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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797066

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi), a technique used to investigate gene function in insects and other organisms, is attracting attention as a potential new technology for mosquito control. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) was recently engineered to produce interfering RNA molecules that silence genes required for mosquito survival, but which do not correspond to genes in humans or other non-target organisms. The resulting yeast pesticides, which facilitate cost-effective production and delivery of interfering RNA to mosquito larvae that eat the yeast, effectively kill mosquitoes in laboratory and semi-field trials. In preparation for field evaluation of larvicides in Trinidad, a Caribbean island with endemic diseases resulting from pathogens transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, adult residents living in the prospective trial site communities of Curepe, St. Augustine, and Tamana were engaged. Open community forums and paper surveys were used to assess the potential acceptability, societal desirability, and sustainability of yeast interfering RNA larvicides. These assessments revealed that Trinidadians have good working knowledge of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne illnesses. A majority of the respondents practiced some method of larval mosquito control and agreed that they would use a new larvicide if it were proven to be safe and effective. During the community engagement forums, participants were educated about mosquito biology, mosquito-borne diseases, and the new yeast larvicides. When invited to provide feedback, engagement forum attendees were strongly supportive of the new technology, raised few concerns, and provided helpful advice regarding optimal larvicide formulations, insecticide application, operational approaches for using the larvicides, and pricing. The results of these studies suggest that the participants are supportive of the potential use of yeast interfering RNA larvicides in Trinidad and that the communities assessed in this investigation represent viable field sites.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Interferência de RNA , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trinidad e Tobago
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0237094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735582

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of corn in the United States. Transgenic corn expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an important tool used to manage rootworm populations. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt threatens this technology. In areas where resistance is present, resistant individuals may travel from one field to a neighboring field, spreading resistance alleles. An important question that remains to be answered is the extent to which greater-than-expected root injury (i.e., >1 node of injury) to Cry3Bb1 corn from western corn rootworm is associated with rootworm abundance, root injury, and levels of resistance in neighboring fields. To address this question, fields with a history of greater-than-expected injury to Cry3Bb1 corn (focal fields) and surrounding fields (< 2.2 km from focal fields) were examined to quantify rootworm abundance, root injury, and resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. Additionally, use of Bt corn and soil insecticide use for the previous six years were quantified for each field. Resistance to Cry3Bb1 was present in all fields assayed, even though focal fields had grown more Cry3 corn and less non-Bt corn than surrounding fields. This finding implies that some movement of resistance alleles had occurred between focal fields and surrounding fields. Overall, our data suggest that resistance to Cry3Bb1 in the landscape has been influenced by both local rootworm movement and field-level management tactics.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804938

RESUMO

Biological control (biocontrol) as a component of pest management strategies reduces reliance on synthetic chemicals, and seemingly offers a natural approach that minimizes environmental impact. However, introducing a new organism to new environments as a classical biocontrol agent can have broad and unanticipated biodiversity effects and conservation consequences. Nematodes are currently used in a variety of commercial biocontrol applications, including the use of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita as an agent targeting pest slug and snail species. This species was originally discovered in Germany, and is generally thought to have European origins. P. hermaphrodita is sold under the trade name Nemaslug®, and is available only in European markets. However, this nematode species was discovered in New Zealand and the western United States, though its specific origins remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed 45 nematode strains representing eight different Phasmarhabditis species, collected from nine countries around the world. A segment of nematode mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Our mtDNA phylogenies were overall consistent with previous analyses based on nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) loci. The recently discovered P. hermaphrodita strains in New Zealand and the United States had mtDNA haplotypes nearly identical to that of Nemaslug®, and these were placed together in an intraspecific monophyletic clade with high support in maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. We also examined bacteria that co-cultured with the nematode strains isolated in Oregon, USA, by analyzing 16S rRNA sequences. Eight different bacterial genera were found to associate with these nematodes, though Moraxella osloensis, the bacteria species used in the Nemaslug® formulation, was not detected. This study provided evidence that nematodes deriving from the Nemaslug® biocontrol product have invaded countries where its use is prohibited by regulatory agencies and not commercially available.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Filogenia , Rabditídios/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Europa (Continente) , Nova Zelândia , América do Norte , Controle Biológico de Vetores , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rabditídios/isolamento & purificação
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236422, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760075

RESUMO

Genus Trichogramma Westwood is being utilized in various biological control programme worldwide. Trichogramma spp. are egg parasitoids which lay their eggs inside the host eggs. More than 240 species are known, of which, 45 species are recorded from India. It is quite difficult to identify and differentiate among the species of Trichogramma due to smaller size. In present study, we hypothesized a methodology to identify the Trichogramma species based on potential morphometric characteristics. The males and females of five different species of Trichogramma namely, T. brassicae, T. chilotraeae, T. danaidiphaga, T. danausicida and T. dendrolimi were morphometrically analysed. A total of 33 characters in males and 27 in females were taken into consideration for morphometric identification and analysis using principal component method. It was observed that few characters of male like body length, length of flagellar hair, maximum marginal hair length of fore wing, genitalia characters including aedeagus length, distance between chelate structure and gonoforceps, and others were identified as important morphometric characters. Similarly, in females, ovipositor length, body and head length, eye width, antennal club width and number of setae in forewings were found important for taxonomic identification. Male and female of each species are clearly identified from high definition microscopic images.


Assuntos
Himenópteros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insect predator Coccinella septempunctata can effectively control many types of pests, such as aphids, whiteflies, and small lepidopteran larvae. We previously found that C. septempunctata fed an artificial diet showed diminished biological properties(e.g. fecundity, egg hatching rate, survival rate, etc.) compared with those fed natural prey (Aphis craccivora), likely due to different nutritional characteristics of the diet. In this study, we used transcriptome sequencing analysis to identify nutrition- and metabolism-related genes of C. septempunctata that were differentially expressed depending on diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 691,942,058 total clean reads from artificial diet-fed and A. craccivora-fed C. septempunctata libraries, and the clean reads were assembled using Trinity de novo software (Tabel 2). Comparison of transcriptome sequences revealed that expression of 38,315 genes was affected by the artificial diet, and 1,182 of these genes showed a significant change in expression levels (FDR ≤ 0.05,|log2FC|≥1, "FC" stands for "fold change"). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were likely associated with the decreased egg laying capacity, hatching rate, longevity, and increased sex ratio (♀:♂) of adult C. septempunctata observed in the group fed the artificial diet. Furthermore, in the most DEGs metabolic pathways for C. septempunctata feeding on the artificial diet accumulated amino acid metabolic pathways, lipid metabolic pathways, and starch and glucose metabolism were down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found some differentially expressed genes and metabolic pathways are related to nutrition, from which a more informative feedback for diet formulation was obtained and the artificial diet could be more efficiently optimized.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Afídeos , Besouros/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Razão de Masculinidade , Amido/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609237

RESUMO

The effects of two different products - Metarril® SP Organic (dry conidia) and Metarril® SC Organic (emulsifiable concentrated conidia in vegetable oil) - on eggs, larvae and Rhipicephalus microplus engorged females were here explored. Three concentrations (108, 107, and 106 conidia mL-1) for both products were prepared in water + 0.1% Tween® 80 (v/v); afterward, bioassays were carried out for all R. microplus stages by immersion in suspensions (Metarril® SP) or formulations (Metarril® SC). Metarril® SP suspensions showed low efficacy and did not affect biological parameters of treated engorged females; for eggs and larvae, only slight decreases in hatchability and larvae population were observed. Despite a delay in germination, Metarril® SC presented better results; for females, reductions in Egg Mass Weight (EMW) and Egg Production Index (EPI) were reported. On eggs, 108 conidia mL-1 increased Incubation Period (IP), shortened Hatching Period (HP) and decreased hatchability by up to 61%; for larvae, 107 and 108 conidia mL-1 reached 99.6 and 100% larval mortality respectively, 10 days after fungal exposure. Thus, further studies involving the use of oil-based formulations for ticks such as Metarril® SC need to be performed, especially to control the most susceptible stages (eggs and larvae).


Assuntos
Metarhizium , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Rhipicephalus , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/normas
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20190412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638861

RESUMO

Abstract: The dispersion capacity is fundamental to establish a biological control program with parasitoids. This information is used to determine the efficiency and the number of release points. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the dispersion and to estimate the number of release points of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), in sweet corn, cucumber and cabbage in the Ceará State. The experiments were carried out in areas of maize with four leaf pairs (V4) and eight leaves pair (V8), stacked and cabbage. Unviable eggs of an alternative host were distributed in concentric circles of radius 2.5; 5.0; 9.0 and 12.0 m. Mean dispersal distance in the V4 stage maize was 4.7 m with a dispersion area of 48.6 m2, parasitism index of 18.4%, requiring 206 points/ha. In the V8 stage maize, the mean distance was 5.9 m, dispersion area of 60.3 m², mean parasitism index of 22.7% and 166 release points/ha. For the cucumber culture the mean distance was 6.0 m, dispersion area 62.2 m², mean parasitism index of 21.1% and 161 release points/ha. For cabbage the mean distance was 5.6 m, dispersion area of 56.8 m², mean parasitism index of 22.1% and 176 release points/ha.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Himenópteros , Animais , Brassica , Mariposas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Vespas , Zea mays
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613481

RESUMO

Plutella xylostella, is the main pest infesting Brassica crops, and products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are frequently used in strategies for its biocontrol. The present study aimed to evaluate whether a Bt-based bioinsecticide affects the predation behavior of Ceraeochrysa cincta when preying on P. xylostella. Three larval instars of the predator and the eggs and second-instar larvae of the moth were used, with the prey either untreated or treated with a Bt-based product (Xentari®). Results showed that, the first larval instar of C. cincta presented a type II functional response when preying upon untreated eggs, and a type III response when preying upon Bt-treated eggs, while the second and third instars presented type II and III responses, respectively, in both situations. The predator's first and third larval instars presented a type II functional response when preying upon untreated larvae and a type III response when preying upon Bt-treated larvae. However, the predator's second-instar larvae showed a type II response in both treatments. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the Bt-based insecticide tested affects the predation behavior of the first-instar larvae of C. cincta on eggs and of both the first- and third-instar larvae of this predator on P. xylostella larvae.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Controle de Insetos , Insetos/fisiologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Brasil , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692775

RESUMO

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), being a cash and fiber crop is of high significance in Pakistan. Numerous insect pests and viral diseases in Pakistan and around the world attack cotton crop. Genetically modified cotton (transgenic, resistant to lepidopteran insects), hereafter written as 'Bt-cotton' has been introduced in many regions of the world to combat bollworms. However, cultivars differ in their pest susceptibility, yield response and fiber quality traits. Nonetheless, recent studies have indicated that lepidopteran pests are evolving resistance against 'Bt-cotton'. Several 'Bt-cotton' cultivars have been developed in Pakistan in the past decade; however, limited is known about their pest susceptibility, seed-cotton yield and fiber quality traits. This two-year field study evaluated pest susceptibility, yield and fiber quality traits of thirteen newly developed 'Bt-cotton' cultivars in Pakistan. The cultivars differed in their susceptibility to sucking insects during both years of study. The cultivars 'FH-647', 'SLH-8', 'FH-Lalazar' and 'IUB-013' were more susceptible to jassid, whereas 'BS-52' exhibited higher susceptibility to whitefly during both years of study. Similarly, cultivars 'AGC-999' and 'MNH-992' proved highly susceptible to thrips during each study year. Although 'Bt-cotton' is resistant to bollworms, cultivars 'SLAH-8', 'VH-305' and 'BH-184' were susceptible to spotted bollworm, while 'SLAH-8', 'RH-647' and 'VH-305' were infested by American bollworm. The most susceptible cultivars to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) attack were 'RH-647', 'IR-NIBGE-7' and 'VH-305'. The highest seed-cotton yield was recorded for 'FH-Lalazar' during both years of study. Similarly, the highest ginning out turn was recorded for cultivars 'BS-52', 'VH-305', 'RH-647', 'IUB' and 'AA-919'. The cultivar 'FH-Lalazar' exhibited low pest susceptibility and CLCuV infestation compared to the rest of cultivars. The highest and the lowest gross and net incomes and benefit:cost ratio were noted for 'FH-Lalazar' and 'RH-647, respectively. Keeping in view the low pest susceptibility and high seed-cotton yield, 'FH-Lalazar' could be recommended for higher yield and economic returns in Multan, Pakistan. Nonetheless, regional trials should be conducted for site-specific or region-specific recommendations.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Fibra de Algodão/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Gossypium/virologia , Insetos , Paquistão , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18385-18392, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690686

RESUMO

Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can suppress pests and reduce insecticide sprays, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Although farmers plant refuges of non-Bt host plants to delay pest resistance, this tactic has not been sufficient against the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera In the United States, some populations of this devastating pest have rapidly evolved practical resistance to Cry3 toxins and Cry34/35Ab, the only Bt toxins in commercially available corn that kill rootworms. Here, we analyzed data from 2011 to 2016 on Bt corn fields producing Cry3Bb alone that were severely damaged by this pest in 25 crop-reporting districts of Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota. The annual mean frequency of these problem fields was 29 fields (range 7 to 70) per million acres of Cry3Bb corn in 2011 to 2013, with a cost of $163 to $227 per damaged acre. The frequency of problem fields declined by 92% in 2014 to 2016 relative to 2011 to 2013 and was negatively associated with rotation of corn with soybean. The effectiveness of corn rotation for mitigating Bt resistance problems did not differ significantly between crop-reporting districts with versus without prevalent rotation-resistant rootworm populations. In some analyses, the frequency of problem fields was positively associated with planting of Cry3 corn and negatively associated with planting of Bt corn producing both a Cry3 toxin and Cry34/35Ab. The results highlight the central role of crop rotation for mitigating impacts of D. v. virgifera resistance to Bt corn.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/imunologia , Zea mays/imunologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Produção Agrícola/economia , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Iowa , Controle Biológico de Vetores/economia , Doenças das Plantas/economia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
11.
Environ Entomol ; 49(4): 796-802, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623448

RESUMO

Integration of biological control with other management tactics such as prescribed burning is often important for successful invasive weed control. A critical step in this integration is determining whether the agent can colonize postburn growth of the weed. Here, we investigated postburn colonization by biological control agents on regrowth of the invasive vine Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. (Lygodiaceae, Old World climbing fern) in Florida. We monitored regrowth and subsequent colonization of two agents already established in Florida-the gall-inducing mite Floracarus perrepae Knihinicki and Boczek (Acariformes: Eriophyidae) and the foliage-feeding moth Neomusotima conspurcatalis Warren (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)-following three prescribed burns. We provide the first report of natural colonization by the F. perrepae mite and N. conspurcatalis moth on postburn L. microphyllum regrowth, and this colonization typically began 5-9 mo postburn. Furthermore, we report that L. microphyllum can recover to prefire levels of percent cover in as little as 5 mo. Our findings indicate that biological control of L. microphyllum has the potential to be integrated with prescribed burns.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Ácaros , Mariposas , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Florida , Controle Biológico de Vetores
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008410, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726353

RESUMO

The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia is a biocontrol tool that inhibits the ability of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to transmit positive-sense RNA viruses such as dengue and Zika. Growing evidence indicates that when Wolbachia strains wMel or wAlbB are introduced into local mosquito populations, human dengue incidence is reduced. Despite the success of this novel intervention, we still do not fully understand how Wolbachia protects mosquitoes from viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that the Wolbachia strain wPip does not inhibit virus infection in Ae. aegypti. We have leveraged this novel finding, and a panel of Ae. aegypti lines carrying virus-inhibitory (wMel and wAlbB) and non-inhibitory (wPip) strains in a common genetic background, to rigorously test a number of hypotheses about the mechanism of Wolbachia-mediated virus inhibition. We demonstrate that, contrary to previous suggestions, there is no association between a strain's ability to inhibit dengue infection in the mosquito and either its typical density in the midgut or salivary glands, or the degree to which it elevates innate immune response pathways in the mosquito. These findings, and the experimental platform provided by this panel of genetically comparable mosquito lines, clear the way for future investigations to define how Wolbachia prevents Ae. aegypti from transmitting viruses.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Vírus da Dengue , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Wolbachia , Animais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Fenótipo
13.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110801, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561010

RESUMO

Convincing farmers to allot refuge areas for natural enemies is a challenge due to their fear of losing farming space. But, increasing the benefits beyond enhancing natural enemy conservation may further incentivize the adoption of refuge areas, which then would concomitantly favor biological control and other purposes. For example, the construction of terrace embankments on field slopes is essential to mitigate soil erosion; and this is better attained when vegetation occurs atop the terraces. Our insight is that these vegetated terraces can serve a dual purpose of preventing soil erosion as well as sheltering natural enemies and potentially diverting the attack of herbivorous pests. Therefore, in this two-year field study we assessed the abundance of natural enemies and pests as well as leaf damage and plant mass in maize plots cultivated between either vegetated or unvegetated terraces. The proportion of maize defoliation in the unvegetated-terrace treatment was about twice as high as the defoliation observed in the vegetated-terrace treatment during both years. The most abundant spontaneous vegetation occurring on the terraces comprised the grasses Panicum maximum Jacq. and Brachiaria decumbens (Stapf), which appeared to shelter herbivorous pests such as leafhoppers, spittlebugs and Chrysomelidae beetles as well as natural enemies. Specifically, a higher abundance of flying predators including wasps, ladybeetles and syrphids was observed in the vegetated-terrace treatment. Taken together, these results indicate the potential for vegetated terraces to concurrently mitigate soil erosion and promote pest control by means of enhancing natural enemy conservation as well as diverting pest attack.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Solo , Controle de Pragas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Poaceae
14.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2158-2167, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539595

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the antagonistic activity of endophytic and rhizosphere fungi isolated from a medicinal plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum, against Pythium aphanidermatum, the cause of damping off of cucumber. A total of 40 endophytic and 19 rhizosphere fungi were isolated from S. portulacastrum. Three endophytic isolates and two rhizosphere isolates gave >50% suppression of P. aphanidermatum in the in vitro dual-culture tests. Scanning electron microscopic studies at the inhibition zone showed hyphae wall damage and abnormal mycelial growth of the genus Pythium. Molecular analysis identified the antagonistic endophytes as Aspergillus insulicola (isolate A435), A. insulicola (A419), and Aspergillus melleus (A412) and the rhizosphere antagonists as Aspergillus terreus (A213) and Aspergillus luchuensis (A116). Except for A116, the culture filtrates of the other antagonists significantly increased the electrolyte leakage from Pythium mycelia, whereas ethyl acetate extracts of A435, A412, and A213 showed significant growth suppression. All five antagonists were able to produce varying amounts of cellulase and ß-glucanase enzymes. However, A435, A412, and A213 showed significantly higher cellulase activity, whereas A435 and A116 showed the highest ß-glucanase activity. Controlled glasshouse growth experiments showed that isolates A435 and A116 resulted in up to 70% control of damping off, whereas isolates A412 and A213 showed 30 to 40% damping-off control. The antagonists A435, A116, and A213 also contributed to increased cucumber shoot length as well as shoot and root dry mass. The synergetic effects of metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes could be the reason for the variation between isolates in the antagonistic activity and cucumber growth promotion. This study reports for the first time A. insulicola, A. melleus, and A. luchuensis as potential biocontrol agents against P. aphanidermatum-induced damping off of cucumber.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Cucumis sativus , Portulaca , Pythium , Fungos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas , Rizosfera
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516348

RESUMO

Shoot fly (Atherigona naqvii) is one of the major insects affecting spring maize in North India and can cause yield loss up to 60 per cent. The genetics of insect resistance is complex as influenced by genotypic background, insect population and climatic conditions. Therefore, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a highly effective approach for studying genetically complex forms of insect resistance. The objective of the present study was to dissect the genetic basis of resistance and identification of genomic regions associated with shoot fly resistance. A total of 107 F2 population derived from the cross CM143 (resistant) x CM144 (susceptible) was genotyped with 120 SSR markers. Phenotypic data were recorded on replicated F2:3 progenies for various component traits imparting resistance to shoot fly at different time intervals. Resistance to shoot fly was observed to be under polygenic control as evidenced by the identification of 19 putative QTLs governed by overdominance to partial dominance and additive gene actions. The major QTLs conditioning shoot fly resistance viz., qDH9.1 (deadheart) and qEC9.1 (oviposition) explaining 15.03 and 18.89 per cent phenotypic variance, respectively were colocalized on chromosome 9. These QTLs are syntenic to regions of chromosome 10 of sorghum which were also accounted for deadheart and oviposition suggesting that the same gene block may be responsible for shoot fly resistance. The candidate genes such as cysteine protease, subtilisin-chymotrypsin inhibitor, cytochrome P450 involved in synthesis of alleochemicals, receptor kinases, glossy15 and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway were identified within the predicted QTL regions. This is the first reported mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to shoot fly in maize, and the markers identified here will be a valuable resource for developing elite maize cultivars with resistance to shoot fly.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Sorghum/genética , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Índia , Insetos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
16.
GM Crops Food ; 11(4): 262-274, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594843

RESUMO

Transgenic chickpeas expressing high levels of a truncated version of the cry1Ac (trcry1Ac) gene conferred complete protection to Helicoverpa armigera in the greenhouse. Homozygous progeny of two lines, Cry1Ac.1 and Cry1Ac.2, had similar growth pattern and other morphological characteristics, including seed yield, compared to the non-transgenic counterpart; therefore, seed compositional analysis was carried out. These selected homozygous chickpea lines were selfed for ten generations along with the non-transgenic parent under contained conditions. A comparative seed composition assessment, seed storage proteins profiling, and in vitro protein digestibility were performed to confirm that these lines do not have significant alterations in seed composition compared to the parent. Our analyses showed no significant difference in primary nutritional composition between transgenic and non-transgenic chickpeas. In addition, the seed storage protein profile also showed no variation between the transgenic chickpea lines. Seed protein digestibility assays using simulated gastric fluid revealed a similar rate of digestion of proteins from the transgenic trcry1Ac lines compared to the non-transgenic line. Thus, our data suggest no unintended changes in the seed composition of transgenic chickpea expressing a trcry1Ac gene.


Assuntos
Cicer/genética , Mariposas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
17.
Environ Entomol ; 49(4): 854-864, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488261

RESUMO

Spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White), is an invasive Asian insect that was initially found in Berks County, Pennsylvania, in 2014. As of early 2020, this pest had been found in five more eastern states and it is expected to continue to expand its geographical range. Lycorma delicatula is highly polyphagous but seems to prefer tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima. However, grape growers in Pennsylvania have reported significant damage and loss of vines caused by L. delicatula adults. In fall 2018, two fungal entomopathogens (Beauveria bassiana and Batkoa major) drove localized collapses in L. delicatula populations in Berks County, Pennsylvania. In 2019, we tested applications of a commercialized mycoinsecticide based on B. bassiana strain GHA on L. delicatula populations in a public park in southeastern Pennsylvania. A single application of B. bassiana reduced fourth instar nymphs by 48% after 14 d. Applications of B. bassiana to L. delicatula adults in the same park resulted in 43% mortality after 14 d. Beauveria bassiana spores remained viable on foliage for 5-7 d after spraying. We also conducted semi-field bioassays with B. bassiana GHA (formulated as BoteGHA and Aprehend) and another mycoinsecticide containing Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 against L. delicatula adults feeding on potted grapes. All the mycoinsecticides killed ≥90% of adults after 9 d using direct applications. Aprehend killed 99% of adults after 9 d with exposure to residues on sprayed grapes. These data show that fungal entomopathogens can help to suppress populations of L. delicatula in agroecosystems and natural areas.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Hemípteros , Hypocreales , Animais , Ninfa , Pennsylvania , Controle Biológico de Vetores
18.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127252, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526470

RESUMO

The widespread use of chemical pesticides for crop protection, despite having contributed to ensure food security, have shown to exert negative impacts on the environment and on human health. In addition, the frequent emergence of resistance to pesticides and their adverse effects toward non-target organisms have generated the need to develop novel ecofriendly tools for pest control. Among these, plant essential oils (EOs) may play a central role in arthropod pest control. Recently, two formulations (Emulsion and PEG-nanoparticles) of three citrus EOs (lemon, mandarin and sweet orange) showed a promising potential against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key tomato pest. Here, we evaluated the side effects of these experimental insecticides active substances toward (i) the generalist predator of several tomato pests, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae); (ii) the soil enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase activity, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, acid phosphomonoesterase and urease) and (iii) the tomato plant antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and polyphenol oxidase). Among the tested formulations, mandarin EO-based insecticide presented a significant impact on the predator survival and reproduction. Conversely, all the tested compounds proved to be harmless for the soil enzymatic and the plant antioxidant activities. Overall, these results provide solid bases for the development of novel biopesticides for sustainable tomato crop protection.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos , Heterópteros , Insetos , Inseticidas , Lepidópteros , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369503

RESUMO

Regulatory pressure along with environmental and human health concerns drive the development of soil fumigation alternatives such as soil biosolarization (SBS). SBS involves tarping soil that is at field capacity with a transparent film following amendment with certain organic materials. Heating via the greenhouse effect results in an increase of the soil temperature. The organic amendments can promote microbial activity that can enhance pest inactivation by depleting oxygen, producing biopesticidal fermentation products, and competing with pests. The properties of the organic amendments can heavily influence the type and magnitude of these effects. This study evaluated the viability of chitin as a novel SBS soil amendment to influence soil fungal and bacterial microbial communities, including control of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (FOL). Changes to FOL and the broader soil microbiota were monitored in response to biosolarization using 0.1% (by dry weight) amendment with chitin (Rootguard). FOL suppression was only observed in chitin amended soils that were incubated at room temperature, not under solarized conditions. Conversely, it decreased solarization efficacy in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer. The presence of chitin also showed increase in FOL under anaerobic and fluctuating temperature regime conditions. Biosolarization with chitin amendment did exhibit an impact on the overall soil microbial community. The fungal genus Mortierella and the bacterial family Chitinophagaceae were consistently enriched in biosolarized soils with chitin amendment. This study showed low potential FOL suppression due chitin amendment at the studied levels. However, chitin amendment showed a higher impact on the fungal community than the bacterial community. The impact of these microbial changes on crop protection and yields need to be studied in the long-term.


Assuntos
Quitina/química , Compostagem/métodos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Produção Agrícola , Microbiota , Controle Biológico de Vetores
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369513

RESUMO

Cereal cyst nematodes cause serious yield losses of wheat in Hunaghuai winter wheat growing region in China. Beauveria bassiana 08F04 isolated from the surface of cysts is a promising biological control agent for cereal cyst nematodes. As the colonization capacity is a crucial criteria to assess biocontrol effectiveness for a microbial agent candidate, we aimed to label B. bassiana 08F04 for efficient monitoring of colonization in the soil. The binary pCAM-gfp plasmid containing sgfp and hph was integrated into B. bassiana 08F04 using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformation caused a significant change in mycelial and conidial yields, and in extracellular chitinase activity in some transformants. The cultural filtrates of some transformants also decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and the survival of Heterodera filipjevi second-stage juveniles relative to the wild-type strain. One transformant (G10) had a growth rate and biocontrol efficacy similar to the wild-type strain, so it was used for a pilot study of B. bassiana colonization conducted over 13 weeks. Real-time PCR results and CFU counts revealed that the population of G10 increased quickly over the first 3 weeks, then decreased slowly over the following 4 weeks before stabilizing. In addition, the application of wild-type B. bassiana 08F04 and transformant G10 significantly reduced the number of H. filipjevi females in roots by 64.4% and 60.2%, respectively. The results of this study have practical applications for ecological, biological and functional studies of B. bassiana 08F04 and for bionematicide registration.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Tylenchida/fisiologia , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Animais , Beauveria/genética , Feminino , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Transformação Genética
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