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Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 29-36, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114595


La declaratoria del estado de emergencia, a causa de la pandemia de la covid-19, exige un análisis de la vigencia de las relaciones contractuales y cómo estas pueden verse afectadas por eventos extraordinarios, imprevisibles e irresistibles que impidan el cumplimiento de las prestaciones, así como aquellos casos en los que la alteración de las circunstancias puede llevar a que una de las partes exija al juez recomponga el contenido de la prestación pactada o la resolución del contrato.

The declaration of a state of emergency due to the covid-19 pandemic requires an analysis of the validity of the contractual relations and how these may be affected by extraordinary, unforeseeable and irresistible events that prevent the performance of the services, as well as those cases in which the alteration of circumstances may lead one of the parties to demand that the judge recompose the content of the agreed service or terminate the contract.

A declaração de estado de emergência, devido à pandemia da covid-19, exige uma análise da vigência das relações contratuais e como estas podem ser afetadas por eventos extraordinários, imprevisíveis e irresistíveis que impeçam o cumprimento das prestações, assim como aqueles casos em que a alteração das circunstâncias podem levar a que uma das partes exija que o juiz recomponha o conteúdo da prestação acordada ou a rescisão do contrato.

Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Contratos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Peru , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena/ética , Responsabilidade Contratual , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Contratos/ética , Pandemias/ética , Betacoronavirus
J Psychol ; 154(3): 249-272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916918


With a basis in conservation of resources theory, this study investigates the relationship between employees' exposure to perceived contract breaches and their job performance, while also considering the mediating role of knowledge hiding and the moderating role of positive affectivity. Multisource, three-wave data from employees and their peers in Pakistani organizations reveal that breaches in the psychological contract hinder job performance, because employees respond with an unwillingness to contribute valuable knowledge to execute their job tasks. This mediating role of knowledge hiding is mitigated if employees can draw from their own positive affectivity trait. This study accordingly identifies a key factor, intentional attempts to conceal knowledge requested by other members, that can backfire and make employees suffer doubly: from unfulfilled organizational promises and from lower performance. It also reveals how this risk might be contained, that is, by encouraging employees' positive affect.

Afeto , Contratos/ética , Emprego/ética , Emprego/psicologia , Conhecimento , Modelos Psicológicos , Desempenho Profissional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação , Paquistão , Revelação da Verdade , Desempenho Profissional/normas
J Med Ethics ; 44(8): 551-554, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650760


The law ordinarily recognises the woman who gives birth as the mother of a child, but in certain jurisdictions, it will recognise the commissioning couple as the legal parents of a child born to a commercial surrogate. Some commissioning parents have, however, effectively abandoned the children they commission, and in such cases, commercial surrogates may find themselves facing unexpected maternal responsibility for children they had fully intended to give up. Any assumption that commercial surrogates ought to assume maternal responsibility for abandoned children runs contrary to the moral suppositions that typically govern contract surrogacy, in particular, assumptions that gestational carriers are not 'mothers' in any morally significant sense. In general, commercial gestational surrogates are almost entirely conceptualised as 'vessels'. In a moral sense, it is deeply inconsistent to expect commercial surrogates to assume maternal responsibility simply because commissioning parents abandon children for one reason or another. We identify several instances of child abandonment and discuss their implications with regard to the moral conceptualisation of commercial gestational surrogates. We conclude that if gestational surrogates are to remain conceptualised as mere vessels, they should not be expected to assume responsibility for children abandoned by commissioning parents, not even the limited responsibility of giving them up for adoption or surrendering them to the state.

Custódia da Criança/ética , Custódia da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Contratos/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Contratos/ética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Responsabilidade Social
Acta bioeth ; 23(2): 227-235, jul. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-886023


Resumen: avances biotecnológicos son abrumadores y la realidad social cambia con ellos. En efecto, la nueva ley en España sobre los matrimonios homosexuales ha propiciado que parejas de mujeres y de hombres que se casan puedan procrear no solo mediante la adopción, sino también por la fecundación in vitro. Así, la gestación por sustitución se está convirtiendo en la vía preferente para que parejas heterosexuales u homosexuales con problemas específicos, parejas de hombres y para el varón sin pareja puedan tener descendencia. Esta situación crea múltiples conflictos éticos y jurídicos difíciles de resolver: filiación del menor, mercantilización de la mujer, instrumentalización y compraventa de niños, etc. En este artículo se analizarán los aspectos bioéticos en conflicto, sin olvidar la regulación jurídica que existe al respecto.

Abstract: We find ourselves in a time of far reaching biotechnological breakthroughs and alongside with this, society is also experiencing changes. In this sense, new regulations regarding homosexual marriage have opened an scenario where same sex couples of men or women, may "procreate", not only by means of adoption - not permitted for homosexual couples in many countries - but also through in vitro fertilization. For this reason, surrogate pregnancy is becoming the option of choice enabling heterosexual couples with specific problems, male couples, and males without a female partner to have a child. Indeed, as surrogate pregnancy techniques proliferates, ethical conflicts arise: the possibility of men to have their own children, problems relating filiation, instrumentalization of women and babies, legal solutions given by different European countries. In this article, both bioethical and legal issues regarding surrogate pregnancy will be analyse looking for the best interest of the minors.

Resumo: Os avanços biotecnológicos são avassaladores e a realidade social se transforma com eles. Com efeito, a nova lei espanhola sobre o casamento homossexual tem propiciado que casais de mulheres e de homens que se casam possam procriar não só através da adoção, mas também por fertilização in vitro. Assim, a gestação por substituição está se tornando a alternativa preferida para que casais heterossexuais ou homossexuais com problemas específicos, casais de homens e homens solteiros possam ter filhos. Esta situação cria vários conflitos éticos e jurídicos que são difíceis de resolver: filiação da criança, mercantilização da mulher, instrumentalização e compra e venda de crianças, etc. Este artigo irá analisar os aspectos bioéticos, sem esquecer a regulação jurídica a este respeito.

Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Contratos/ética , Europa (Continente)
Bioethics ; 30(4): 260-71, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307361


Traditional Informed Consent is becoming increasingly inadequate, especially in the context of research biobanks. How much information is needed by patients for their consent to be truly informed? How does the quality of the information they receive match up to the quality of the information they ought to receive? How can information be conveyed fairly about future, non-predictable lines of research? To circumvent these difficulties, some scholars have proposed that current consent guidelines should be reassessed, with trust being used as a guiding principle instead of information. Here, we analyse one of these proposals, based on a Participation Pact, which is already being offered to patients at the Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, a comprehensive cancer hospital in Milan, Italy.

Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Comportamento de Escolha , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Autonomia Pessoal , Relações Pesquisador-Sujeito/ética , Confiança , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/ética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Compreensão , Contratos/ética , Contratos/tendências , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Itália , Participação do Paciente , Relações Pesquisador-Sujeito/psicologia , Valores Sociais
J Med Ethics ; 41(7): 539-44, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25378552


Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks--the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice--and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another.

Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/ética , Cooperação Internacional , Justiça Social/ética , Fortalecimento Institucional , Contratos/ética , Comportamento Cooperativo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
J Med Ethics ; 41(6): 470-3, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25139932


In a host surrogate motherhood arrangement, the surrogate agrees to be implanted with, and carry to term, an embryo created from the commissioning couple's gametes. When the surrogate child is born, it is the surrogate mother who, according to UK law, holds the legal status of mother. By contrast, the commissioning mother possesses no maternal status and she can only attain it once the surrogate agrees to the completion of the arrangement. One consequence of this is that, in the event that a host arrangement fails, the commissioning mother is left without maternal status. In this paper, I argue that this denial of maternal status misrepresents the commissioning mother's role in the host arrangement and her relationship with the surrogate child. Consequently, I suggest that commissioning mothers participating in host surrogacy arrangements ought to be granted the status of mother in the event that the arrangement fails.

Contratos/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães/legislação & jurisprudência , Parto , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Contratos/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Reino Unido
Soc Sci Med ; 122: 81-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25441320


In quasi-markets, contracts find purchasers influencing health care providers, although problems exist where providers use personal bias and heuristics to respond to written agreements, tending towards the moral hazard of opportunism. Previous research on quasi-market contracts typically understands opportunism as fully rational, individual responses selecting maximally efficient outcomes from a set of possibilities. We take a more emotive and collective view of contracting, exploring the influence of institutional logics in relation to the opportunistic behaviour of dentists. Following earlier qualitative work where we identified four institutional logics in English general dental practice, and six dental contract areas where there was scope for opportunism; in 2013 we surveyed 924 dentists to investigate these logics and whether they had predictive purchase over dentists' chair-side behaviour. Factor analysis involving 300 responses identified four logics entwined in (often technical) behaviour: entrepreneurial commercialism, duty to staff and patients, managerialism, public good.

Contratos/economia , Odontologia Geral/economia , Lógica , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Adulto , Contratos/ética , Inglaterra , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Odontologia Geral/ética , Odontologia Geral/organização & administração , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
J Med Ethics ; 40(10): 673-7, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24014642


Prescription opioid abuse (POA) is an escalating clinical and public health problem. Physician worries about iatrogenic addiction and whether patients are 'drug seeking', 'abusing' and 'diverting' prescription opioids exist against a backdrop of professional and legal consequences of prescribing that have created a climate of distrust in chronic pain management. One attempt to circumvent these worries is the use of opioid contracts that outline conditions patients must agree to in order to receive opioids. Opioid contracts have received some scholarly attention, with trust and trustworthiness identified as key values and virtues. However, few articles have provided a critical account of trust and trustworthiness in this context, particularly when there exists disagreement about their role in terms of enhancing or detracting from the patient-physician relationship. This paper argues that opioid contracts represent a misleading appeal to patient-physician trust. Assuming the patient is untrustworthy may wrongfully undermine the credibility of the patient's testimony, which may exacerbate certain vulnerabilities of the person in pain. However, misplaced trust in certain patients may render the physician vulnerable to the potential harms of POA. If patients distrust their physician, or feel distrusted by them, this may destabilise the therapeutic relationship and compromise care. A process of epistemic humility may help cultivate mutual patient-physician trust. Epistemic humility is a collaborative effort between physicians and patients that recognises the role of patients' subjective knowledge in enhancing physicians' self-understanding of their theoretical and practice frameworks, values and assumptions about the motivations of certain patients who report chronic pain.

Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Contratos/ética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ética Clínica , Humanos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/ética , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/legislação & jurisprudência , Confiança
Dynamis (Granada) ; 34(2): 465-487, 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-134738


En este artículo se analizan las relaciones entre ciencia y política en el primer tercio del siglo XX español desde la perspectiva del Contrato Social para la Ciencia. En él se muestra que en dicho periodo se instituyó un auténtico contrato social para la ciencia en España, aunque surgieron algunos problemas de frontera e integridad. Dichos problemas son analizados y se defiende que los problemas de frontera fueron resultado de la concepción de las relaciones entre ciencia y política de los gobiernos conservadores, mientras que los problemas de integridad tuvieron que ver con la activación de redes de influencia en la concesión de las becas para la formación en el extranjero. Finalmente, el análisis revela que estos problemas no invalidaron el contrato social para la ciencia en España (AU)

This article analyzes the relationship between science and politics in Spain in the early 20th century from the perspective of the Social Contract for Science. The article shows that a genuine social contract for science was instituted in Spain during this period, although some boundary and integrity problems emerged. These problems are analyzed, showing that the boundary problems were a product of the conservative viewpoint on the relationship between science and politics, while the integrity problems involved the activation of networks of influence in the awarding of scholarships to study abroad. Finally, the analysis reveals that these problems did not invalidate the Spanish social contract for science (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XX , Contratos/classificação , Contratos/ética , Ciência/educação , Ciência/métodos , Espanha/etnologia , Obtenção de Fundos/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/classificação , Decretos/ética , Contratos/história , Contratos/normas , Ciência , Ciência/normas , Obtenção de Fundos/economia , Obtenção de Fundos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Decretos/legislação & jurisprudência
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 23(3): 249-74, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24199524


Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

Obrigações Morais , Médicos/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Greve/ética , Voluntários , Contratos/ética , Análise Ética , Ética Médica , Humanos , Narração , Autonomia Pessoal , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética
Bioethics ; 27(7): 373-81, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22500585


It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession.

Altruísmo , Comércio , Contratos/ética , Liberdade , Doações , Obrigações Morais , Motivação , Mães Substitutas , Ética Profissional , Feminino , Doações/ética , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Gravidez/ética , Gravidez/psicologia , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães Substitutas/psicologia , Reino Unido
Cuad Bioet ; 23(78): 253-67, 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23137175


Surrogate motherhood is an issue which currently gives rise to considerable complexity. Some consider that it is a justifiable practice which should be permitted by law. However, western legal systems have traditionally understood that whereas objects can be traded freely, persons, including the human body, its organs and most essential functions, cannot be the object of commerce. This means that the freedom of the individual to make contracts for mutual benefit is limited. Regarding the child, legalization of surrogate motherhood means converting the parent-child relationship into a commercial relationship, since in the last instance this would depend on a financial transaction. Moreover, experience has shown that the child is left in a very vulnerable position, since his or her situation depends on the clauses set forth in the contract, which in no sense guarantees that his or her interests and rights will be protected. For all these reasons, we must conclude that the wish on the part of infertile couples should be taken seriously by society. However, not all desires that adults have should be regarded as rights, particularly if this is detrimental to the dignity and rights of other subjects involved, particularly those of vulnerable women and their children.

Bioética , Mercantilização , Mães Substitutas , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente/ética , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Contratos/ética , Contratos/legislação & jurisprudência , Destinação do Embrião/ética , Destinação do Embrião/legislação & jurisprudência , Transferência Embrionária/ética , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga/ética , Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga/legislação & jurisprudência , Internet , Turismo Médico , Pais , Autonomia Pessoal , Gravidez , Psicologia da Criança , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães Substitutas/psicologia
Rev. univ. psicoanál ; 12: 229-242, nov. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-707708


Sostenemos que una sociedad fundada desde la moral por un pacto universal, que busca el bien común y exige obediencia fracasa en su propósito de pacificar las relaciones sociales, no logra evitar la hostilidad entre sus miembros y deja saldos lamentables de malestar en la cultura. Analizaremos las teorías de tres pensadores contractualistas, es decir que ubican un contrato o pacto como instrumento que organiza el cuerpo social. Tanto Thomas Hobbes como Jean Jacques Rousseau y Sigmund Freud ubican un pacto como base y fundamento del Estado, la sociedad civil y la cultura, respectivamente. Los tres autores son pensadores modernos influenciados por el paradigma epocal, la ciencia, y en este sentido se preguntan por las causas y sus efectos; son deterministas que buscan leyes universales. Proponen, en el lugar de la causa, un mito sobre el origen de la organización social: un estado de naturaleza que luego se ve modificado por una ley universal, pasando así de un cuerpo natural a uno político. No haremos aquí un estudio comparativo de los autores, sino más bien veremos sus efectos sobre las relaciones sociales organizadas por una ley que deviene imperativo categórico kantiano.

We affirm that a moral society based in a universal agreement that seeks the common good and requires obedience fails in its purpose to pacify social relations, can not avoid the hostility between its members and leave deplorable results of cultural discomfort. We will analyze the theories of three contractarian thinkers, which place a contract or agreement as a tool that organizes the social body. Both Thomas Hobbes and Jean Jacques Rousseau and Sigmund Freud placed a covenant as a basis and foundation of the State, civil society and culture, respectively. The three authors are modern thinkers influenced by epochal paradigm, science, and in this sense they ask for the causes and their effects; are deterministic seeking universal laws. They propose, in place of the cause, a myth about the origin of social organization: a state of nature then is modified by a universal law, passing from a natural body to a political one. We will not do a comparative study of the authors, but rather see their effects on social relations organized by a law which becomes Kantian categorical imperative.

Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Moral , Organização Social , Contratos/ética , Hostilidade