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1.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822782

RESUMO

The International Organization for Biological Control Global Working Group on Mass Rearing and Quality Assurance (MRQA) was established in 1980 as the Working Group on Quality Control (WGQC) to assure success of insect mass rearing for pest management that was being developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Due mostly to the efforts of WGQC, quality control became institutionalized in several insect mass rearing facilities during the 1980s. After addressing autocidal control programs, the WGQC concentrated on entomophagous insects, especially testing the quality of commercial biological control products. Universal Implementation of Quality Control for Mass-Reared Arthropods was finally achieved in the 1990s, having encompassed all aspects from insect production to field application and evaluation. This increased scope prompted a name change from WGQC to Arthropod Mass Rearing and Quality Control (AMRQC). Subsequently, the scope of the Working Group was expanded again and it was renamed MRQA to include a range of applications for mass-reared beneficial invertebrates. The geographic range of MRQA recently was extended beyond North and South America and Europe to include India. This expansion continued as insects for food and feed, networking and instruction, and legal and ethical issues were added to the most recent workshop held in Mexico. Thus, the MRQA continues to evolve as additional invertebrate organisms are mass produced for both established and novel applications.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/história , Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
2.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 62: 231-248, 2017 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28141966

RESUMO

This review describes the New Zealand apple industry's progression from 1960s integrated pest control research to today's comprehensive integrated pest management system. With the exception of integrated mite control implemented during the 1980s, pest control on apple crops was dominated by intensive organophosphate insecticide regimes to control tortricid leafrollers. Multiple pest resistances to these insecticides by the 1990s, and increasing consumer demand for lower pesticide residues on fruit, led to the implementation of integrated fruit production. This substantially eliminated organophosphate insecticide use by 2001, replacing it with pest monitoring systems, threshold-based selective insecticides, and biological control. More recently, new demands for ultralow-residue fruit have increased the adoption of mating disruption and use of biological insecticides. Widespread adoption of selective pest management has substantially reduced the status of previously important pests, including leafrollers, mealybugs, leafhoppers, and mites for improved phytosanitary performance, and contributed to major reductions in total insecticide use.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/história , Malus , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Nova Zelândia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos
3.
Asclepio ; 68(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-153978

RESUMO

En 1941 se creó el Instituto Español de Entomología (IEE), heredero directo de la antigua Sección de Entomología del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Entre las labores encomendadas al nuevo establecimiento estaba la de aportar «a los Centros de aplicación los datos resultantes de los trabajos que en él se efectúen con los insectos, de interés económico y sanitario». Gonzalo Ceballos fue nombrado Director y sus propuestas, junto al trabajo de las instituciones encargadas de la gestión forestal, hicieron del IEE uno de los centros motores de muchas iniciativas en este campo. Su dirección supuso, además, una excelente oportunidad para cumplir los objetivos con los que fue concebido el Instituto. En este artículo se distinguen tres formas de participación respecto al estudio, gestión y control de plagas forestales. Por un lado, la implicación del IEE en la resolución de consultas de particulares, empresas e instituciones; en segundo lugar, el desarrollo de proyectos subvencionados por el Patronato Juan de la Cierva y, finalmente, las colaboraciones con diferentes cuerpos dependientes del Ministerio de Agricultura. Se constata que la falta de personal especializado en plagas adscrito al IEE supuso un grave inconveniente para que las iniciativas de Ceballos se desarrollaran más allá de su gestión (AU)


The Spanish Institute of Entomology (IEE) was founded in 1941, direct heir of the former Entomology Section of the National Museum of Natural Science. Among the tasks assigned to the new Institute was to provide "to the interested centers the data resulting from the work that he made with insects with economic and public health significance". Gonzalo Ceballos was appointed Director; his proposals, alongside the work of the institutions responsible for forest management, turned up the IEE into one of the driving forces of many initiatives in this field. His management also provided an excellent opportunity to meet the objectives for which the Institute was conceived. Three forms of participation were distinguished on the study, management and control of forest pests. On one hand, the involvement of the IEE in resolving queries from individuals, companies and institutions; second, the development of scientific projects supported by the Juan de la Cierva Board of Trustees and, finally, collaborations with different departments belonging of the Ministry of Agriculture. It is stated that, the lack of specialized personnel assigned to the IEE pests' management was a serious drawback to continue the initiatives of Ceballos be developed beyond management (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Entomologia/história , Entomologia/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/história , Florestas , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Controle de Pragas/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Pragas da Agricultura , Insetos Vetores , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Insetos/microbiologia
4.
Viruses ; 7(5): 2230-67, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25941826

RESUMO

Baculoviruses are known to regulate many insect populations in nature. Their host-specificity is very high, usually restricted to a single or a few closely related insect species. They are amongst the safest pesticides, with no or negligible effects on non-target organisms, including beneficial insects, vertebrates and plants. Baculovirus-based pesticides are compatible with integrated pest management strategies and the expansion of their application will significantly reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. Several successful baculovirus-based pest control programs have taken place in Latin American countries. Sustainable agriculture (a trend promoted by state authorities in most Latin American countries) will benefit from the wider use of registered viral pesticides and new viral products that are in the process of registration and others in the applied research pipeline. The success of baculovirus-based control programs depends upon collaborative efforts among government and research institutions, growers associations, and private companies, which realize the importance of using strategies that protect human health and the environment at large. Initiatives to develop new regulations that promote the use of this type of ecological alternatives tailored to different local conditions and farming systems are underway.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/virologia , Inseticidas , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , América Latina , Controle Biológico de Vetores/tendências
5.
Endeavour ; 36(4): 129-30, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23174334

RESUMO

As Silent Spring passed the half-century mark, historians have continued to reflect on its significance. For this issue of Endeavour, we drew together six articles that explore a few of the many legacies of this remarkable book. Given the impressive scope and breadth of the papers in this issue, it is clear that Silent Spring, and the shock waves surrounding its publication, continue to provide rich fodder for historical analysis.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Livros/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Agricultura/história , Agroquímicos/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
6.
Endeavour ; 36(4): 131-42, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23177325

RESUMO

The controversial pesticide DDT arose out of a number of practical and conceptual developments in science and industry during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Here we trace its story back to experiments involving the industrial by-product coal tar, proceed to the development of modern organic chemistry and the establishment of an advanced dye industry, and go on to chart the attempt to identify and synthesize chemicals capable of killing the insects involved in human and crop diseases. This paper argues that work on the chemistry of coal tar played a significant role in the history of DDT because it helped bring about the scientific ideas and the practical objectives that led chemists to embark on the search for pesticides. It concludes by examining the Swiss-German DDT production industry in the early 1940s and the subsequent condemnation of DDT by an environmental movement epitomized by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral/história , Corantes/química , DDT/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Agroquímicos/química , Agroquímicos/história , Corantes/história , DDT/química , DDT/toxicidade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/história , Praguicidas/toxicidade
7.
Ambix ; 59(2): 88-108, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23057183

RESUMO

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Inseticidas/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle de Pragas/história , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/instrumentação , Agricultura/métodos , História do Século XX , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Malásia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/normas , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/normas , Reino Unido
8.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 99(1): 5-12, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20872178

RESUMO

Thirty years ago, the ascomycetous yeast Pichia anomala strain J121 was isolated from moist wheat grain stored under conditions of restricted air access. Early observations indicated that an inverse relationship existed between mould and P. anomala colony forming units in grain. This yeast strain was later found to have strong antifungal properties in laboratory, pilot and farm studies with high-moisture wheat under malfunctioning airtight storage. P. anomala had the highest inhibitory activity of 60 yeast species evaluated against the mould Penicillium roqueforti. It also demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against certain Gram-negative bacteria. P. anomala J121 possesses a number of physiological characteristics, i.e. capacity to grow under low pH, low water activity and low oxygen tension and ability to use a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, enabling it to act as an efficient biopreservative agent. The biocontrol effect in grain was enhanced by addition of glucose, mainly through formation of the volatile antimicrobial ethyl acetate. Animal feeding trials with P. anomala J121 inoculated grains, fed to chickens and beef cattle, demonstrated that mould control observed in vitro in small scale laboratory experiments could be extended to large scale farm trials. In addition, no adverse effects on animal weight gain, feed conversion, health or behaviour were observed. We have now studied P. anomala J121 biology, ecology and grain preservation ability for 30 years. Over this period, more than 40 scientific publications and five PhD theses have been written on different aspects of this yeast strain, extending from fundamental research on metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, all the way to practical farm-scale level. In spite of the well documented biopreservative ability of the yeast, it has to date been very difficult to create the right constellation of technical, agricultural and biotechnical industries necessary to reach a commercial launch of a P. anomala J121 based biopreservation system. Additionally, the complications caused by a complex EU regulatory system remain a significant barrier to practical applications.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Pichia/fisiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Antibiose , Conservação de Alimentos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história
9.
Med Glas (Zenica) ; 7(2): 106-10, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21258304

RESUMO

The introductory part has summarized the role of malaria in the course of history and various attempts of its eradication in Croatia before the World War I. Furthemore, there is a list of activities and results accomplished between 1922 and 1927 on the island of Krk by Dr. Otmar Trausmiller. After a systematic sanitation of all anopheles habitats, primarily natural and artificial bodies of still water, and introduction of imported gambusia to those bodies of water, anopheles was virtually eradicated on the island. What followed was an evident decrease of new malaria incidents, and in the campaign against malaria there was still major concern in the form of chronic patients and intensive quinine therapy. Today, about eighty years after it was introduced to Krk, gambusia still abides in ponds across the island and it represents one of the main factors in the protection against potential revival of indigenous malaria.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Malária/história , Controle de Mosquitos/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Animais , Croácia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 65(12): 1293-7, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19856340

RESUMO

In defining the integrated control concept, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagan described 'understanding the ecosystem' as a key underpinning of the concept. In following years, Stern and van den Bosch continued to refine and expand the role of the ecological landscape. They and their colleagues developed cultural practices that took advantage of this understanding to limit the need of pesticide intervention in cotton in the San Joaquin Valley during the 1960s and 1970s. Research and extension activities in the intervening years built upon those fundamental concepts using geospatial tools and analytical techniques to refine current understanding and develop ecological landscape level approaches to manage Lygus hesperus (Knight) in San Joaquin Valley cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) and more recently G. barbadense (L.). The result has been a significant drop in insecticide use against L. hesperus, with less than one application per season during the 1990 s and early 2000s.


Assuntos
Ecologia/história , Gossypium/parasitologia , Heterópteros , Controle de Insetos/história , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , California , Heterópteros/fisiologia , História do Século XX , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/história , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
11.
Pest Manag Sci ; 65(12): 1287-92, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19856383

RESUMO

During the 1960s, the California pear industry, on a per acre basis, was among the heaviest users of pesticides. Each season, multiple sprays of up to 14 active ingredients (chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates and carbamates) were typically applied for control of insects and mites. The cost of control escalated while damage from arthropod pests increased owing to greater pest resistance and more pest resurgence. The pear industry suffered classic symptoms of the 'pesticide treadmill'. By the late 1960s, key pear industry leaders demanded action. Simultaneously, newly emerging concepts of IPM were being developed and funded. With public awareness and environmental activism on the rise in the wake of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, the stage was set for change. This paper elucidates how pear growers, university researchers and extension agents, environmentalists, government regulators, private consultants, farm chemical suppliers and others contributed to the reduction in insecticide use in California pear orchards. Today, arthropod IPM in pears is characterized as relatively low input, biologically intensive and very successful. For example, in 2008 many pear growers only applied between three and five active ingredients (mainly organically certified) per season for control of arthropods.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas/história , Praguicidas/história , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Pyrus/parasitologia , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrópodes/fisiologia , California , História do Século XX , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/história
12.
Pest Manag Sci ; 65(12): 1267-86, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19834884

RESUMO

Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term 'bioresidual' was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Controle de Pragas/história , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Animais , Arizona , Ecossistema , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/fisiologia , História do Século XX , Inseticidas/economia , Inseticidas/história , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 65(12): 1298-304, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19731261

RESUMO

The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas/história , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Vitis/parasitologia , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrópodes/fisiologia , California , História do Século XX , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/história
14.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 16(2): 113-118, 2007.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: lil-462151

RESUMO

A dengue tem se destacado como uma das mais importantes doenças reermegentes no mundo. No Brasil, a partir da década de 1980, iniciou-se um processo de intensa circulação viral, com epidemias explosivas que atingiram todas as regiões brasileiras. Atualmente, cerca de 70 por cento dos municípios brasileiros estão infestados pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti, vetor da doença no País, onde circulam três sorotipos do vírus (DEN-1, DEN-2 e DEN-3). Este trabalho faz um breve relato do histórico da dengue no Brasil, com ênfase nas políticas e programas de controle do Aedes aegypti, desde as epidemias de febre amarela urbana do início do século XX. Os aspectos fundamentais do atual Programa Nacional de Controle da Dengue também são mencionados.


Dengue is presently one of the most important reemerging diseases in the world. In Brazil, since the 1980’s, there is an intense virus circulation with epidemic bursts affecting all the regions of the country. Nowadays, roughly 70% of the Brazilian municipalities are infested with the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, and the serotypes DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-3 are circulating in the country. This work presents a brief historic of the disease in Brazil, emphasizing the political strategies and programs for Aedes aegypti control since the urban yellow fever epidemics in the early 1900´s. The basic aspects of the present Brazilian Dengue Control Program are also mentioned.


Assuntos
Animais , Aedes/classificação , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Brasil
15.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 89(1): 19-29, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16039302

RESUMO

In 125 years since Metchnikoff proposed the use of Metarhizium anisopliae to control the wheat cockchafer and brought about the first field trials, microbial control has progressed from the application of naturalists' observations to biotechnology and precision delivery. This review highlights major milestones in its evolution and presents a perspective on its current direction. Fungal pathogens, the most eye-catching agents, dominated the early period, but major mycological control efforts for chinch bugs and citrus pests in the US had questionable success, and interest waned. The discoveries of Bacillus popilliae and Bacillus thuringiensis began the era of practical and commercially viable microbial control. A program to control the Japanese beetle in the US led to the discovery of both B. popilliae and Steinernema glaseri, the first nematode used as a microbial control agent. Viral insect control became practical in the latter half of the 20th century, and the first registration was obtained with the Heliothis nuclear polyhedrosis virus in 1975. Now strategies are shifting for microbial control. While Bt transgenic crops are now planted on millions of hectares, the successes of more narrowly defined microbial control are mainly in small niches. Commercial enthusiasm for traditional microbial control agents has been unsteady in recent years. The prospects of microbial insecticide use on vast areas of major crops are now viewed more realistically. Regulatory constraints, activist resistance, benign and efficacious chemicals, and limited research funding all drive changes in focus. Emphasis is shifting to monitoring, conservation, integration with chemical pesticides, and selection of favorable venues such as organic agriculture and countries that have low costs, mild regulatory climates, modest chemical inputs, and small scale farming.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Animais , Biotecnologia/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Indústrias/história , Estados Unidos
16.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 89(1): 30-8, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16039303

RESUMO

The discovery and study of insecticidal bacteria, which began a little over a century ago, led to the development of commercial bacterial insecticides in the middle of the century that became the first successful and widely used microbial control agents. Most of these products were based on Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium that kills insects through the use of insecticidal proteins that subsequently became known as Cry proteins. While most of these products were only effective against lepidopteran pests, their success eventually led in the 1970s and 1980s to the discovery of strains effective against larvae of coleopteran pests and nematocerous dipterans, such as vector and nuisance mosquitoes and blackflies. The cloning in 1981 of the first gene encoding a Cry protein led to an explosion of basic and applied research that culminated in new strains of recombinant insecticidal bacteria and, even more importantly, the development, commercialization, and wide-scale deployment of insecticidal transgenic crops based on Cry proteins. This new and environmentally safe technology has revolutionized agricultural pest control, yielding a multibillion dollar industry that is paving the way to new types of plants that will dominate food and fiber production as the 21st century progresses. In this brief symposium paper, I provide an overview of some of the key work that led to this remarkable success.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Patologia/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Animais , Bacillus , Bacillus thuringiensis , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Japão , América do Norte
18.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 89(1): 78-84, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16039308

RESUMO

In view of the increasing and devastating damage by rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) to coconut palms in the middle of last century, many efforts were made to find an efficient natural control factor against this pest, which could not be controlled by pesticides. The basic procedures of these monitoring programmes are outlined together with the final detection of a virus disease in oil palm estates in Malaysia in 1963. In extensive laboratory studies, the virus was isolated and identified as the first non-occluded, rod-shaped insect virus, morphologically resembling the baculoviruses. Infection experiments clarified the pathology, histopathology, and virulence of the virus and demonstrated that the virus was extremely virulent to larvae after peroral application. These findings encouraged the first pilot release of virus in 1967 in coconut plantations of Western Samoa where breeding sites were contaminated with virus. Surprisingly, the virus became established in the Samoan rhinoceros beetle populations and spread autonomously throughout the Western Samoan islands. As a consequence, there was a drastic decline of the beetle populations followed by a conspicuous recovery of the badly damaged coconut stands. This unexpected phenomenon could only be explained after it was shown that the adult beetle itself is a very active virus vector and thus was responsible for the efficient autodissemination of the virus. The functioning of the beetle as a 'flying virus factory' is due to the unique cytopathic process developing in the midgut after peroral virus infection. Pathological details of this process are presented. Because of the long-term persistence of the virus in the populations, rhinoceros beetle control is maintained. Incorporation of virus into integrated control measures and successful virus releases in many other countries are recorded.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae , Besouros/virologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Baculoviridae/classificação , Baculoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Baculoviridae/fisiologia , História do Século XX , Ilhas do Pacífico
19.
Rev. bras. toxicol ; v.18(1): 71-75, jul. 2005. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-417101

RESUMO

A presente revisão destaca a importância da regulamentação de produtos à base de microorganismos utilizados para o controle de pragas. Aborda-se os aspectos históricos e conceituais, as diferenças na forma de avaliação e o estabelecimento, pelos orgãos reguladores nacionais, de uma normatização própria para registro de produtos dessa natureza, baseada fundamentalmente nos padrões internacionalmente reconhecidos. É dada ênfase às vantagens de se ter regulamentos específicos para este tipo de produto, tornando mais fácil e seguro o gerenciamento de questões relacionadas à manutenção da saúde humana e do meio ambiente...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Biológico de Vetores/tendências , Microbiologia Ambiental
20.
Trends Parasitol ; 21(3): 126-32, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15734660

RESUMO

Professor Satoshi Omura has spent over 40 years searching for bioactive compounds in naturally occurring microorganisms, discovering more than 330 biomedically and commercially significant compounds in the process. The discovery, development and delivery of the drug ivermectin has pioneered the way for subsequent partnerships between the public and private sectors, as well as international collaborations and drug donation programmes. It has involved a variety of ground-breaking steps, providing a curative drug that will help rid Africa and the world of at least one of the most devastating of all human diseases, onchocerciasis. It has also improved the health of pets and livestock around the globe, and encouraged development of a community-based delivery mechanism that could herald a revolution in public health care in Africa.


Assuntos
Filaricidas/história , Ivermectina/história , Onchocerca volvulus/fisiologia , Oncocercose/história , Animais , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Japão , Macrolídeos/história , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história
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