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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance of pest insect species to insecticides, including B. thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins expressed by transgenic plants, is a threat to global food security. Despite the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, being a major pest of maize and having populations showing increasing levels of resistance to hybrids expressing Bt pesticidal proteins, the cell mechanisms leading to mortality are not fully understood. RESULTS: Twenty unique RNA-seq libraries from the Bt susceptible D. v. virgifera inbred line Ped12, representing all growth stages and a range of different adult and larval exposures, were assembled into a reference transcriptome. Ten-day exposures of Ped12 larvae to transgenic Bt Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize roots showed significant differential expression of 1055 and 1374 transcripts, respectively, compared to cohorts on non-Bt maize. Among these, 696 were differentially expressed in both Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize exposures. Differentially-expressed transcripts encoded protein domains putatively involved in detoxification, metabolism, binding, and transport, were, in part, shared among transcripts that changed significantly following exposures to the entomopathogens Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Metarhizium anisopliae. Differentially expressed transcripts in common between Bt and entomopathogen treatments encode proteins in general stress response pathways, including putative Bt binding receptors from the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Putative caspases, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors were identified among transcripts uniquely up-regulated following exposure to either Bt protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the up-regulation of genes involved in ER stress management and apoptotic progression may be important in determining cell fate following exposure of susceptible D. v. virgifera larvae to Bt maize roots. This study provides novel insights into insect response to Bt intoxication, and a possible framework for future investigations of resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Praguicidas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regulação para Cima , Zea mays/genética
2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e250778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346961

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) now a possible safer microbial control measure that could be considered as a substitute for chemical control of insect pests. Three EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated for their virulence against the grubs of Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) under laboratory conditions. The isolates were applied by two methods viz., diet incorporation and an immersion method with 3rd instar 20 grubs of T. granarium for each. The virulence of EPF was determined using percent mortality. Significantly higher mortality was observed in M. anisopliae applied through immersion (98.33%) and diet incorporation (93.33%) methods followed by B. bassiana (90.83 and 85.83%, respectively). The mortality caused by I. furnosoroseus was statistically lower in immersion and diet incorporation methods i.e. 81.67 and 73.33%, respectively. Based on the immersion method, all EPF were studied for multiple conidial concentration i.e., 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 under the same in-vitro conditions. All the isolates were pathogenic to grub of T. granarium at the highest conidial concentration. M. anisopliae was proved the most effective virulent resulting in 98.33% mortality of the pest with LT50 4.61 days at 1 × 108 conidial concentration followed by 90.83 and 81.67 percent mortality with 5.07 and 8.01 days LT50, in the application of B. bassiana and I. furnosoroseus, respectively. M. anisopliae showed higher efficacy and could be considered as promising EPF for the development of myco-insecticides against effective biocontrol of T. granarium.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Besouros , Oryza , Animais , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Virulência
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e003721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431927

RESUMO

Stomoxys calcitrans is a hematophagous dipteran. Several agents are used in biological control, including entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Bioassay I involved an evaluation of the effect of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 on S. calcitrans larvae in different periods of exposure. Groups of 10 larvae were placed in Petri dishes and 200 EPNs/larva were added, which were divided into groups according to the exposure times of 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The purpose of Bioassay II was to evaluate the efficacy of the EPNs in infecting S. calcitrans larvae when they were isolated from stable fly larvae in Bioassay I. Groups of 10 larvae were placed in Petri dishes and 200 EPNs/larva were added. In bioassay I, H. bacteriophora caused mortality rates of 51.7, 83.3 and 91.7% in 12, 24 and 48 hours, respectively, while H. baujardi caused mortality rates of 9.3 (12h), 35 (24h) and 35% (48h). In Bioassay II, H. bacteriophora and H. baujardi resulted in mortality rates of 35% and 25%, respectively. It was concluded that the longest exposure times presented the highest larval mortality and that EPNs isolated from S. calcitrans are not efficient in controlling the larvae fly.


Assuntos
Muscidae , Nematoides , Animais , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Reinfecção/veterinária
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299280

RESUMO

Invertebrate pests, such as insects and nematodes, not only cause or transmit human and livestock diseases but also impose serious crop losses by direct injury as well as vectoring pathogenic microbes. The damage is global but greater in developing countries, where human health and food security are more at risk. Although synthetic pesticides have been in use, biological control measures offer advantages via their biodegradability, environmental safety and precise targeting. This is amply demonstrated by the successful and widespread use of Bacillusthuringiensis to control mosquitos and many plant pests, the latter by the transgenic expression of insecticidal proteins from B. thuringiensis in crop plants. Here, I discuss the prospects of using bacterial and fungal toxins for pest control, including the molecular basis of their biocidal activity.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Toxinas Biológicas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Insetos/microbiologia , Nematoides/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
6.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280294

RESUMO

Euproctis pseudoconspersa is a major pest of tea plants, and also causes a skin rash on workers in tea plantations. Research on virus could provide fundamental insights for classification, genetic diversity, evolution, and host-virus interaction mechanisms. Here, we identified a novel RNA virus, Euproctis pseudoconspersa bunyavirus (Phenuiviridae), and found that it is widely distributed in field populations of E. pseudoconspersa. The replication of virus in E. pseudoconspersa was indicated by Tag-PCR. These results contribute to the classification of bunyaviruses and provide insight into the diversity of commensal E. pseudoconspersa bunyavirus and the host.


Assuntos
Mariposas/virologia , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Chá
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4388, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282149

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue and malaria, pose significant global health burdens. Unfortunately, current control methods based on insecticides and environmental maintenance have fallen short of eliminating the disease burden. Scalable, deployable, genetic-based solutions are sought to reduce the transmission risk of these diseases. Pathogen-blocking Wolbachia bacteria, or genome engineering-based mosquito control strategies including gene drives have been developed to address these problems, both requiring the release of modified mosquitoes into the environment. Here, we review the latest developments, notable similarities, and critical distinctions between these promising technologies and discuss their future applications for mosquito-borne disease control.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Wolbachia/genética
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(4): 673-686, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273013

RESUMO

Euseius sojaensis (Ehara) is an effective indigenous natural enemy of some eriophyid mites and spider mites in Japan. However, pesticides that are toxic to it are frequently applied in commercial Japanese pear orchards until early summer, when the predator densities are at their peak. Here, we examined the suppressive effect of inoculative release of E. sojaensis on Eriophyes chibaensis Kadono and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida under conservation control using selective pesticides from late April to late June. The densities of E. sojaensis peaked in early June. In E. sojaensis-release plots, phytoseiid populations were larger, E. chibaensis and T. kanzawai populations were smaller, and rates of leaf mosaic and russeting caused by E. chibaensis were significantly lower than in control plots. These results suggest that E. sojaensis can control E. chibaensis and T. kanzawai populations simultaneously. As it may be difficult to suppress E. chibaensis densities below the control threshold of 50 mites per leaf only by conservation using selective pesticides, enhancement and augmentation of E. sojaensis for sustainable control of mites should be considered as an option in commercial Japanese pear orchards.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Pyrus , Tetranychidae , Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281180

RESUMO

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (SCA), has become a major pest of grain sorghum since its appearance in the USA. Several grain sorghum parental lines are moderately resistant to the SCA. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying this resistance are poorly understood, which has constrained breeding for improved resistance. RNA-Seq was used to conduct transcriptomics analysis on a moderately resistant genotype (TAM428) and a susceptible genotype (Tx2737) to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance. Differential expression analysis revealed differences in transcriptomic profile between the two genotypes at multiple time points after infestation by SCA. Six gene clusters had differential expression during SCA infestation. Gene ontology enrichment and cluster analysis of genes differentially expressed after SCA infestation revealed consistent upregulation of genes controlling protein and lipid binding, cellular catabolic processes, transcription initiation, and autophagy in the resistant genotype. Genes regulating responses to external stimuli and stress, cell communication, and transferase activities, were all upregulated in later stages of infestation. On the other hand, expression of genes controlling cell cycle and nuclear division were reduced after SCA infestation in the resistant genotype. These results indicate that different classes of genes, including stress response genes and transcription factors, are responsible for countering the physiological effects of SCA infestation in resistant sorghum plants.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/genética , Sorghum/genética , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Grão Comestível/genética , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Genótipo , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Sorghum/parasitologia , Transcriptoma
10.
Ecol Lett ; 24(9): 2010-2024, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160871

RESUMO

Chemical pesticides remain the main agents for control of arthropod crop pests despite increased concern for their side effects. Although chemical pesticide applications generally result in short-term decreases of pest densities, densities can subsequently resurge to higher levels than before. Thus, pesticide effects on pest densities beyond a single pest generation may vary, but they have not been reviewed in a systematic manner. Using mathematical predator-prey models, we show that pest resurgence is expected when effective natural enemies are present, even when they are less sensitive to pesticides than the pest. Model simulations over multiple pest generations predict that pest resurgence due to pesticide applications will increase average pest densities throughout a growing season when effective natural enemies are present. We tested this prediction with a meta-analysis of published data of field experiments that compared effects of chemical control of arthropod plant pests in the presence and absence of natural enemies. This largely confirmed our prediction: overall, pesticide applications did not reduce pest densities significantly when natural enemies were present, which concerned the vast majority of cases. We also show that long-term pesticide effectiveness is underreported and suggest that pest control by natural enemies deserves more attention.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Praguicidas , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Plantas
11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065665

RESUMO

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural pathogen of different invertebrates, primarily insects, is widely used as a biological control agent. While Bt-based preparations are claimed to be safe for non-target organisms due to the immense host specificity of the bacterium, the growing evidence witnesses the distant consequences of their application for natural communities. For instance, upon introduction to soil habitats, Bt strains can affect indigenous microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, and further establish complex relationships with local plants, ranging from a mostly beneficial demeanor, to pathogenesis-like plant colonization. By exerting a direct effect on target insects, Bt can indirectly affect other organisms in the food chain. Furthermore, they can also exert an off-target activity on various soil and terrestrial invertebrates, and the frequent acquisition of virulence factors unrelated to major insecticidal toxins can extend the Bt host range to vertebrates, including humans. Even in the absence of direct detrimental effects, the exposure to Bt treatment may affect non-target organisms by reducing prey base and its nutritional value, resulting in delayed alleviation of their viability. The immense phenotypic plasticity of Bt strains, coupled with the complexity of ecological relationships they can engage in, indicates that further assessment of future Bt-based pesticides' safety should consider multiple levels of ecosystem organization and extend to a wide variety of their inhabitants.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/administração & dosagem , Bacillus thuringiensis/patogenicidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/toxicidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Fenótipo
12.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065533

RESUMO

The Artemisia genus includes a large number of species with worldwide distribution and diverse chemical composition. The secondary metabolites of Artemisia species have numerous applications in the health, cosmetics, and food sectors. Moreover, many compounds of this genus are known for their antimicrobial, insecticidal, parasiticidal, and phytotoxic properties, which recommend them as possible biological control agents against plant pests. This paper aims to evaluate the latest available information related to the pesticidal properties of Artemisia compounds and extracts and their potential use in crop protection. Another aspect discussed in this review is the use of nanotechnology as a valuable trend for obtaining pesticides. Nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, and nanocapsules represent a more efficient method of biopesticide delivery with increased stability and potency, reduced toxicity, and extended duration of action. Given the negative impact of synthetic pesticides on human health and on the environment, Artemisia-derived biopesticides and their nanoformulations emerge as promising ecofriendly alternatives to pest management.


Assuntos
Artemisia/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e026620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076056

RESUMO

Bioverm® (Duddingtonia flagrans) is a fungal formulation indicated for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and horses, which has recently been authorized for commercialization in Brazil. The objective was to determine the efficiency of Bioverm® against larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Twelve animals were used, divided into two groups. In the treated group, a single dose of 1 g of Bioverm® per 10 kg of live weight (containing 105 chlamydospores of D. flagrans) was provided for each animal. Fecal samples were obtained from the animals in each group at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours after administration. In assay A, 2 g of feces were added to Petri dishes containing 2% agar-water medium. In assay B, coprocultures were performed. In both assays, the peak of larval predation occurred within 48 hours after administration of Bioverm®. In assay A, a significant larval reduction (P < 0.05) was seen at 48 h (88.2%). In assay B, significant reductions (P < 0.05) were seen at 36 h (43.7%) and 48 h (82.3%). Bioverm® showed high predatory capacity after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and was effective for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Duddingtonia , Nematoides , Animais , Ascomicetos , Brasil , Bovinos , Fezes , Trato Gastrointestinal , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 176: 104882, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119224

RESUMO

In order to increase the virulence of two commonly used entomopathogens namely Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for effective mosquito control programs, we developed new combined formulation by the use of immunosuppressive concentration of imidacloprid. Exposure of sublethal concentration (LC10 1.34 ppb) of imidacloprid to second instar larvae for 92 h that differently modulated the larval biochemical markers by decreasing the total protein (20.65% reduction), acetylcholinesterase (35.74% reduction) and increases the ß-carboxylesterase (26.59% increase) and acid phosphatase (30.69% increase) levels while no significant difference was noticed in alkaline phosphatase of C. quinquefasciatus. Further we demonstrated that the imidacloprid exposure brings about reduction in phenoloxidase level (39.48% decrease) and nitric oxide production (37.64% decrease) in larval homogenate over control. The reduction in viability of hemocytes (15.37% decrease) and phagocytic activity of hemocytes (32.18% decrease) was noticed in imidacloprid treatment. Moreover in laboratory condition, exposure of 1 × 107 spores/ml of B. bassiana (984) and M. anisopliae (6060) alone for 92 h cumulative toxicity assay exhibited larval mortality of 36.47% and 47.64% respectively against C. quinquefasciatus. However in the synergistic experimental studies with LC10 of imidacloprid and 1 × 107 spores/ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae to the larvae for 92 h cumulative assay brought 60% and 50.59% more insecticidal activity than the respective entomopathogens alone. The substantial increase of larvicidal activity noticed in the synergistic test conditions against larvae of C. quinquefasciatus revealed that the inclusion of sublethal concentration was proved to be useful for effective larval control.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Culex , Metarhizium , Animais , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Virulência
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(12): 5001-5012, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100979

RESUMO

This study was sought to devise pellets containing inorganic materials and microsclerotia of Metarhizium anisopliae strain IP 119 for biological control of Rhipicephalus microplus, the most economically important tick in Brazilian cattle industry. In addition, we evaluated the storage stability of the pellets, their tolerance to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), and efficacy against ticks under laboratory conditions. Fungal microsclerotia were produced by liquid culture fermentation and mixed with pre-selected inorganic matrices: vermiculite powder, diatomaceous earth, and colloidal silicon dioxide (78:20:2, w/w/w). The microsclerotial pellets were then prepared by a two-stage process involving extrusion and spheronization. Pellet size averaged 525.53 ± 7.74 µm, with a sphericity index of 0.72 ± 0.01, while biomass constituents did not affect the wet mass properties. Conidial production from microsclerotial pellets upon rehydration ranged from 1.85 × 109 to 1.97 × 109 conidia g-1 with conidial viability ≥ 93%. Conidial production from pellets stored at 4 °C was invariable for up to 21 days. Unformulated microsclerotia and microsclerotial pellets were extremely tolerant to UV-B compared with aerial conidia. Engorged tick females exposed to conidia from sporulated pellets applied to soil samples and upon optimal rehydration exhibited shorter oviposition time length, shorter life span, and reduced number of hatched larvae. In summary, microsclerotial pellets of M. anisopliae IP 119 effectively suppressed R. microplus and showed outstanding UV-B tolerance in laboratory tests. Prospectively, this formulation prototype is promising for targeting the non-parasitic stage of this tick on outdoor pasture fields and may offer a novel mycoacaricide for its sustainable management. KEY POINTS: • Pellets with microsclerotia and inorganic materials are innovative for tick control. • Metarhizium microsclerotia show superior UV-B tolerance in relation to conidia. • Pellets of Metarhizium microsclerotia produce infective conidia against ticks.


Assuntos
Metarhizium , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Raios Ultravioleta
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 176: 104877, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119221

RESUMO

The Beauveria spp. were isolated from soil and insect cadavers of crop rhizosphere and characterized for parasitic enzyme activity and virulence against whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci). The colony morphology and molecular identification using ITS specific marker were carried out and confirmed entomopathogenic fungi as Beauveria bassiana. The bioefficacy of B. bassiana against whiteflies demonstrated highest corrected mortality and lowest LC50 in isolate B. bassiana JAU2 (SEM morphology) followed by JAU1 on 6th days. Parasitic enzymes chitinase and lipase were determined highest in JAU2 and protease activity examined higher in isolate JAU4 followed by JAU2 isolate on 6th days after inoculation. Comparative extracellular metabolomics carried out from potent (JAU1 and JAU2), moderate (JAU4 and JAU14) and weak (JAU6) B. bassiana isolates in normal suborder dextrose agar with yeast extrect (SDAY) and chitin induced media. Results illustrated that total 105 metabolites identified common for all five B. bassiana isolates differing in virulence. However, the color intensity of the metabolites changes in heat map showing differential concentration of that extracellular compound compared to other isolates. The volcano plot analysis illustrated 58 compounds significanlty diverse between potent JAU1 and JAU2 under two different culture conditions of which 34 compounds recognized up regulated in most potent JAU2 under chitin induced media. Out of 34 metabolites, ten compounds viz., fumaricine, resazurin, N-methyldioctylamine, penaresidun B, tetralin, squamocin B, oligomycin C, pubesenolide, epirbuterol and gentamicin C1a were recognized significantly upregulated in most potent JAU2 and reported for antimicrobial, nematicidal, larvicidalor insecticidal activities. The mass spectra and fragment structure were elucidated under LCMS-QTOF for some novel and unique compounds recognized in most potent B. bassiana JAU2, involved in parasitic activity against whiteflies.


Assuntos
Beauveria/enzimologia , Quitinases , Hemípteros , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Metabolômica
18.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 44: 101-106, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933685

RESUMO

Forest pests can cause massive ecological and economic damage worldwide. Ecologically sound solutions to diminish forest insect pest impacts include the use of their natural enemies, such as predators and parasitoids, as well as entomopathogenic fungi, bacteria or viruses. Phytochemical compounds mediate most interactions between these organisms, but knowledge of such chemically mediated multitrophic relationships is still at its infancy for forest systems, particularly when compared to agricultural systems. Here, we highlight the main gaps in how phytochemicals of forest trees facilitate or interfere with trophic interactions between trees, insect herbivores, and interacting organisms including predators, parasitoids and microbes. We propose future avenues of research on phytochemical-based biocontrol of forest pests taking into account the characteristics of trees and forests.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Árvores/metabolismo , Animais , Florestas , Herbivoria , Microbiota , Árvores/microbiologia
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(10): 4262-4273, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041838

RESUMO

This article describes the design and > 20 years of effective implementation of a proactive resistance-management plan for transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton that targets Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren) in Australia, considering pest biology and ecology, insights from resistance-evolution modelling, and the importance of the human component to effective implementation. This is placed in the context of processes associated with adaptive resource management. Bt cotton has provided Australian cotton growers with technology to manage Helicoverpa species that previously challenged the industry's viability, while at the same time resulting in no detectable changes in the resistance allele frequency in field populations of either Helicoverpa species in eastern Australia. This is the most long-lived and successful global example of a proactive resistance management plan for an insect pest. Six key learnings important to the successful development and implementation of a proactive transgenic-crop resistance management plan are: the programme has to have a strong science base; there has to be broad stakeholder support at all levels; there has to be a strong implementation programme; the plan needs to be supported by auditing and enforced remediation of deviations from the mandated resistance management plan; A programme of rigorous and on-going resistance allele monitoring; an attitude of continuous improvement for all aspects of the resistance management plan. The lessons learnt from the deployment of Bt cotton in Australia are relevant globally and provide important guidelines for the deployment of transgenic crops for insect control wherever they are grown. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Mariposas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Austrália , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mariposas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
20.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(6): 1079-1089, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032403

RESUMO

Lysobacter are new biocontrol agents known for their prolific production of lytic enzymes and bioactive metabolites. L. enzymogenes is a predator of fungi and produces several structurally distinct antimicrobial compounds, such as the antifungal HSAF (heat stable antifungal factor) and analogs. The mechanism by which L. enzymogenes interacts with fungal prey is not well understood. Here, we found that the production of HSAF and analogs in L. enzymogenes OH11 was significantly induced in media supplemented with ground fungal mycelia or chitin. In the OH11 genome, we identified a gene (LeLPMO10A) that was annotated to encode a chitin-binding protein. The stimulation of HSAF and analogs by chitin was diminished when LeLPMO10A was deleted. We expressed the gene in E. coli and demonstrated that purified LeLPMO10A oxidatively cleaved chitin into oligomeric products, including 1,5 δ-lactones and aldonic acids. The results revealed that LeLPMO10A encodes a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, which has not been reported in Lysobacter. The metabolite analysis, antifungal assay, and proteomic analysis showed that the antifungal compounds and the chitin-cleaving LeLPMO10A are colocalized in outer membrane vesicles. The enzymatic products that resulted from in vitro LeLPMO10A-cleaved chitin also significantly induced HSAF and analogs in OH11. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that spherical vesicles were formed outside of OH11 cells, and fewer OH11 cells were observed to attach to fungal hyphae when LeLPMO10A was deleted. Together, the study revealed a previously uncharacterized synergistic strategy utilized by the predatory Lysobacter during interaction with fungal prey.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Lysobacter/fisiologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Fungos/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
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