparison is used to analyse regret sensitivity coefficient, consumer heterogeneity, the fairness concern coefficient on pricing decisions and profit coordination. Our results reveal that consumer's anticipated regret has a negative impact on product prices, retailer's profit and manufacturer's profit. Manufacturer's fairness concerns also increase product price and reduce profits of all parties. Retailer-led supply chain can share the revenue to achieve Pareto optimization. When formulating promotional strategies, retailers should consider the characteristics of anticipated regrets of consumers.


Assuntos
Comércio , Tomada de Decisões , Comércio/métodos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Contratos , Comportamento do Consumidor
3.
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497602

RESUMO

A psychological contract is a set of individual beliefs that a person has about the reciprocal obligations and benefits established in an exchange relationship, such as an employment relationship in an organizational setting. A psychological contract breach is a subjective experience referred to the perception of one of the parties that the other has failed to adequately fulfill its obligations and promises. Breaches have been systematically connected to employees' attitudes and behaviors that hamper the employment relationship. Despite its apparent clarity, some relevant topics about psychological contract breach, psychological contract fulfillment and the relationships with their consequences still remain unclear. The main objective of this review of reviews is to conduct a review of reviews on psychological contract breaches, considering both systematic reviews and metanalytical papers with the purpose of synthesizing the evidence to date under the psychological contract theory. Using the SPIDER tool, our systematic review of reviews focuses on: (a) Sample; (b) Phenomenon of Interest; (c) Design; (d) Evaluation; and (e) Research type. Finally, only eight systematic reviews and meta-analyses met the inclusion criteria. Of the eight reviews included, seven were meta-analyses while the other was a systematic quantitative review. This study describes the available empirical research on psychological contract breaches and fulfillment and summarizes the meta-analytical evidence on their relationships with attitudinal and behavioral outcomes, as well as the role of potential moderator variables. Due to the methodological caveats of the reviews themselves and of the primary studies they were based on, our conclusions about the impact of psychological contract breaches on outcomes still remain tentative.


Assuntos
Contratos , Emprego , Emprego/psicologia , Atitude , Teoria Psicológica
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22021, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539427

RESUMO

A great deal of empirical research on the consequences of a psychological contract breach (PCB) has overlooked the role of time in understanding individuals' reactions to a PCB. Moreover, psychological contract research primarily focuses on how employees react to perceptions of a PCB, while questions regarding how the organization's responsiveness (i.e., social account) might impact these reactions remain unanswered. We aimed to enhance the understanding of stress reactions and recovery that are triggered by PCB perceptions and stimulate empirical research that treats psychological contracts as a dynamic phenomenon. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, we investigated how social account delivery timing-and its subjective experience-influences individuals' stress resolution processes in the aftermath of a PCB. To this end, we used an experimental design and assessed participants' physiological (i.e., heart rate) and psychological (i.e., self-report) stress reactions after inducing a breach. Our results underscore that a PCB is experienced as a stressful event. In addition, we find that social account timing influences heart rate recovery following a PCB. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and offer recommendations for practitioners.


Assuntos
Contratos , Emprego , Humanos , Emprego/psicologia , Autorrelato
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360809

RESUMO

The study examines the impact of the psychological contract (PC), including the often-studied PC breach in addition to the novel approach of PC status, as predictors of performance among nurses, mediated by engagement, job satisfaction, and psychological distress. A sample of 177 nurses and midwives from a medium to a large hospital in Australia completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to determine associations between the predictors (i.e., negative affectivity (NA), PC breach, PC status)), mediating variables (i.e., engagement, job satisfaction, and psychological distress), and three types of performance behaviors: organizational citizenship behavior for the individual, for the organization (OCBI, OCBO) and in-role behavior (IRB) simultaneously. Specifically, psychological contract status positively predicted engagement, whereas breach negatively predicted engagement and positively predicted job satisfaction. NA positively predicted distress, and distress negatively predicted OCBO and IRB. Lastly, engagement positively predicted job satisfaction, OCBI, OCBO, and IRB. The findings indicate that psychological contract status may predict engagement (and in turn, performance) over and above psychological contract breach, and thus this novel construct should be examined further. The importance of engagement for predicting the performance behaviors and mental health of nurses may also offer new insights.


Assuntos
Contratos , Satisfação no Emprego , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Social , Saúde Mental
8.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 212022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437620

RESUMO

There are longstanding concerns about the sustainability of the US health care system. Payment reform has been seen over the last decade as a key strategy to reorienting the US health care system around value. Alternative payment models (APMs) that seek to accomplish this goal have become increasingly prevalent in the US, yet there is a perception that physicians are resistant to their use and that organizations have been slow to adopt such models. The reasons for the limited effectiveness of APM programs are multifactorial and include aspects related to the design and implementation of these programs and lack of alignment and coordination across different payers and health care sectors. Most importantly, however, is that the current organizational structures in US health care serve to dampen the direct impact of these incentives, often because health care delivery organizations face conflicting incentives themselves. Organizations filter and refine the incentives from multiple external payment contracts and develop internal incentive systems that best reflect the amalgamation of the incentives embedded across their contracts, and thus the fragmented nature of the US health care system serves to undermine efforts to transform care under value-based contracts. In addition to organizations having conflicting incentives, there also are fundamental problems with the design and implementation of APMs that hinder their acceptance among physicians and the organizations in which they work. Moreover, much remains to be learned about how organizations can best adapt to succeed under these models, and how organizational culture can be leveraged to transform care.


Assuntos
Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , Motivação , Médicos , Humanos , Contratos , Cultura Organizacional , Organizações
9.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(2): 107-116, July-Dec. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412943

RESUMO

El sistema de salud en Colombia hace parte del Sistema de Seguridad Social Integral (SGSS) creado por la Ley 100 de 1993. La medicina prepagada existe como un contrato comercial de seguro de personas desde antes del SGSS, para mejorar la comodidad y el lujo, con libertad de elección de profesionales, sin trámites burocráticos para autorizaciones, oportunidad de citas, resolución rápida, eficiencia por ahorro en tiempo, dinero, efectividad y calidad en la atención. La naturaleza del vínculo comercial da pie para que los usuarios puedan tomar ventaja ilegítima del contrato y cambien las relaciones de poder y líneas de autoridad, amparados por el derecho que sienten que les confiere la compra con el fin de ver su inversión en resultados. Se generan así relaciones no idóneas, que transforman la relación médico-paciente, dando lugar a toda clase de conflictos, perversiones y vicios con consecuencias nefastas desde el punto de vista clínico, bioético y jurídico. El caso, analizado desde la metodología de análisis en ética clínica de Diego Gracia para resolver dilemas bioéticos, se aplica para hacer evidentes los conflictos y problemas bioéticos que surgieron en este contexto.


The health system in Colombia is part of the General Social Security System (GSSS) created by Law 100 of 1993. Prepaid medicine exists as a Personal Insurance Commercial Contract since before the SGSS, to improve comfort, luxury, with freedom of choice of professionals, without bureaucratic procedures for authorizations, opportunity for appointments, decisiveness, efficiency due to savings in time, money, effectiveness, and quality of care. The nature of the commercial relationship allows users to take illegitimate advantage of the contract and change the power relationships and lines of authority protected by the right they feel the purchase confers on them to see their investment in results. Inappropriate relationships are thus generated, which transform the doctor-patient relationship, giving rise to all kinds of conflicts, perversions, and vices with disastrous consequences from the clinical, bioethical and legal point of view. The case, analyzed from Diego Gracia's clinical ethics analysis methodology to resolve bioethical dilemmas, is applied to make evident the conflicts and bioethical problems that arose in this context.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Planos de Pré-Pagamento em Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Colômbia , Contratos , Investimentos em Saúde
10.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2022. 39 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1399992

RESUMO

El documento detalla los requisitos, condiciones y otras especificaciones necesarias para el procedimiento de reasignación bajo el régimen especial de contratación administrativa de servicios - CAS, tercera convocatoria, conforme a los numerales 27.7 y 27.8 del artículo 27 de la Ley N° 31538; así como; promover que las unidades ejecutoras del Ministerio de Salud, unidades ejecutoras del salud de los gobiernos regionales, Instituto Nacional de Salud e Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, conduzcan el procedimiento bajo los principios establecidos en el presente lineamiento


Assuntos
Gestão de Recursos Humanos , Saúde , Doença , Pessoal de Saúde , Contratos
11.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(10): e223704, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269340

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study characterizes Medicare Advantage contract terminations and identifies the characteristics of enrollees who may have been disproportionately affected by these events.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C , Estados Unidos , Contratos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078457

RESUMO

The role of the family doctor contracted service system in China's medical and health system is increasing day by day. However, with the steady increase in contracting coverage, the phenomenon of "signing up but not contracting" has become common; to improve the current situation, the personalized signing service model has been strongly advocated. To promote the smooth implementation of the personalized contracted service model with family doctor competency as its core, this study used the signal game model to analyze the market equilibrium state of the signing service model. The results of this analysis reveal the following: (1) The camouflage of the number of contracts leads to distortion of the signal effect and to market failure, that is, the cost of competency camouflage is the primary factor affecting the equilibrium of contracted services. (2) The incompleteness of contracted services leads to quantity but not quality in the contracting market, that is, the payment of personalized service packages, the value-added utility of personalized services, and service gaps are the key factors that affect the decision-making behavior of the public. With this knowledge in mind, a compensation incentive mechanism that matches the competence level of the family doctor should be established, the formulation of contracted service agreements should be improved, and the participation of family doctors and residents should be encouraged, while the promotion of personalized contracted services should be enhanced and relevant supporting measures should be improved.


Assuntos
Serviços Contratados , Médicos de Família , China , Serviços Contratados/métodos , Contratos , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Organizações
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 4798768, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089947

RESUMO

An implicit agreement between people and organizations is known as a psychological contract. It represents what each party anticipates from the other in terms of giving and receiving. The psychological contract theory has forced ideological and political educators to adapt their ideas and develop new teaching strategies. The psychological expectations of the educatees can be fully mobilized and the value orientation of both sides tends to be consistent through the creation of a strong psychological contract between the educators on both sides, which will help to increase the efficacy of ideological and political education. There is theoretical and empirical support for the organizational remedy after a psychological contract breach. Student work is intended to meet the individual needs of students or the needs of society, resulting in two completely distinct values, namely, values based on individuals and values based on societies. Students' work in the new era should be a harmonious blend of personal values and social values. In the study, students' work values fluctuated about 70% of the time, and psychological contracts had a significant impact on those work values. In the past 50 years, the psychological contract theory has seen the development and refinement of its theoretical framework, the clear definition of its content and organizational principles, the behavior research following psychological contract rupture and breach, the establishment and compensation of psychological contracts, and more. The process of organization management has benefited from the continuous concretization and expansion of its application field as a management theory and method.


Assuntos
Contratos , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos , Estudantes
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273424, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984834

RESUMO

In this paper, a delegate contract signing solution is proposed to eliminate the potential risk of contract fraud caused by information and interest asymmetry. By utilizing the functional properties of the Ethereum blockchain and smart contracts, a delegate contract signing mechanism is established. By running the mechanism, the delegate contract signing information is received and processed, and the information is broadcast to the blockchain network nodes. By designing the algorithms of "requesting contract signing", "successful contract signing" and "contract fraud dispute resolution", the delegate contract signing is realized. By proposing algorithms and their calling processes, the smart contracts are completed. Finally, the smart contracts based on the solution are tested and verified. The source code of the smart contracts has been published on GitHub.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Algoritmos , Contratos , Software
16.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045299

RESUMO

Through this policy statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that all health care insurers adopt consistent medical necessity definitions that reflect the needs of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults (hereafter noted as "children") as a function of developmental, epidemiologic, dependency, demographic, and cost-related factors that change over the pediatric continuum and that differ from adults. Optimally, the scope of benefits defined in health care contracts should address the complete spectrum of health care needs of children and families, but in reality, many plans offer a limited scope of benefits for children. Even if a proposed intervention falls within the scope of benefits or is not specifically excluded from coverage, the health plan may still deny the intervention. In such cases, contractual language may allow an appeal to succeed if the provider demonstrates medical necessity. With the assistance of experienced pediatric physicians and other providers with pediatric expertise, health care payers and agencies should clearly detail the processes that define, evaluate, and determine medical necessity and through which providers may appeal decisions. A basic requirement for any medical necessity process is the consideration of input from the physician(s) caring for a pediatric patient for whom a medical necessity determination is necessary.


Assuntos
Contratos , Idioma , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos
17.
N Engl J Med ; 387(6): 486-488, 2022 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929813
18.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 1331237, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898481

RESUMO

Smart contracts are widely employed in many industries as a result of the high-quality development of science and economic technology, as well as the introduction of blockchain, which can automatically conduct retrieval, verification, and payment tasks. Smart contracts as an emerging topic, particularly the study of smart legal contracts, must remain forward-looking, and the smart contract sector cannot wait for the legal status of smart contracts to be resolved before advancing. The relative lag of the law becomes unavoidable due to the unassembled and unpredictable character of the law and thus its legislation. In this paper, we explore the incorporation of smart contracts into the scope of legal regulation, the construction of a series of systems for smart contracts, and the prognosis of smart contracts in terms of contract logic, arbitration process, and formal verification from the current law. Furthermore, a smart contract payment template based on semantic-aware graph neural networks is proposed to address the traditional smart contract vulnerability detection payment template method's low detection accuracy and high false alarm rate, as well as the neural network-based method's insufficient mining of bytecode-level smart contract features. Experiments comparing the method described in this research to comparable methods reveal that the strategy proposed in this study improves all types of indicators significantly.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Contratos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271693, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877613

RESUMO

This paper constructs a profit distribution model under centralized decision-making by taking the secondary agricultural supply chain as an example. Moreover, it introduces resources and risk as two factors to form significant weights and then designs a fair profit distribution mechanism of the supply chain according to the weights. Finally, this paper solves the optimal solution of the profit distribution coefficient by using fair entropy. Research results find that the distribution according to the optimal profit distribution coefficient can maximize the profit of each actor and achieves the matching of returns and inputs. Therefore, this paper puts forward some suggestions that include establishing a precise distribution mechanism based on contracts or property rights definitions, considering the cost and importance weight of each actor's input when formulating the profit distribution coefficient, and paying attention to information sharing.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Contratos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Entropia
20.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 41(2): 87-89, 2022.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856307

RESUMO

. At least a thanks: reflections on the new employment contract for nurses. The signing of the new work contract is an opportunity to take stock of what has been given, promised and actually received. The nurses' salary increase is limited, late, and is almost completely cancelled out by inflation. Though the current contract also offers some recognitions such as the institution of the so-called 'deputy manager', the payment for new and advanced responsibilities a salary increase for those who work in emergency services, it is not enough. There remains the problem of a nursing profession with a severe shortage, in which we need to invest not only from an economic perspective. The effort for the new contract must start now.


Assuntos
Emprego , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Contratos , Humanos , Enfermagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...