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1.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 263, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, laypeople can earn profit by producing content; therefore, it should be noted that the unauthorized use of intellectual creations or possessions can cause legal issues and undermine the producers' desire to create. This study verified the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model for predicting the illegal use of online content among South Korean college students and examined the roles played by outcome expectancies and social loafing in this model. METHODS: The participants, 369 male and female Korean college students, were aged between 18 and 31 years (M = 22.12, SD = 2.33). We measured the illegal use of online content and the factors of the TPB model, as well as outcome expectancies and social loafing with regard to participants' illegal use of online content. Correlational analysis, stepwise regression analysis, path analysis for the TPB model, and analyses of the moderated model were performed using SPSS and AMOS. RESULTS: All TPB factors, outcome expectancies, and social loafing were positively correlated with the illegal use of online content. Stepwise regression analysis showed that intention, social loafing, outcome expectancies, and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of the illegal use of online content. A TPB model, including a direct path from perceived behavioral control to behavior, was validated to analyze the illegal use of online content. This model was found to be moderated by outcome expectancy. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the TPB is useful for predicting the illegal use of online content and that outcome expectancies and social loafing also play an important role in the illegal use of online content among college students. The findings of this study provide useful information for future research and could aid in preventing illegal online content use among adolescents and young adults.


Assuntos
Intenção , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Controle Comportamental , Análise de Regressão
2.
Sci Prog ; 105(4): 368504221140273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444484

RESUMO

Due to the lack of trust in the builder and indeterminate benefits, it is a struggle for people in Taiwan to make up their minds to participate in urban renewal. This leads to the completion rate of urban renewal of fewer than one ten-thousandth of the new construction needed. This study investigated the perspective on the research variables for people in Taiwan and how those influence their intention to participate in urban renewal. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the research framework is designed with the trust of urban renewal project builders and the perceived benefits of public participation as the independent variables. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are the mediating variables, and the general public's intention to participate in urban renewal is the dependent variable. A total of 545 valid questionnaires were collected through the survey. The results showed that the respondents' trust in the builder of the urban renewal project positively and significantly influenced their perceived benefits of the project, and the respondents' trust in the builder significantly influenced their subjective norms. The perceived benefits positively and significantly affected their attitudes and subjective norms, and people's attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control positively and significantly affected their intention to participate in urban renewal. People's perceived benefits in urban renewal projects affected their participation intention through attitudes and subjective norms. The variable perceived benefits most strongly influenced people's intention to participate in urban renewal in this study. This study provides practical suggestions for the government and builders to increase people's intention to participate in urban renewal. This study modeled two independent variables, trust in the builder and perceived benefits, under the urban renewal context in Taiwan. In future works, other factors could be included, such as tax incentives, floor area rewards, and fair appraisal.


Assuntos
Intenção , Reforma Urbana , Humanos , Controle Comportamental , Confiança , Sugestão
3.
Subj. procesos cogn ; 26(2): 30-57, nov. 28, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1401876

RESUMO

La batería de Autorregulación Cognitiva -TAC-es una herramienta informatizada para la evaluación de los principales procesos ejecutivos en una modalidad de administración presencial. Aunque sus características técnicas hacen viable su administración en una modalidad remota y asincrónica aún no cuenta con evidencias de validez y confiabilidad de sus puntuaciones en una modalidad de administración no presencial. Por ello, este estudio propone obtener evidencias de las propiedades psicométricas de la Tarea de los Dedos -TAC-en su modalidad de administración remota y asincrónica para la evaluación de la Inhibición comportamental y la flexibilidad cognitiva en personas adultas. Para cumplir con este objetivo, se analizó la presencia de dos efectos experimentales que aportan validez de constructo y se comparó su desempeño en las dos modalidades de administración. Finalmente, se analizó la confiabilidad de las puntuaciones a través del método de división por mitades. Los resultados obtenidos aportan evidencia empírica de las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento(AU)


The cognitive self-regulation battery -TAC-is a computerized tool designed to evaluate the work memory, three inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility. There is still no evidence of validity and reliability of their scores in remote administration mode. The goal of this work is to obtain evidence of reliability and validity for the tac fingers task in remote and asynchronous administration mode for cognitive flexibility and behavioral inhibition evaluation in the adult population. It was analyzed iftwo experimental effects were detected. Its presence indicates the activation or participation of cognitive flexibility and behavioral inhibition in the resolution of activities proposed by the task. Also, the performance of the participants in both modalities was compared. The internal consistency was analyzed through the method of division by halves. The results obtained provide empirical evidence of psychometric properties of TAC fingers task for evaluation of cognitive flexibility and behavioral inhibition in the adult population(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Consulta Remota , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Regulação Emocional , Psicologia Cognitiva , Inibição Psicológica
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275643, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197896

RESUMO

Scientists play important roles in conducting public engagement, but evidence shows that scientists perceive great challenges in doing so. Drawing broadly from the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examines factors predicting scientists' willingness to conduct public engagement. This study further examines how perceived behavioral control (PBC) of conducting public engagement would moderate the relationships between the proposed predictors and scientists' willingness to conduct public engagement. Using survey data collected from 706 scientists based in Singapore, this study found that attitude toward and personal norms of conducting public engagement, as well as PBC, significantly predicted scientists' willingness to conduct public engagement. Notably, PBC interacted with attitude toward conducting public engagement, the perceived descriptive norms, the perceived positive media influence, and the perceived negative external norms of conducting public engagement, as well as personal norms of conducting public engagement to predict scientists' willingness to conduct public engagement. We postulated the key role that the perception of the ease or difficulty plays in motivating scientists to conduct the skill-intensive endeavor explains the significant moderating effects. The theoretical implications on the TPB and the practical implications for public engagement are further discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude , Controle Comportamental , Intenção , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Neuron ; 110(17): 2728-2742, 2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076337

RESUMO

Prethalamic nuclei in the mammalian brain include the zona incerta, the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, and the intergeniculate leaflet, which provide long-range inhibition to many targets in the midbrain, hindbrain, and thalamus. These nuclei in the caudal prethalamus can integrate sensory and non-sensory information, and together they exert powerful inhibitory control over a wide range of brain functions and behaviors that encompass most aspects of the behavioral repertoire of mammals, including sleep, circadian rhythms, feeding, drinking, predator avoidance, and exploration. In this perspective, we highlight the evidence for this wide-ranging control and lay out the hypothesis that one role of caudal prethalamic nuclei may be that of a behavioral switchboard that-depending on the sensory input, the behavioral context, and the state of the animal-can promote a behavioral strategy and suppress alternative, competing behaviors by modulating inhibitory drive onto diverse target areas.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Corpos Geniculados , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Mesencéfalo , Tálamo
6.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 160, 2022 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence-based efficacy, mental health services are underutilized due to low rates of help-seeking, leaving unmet mental health needs a global concern. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been applied to understand the help-seeking process and in the development of behavior change interventions. The aim of this scoping review was to map the literature on the TPB as applied to mental health help-seeking in adults aged >18 years. METHODS: This scoping review was conducted based on the methodology presented by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). Six databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ProQuest Health and Medicine, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Web of Science) and two grey literature sources (OpenGrey, Google Scholar) were systematically searched in February 2018 and updated in March 2020. Studies that explicitly discussed the TPB in the context of mental health help-seeking were initially selected; only studies that explored formal help-seeking for mental health problems and were published in English were retained. Data were extracted using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: Initially, 8898 records were identified. Of these, 49 met the selection criteria and were included: 32 were journal articles and 17 were theses. Forty-three papers reported on non-intervention studies and seven articles reported on TPB-based interventions. Most studies (n = 39) identified predictors of help-seeking intentions. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intentions in 35 and 34 studies, respectively. Subjective norms were a significant predictor of intentions in 23 studies. Few studies aimed to predict help-seeking behavior (n = 8). Intentions and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of behavior in seven and six studies, respectively. Only six TPB-based interventions were identified, all used digital technology to influence help-seeking, with mixed results. CONCLUSIONS: The present scoping review identified a considerable evidence base on the TPB for predicting mental health help-seeking intentions. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were frequently found to be significant predictors of help-seeking intentions. Knowledge on the TPB for predicting mental health help-seeking behavior, and on TPB-based interventions, is limited. Thus, the role of the TPB in developing help-seeking interventions remains unclear. Recommendations are presented to address such research gaps and inform policy and practice.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Controle Comportamental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intenção
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954613

RESUMO

Unsustainable production and consumption have threatened human life and nature. Therefore, practitioners around the globe have paid attention to sustainability issues and adopted pro-environmental strategies to protect the environment. Using single-use cups contributes to environmental pollution. This study aims to understand university students' intention to use reusable drink cups in university campuses. This study has extended the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model by including moral norms, green university initiatives, environmental concerns, and moral norms. The purposive sampling technique has been employed to collect students' data from the twelve universities in Pakistan. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has been employed to test the hypothesized model. The study's results revealed that green university initiatives and norms significantly shape students' intention to use reusable cups. However, environmental concern has an insignificant impact on the perceived behavioral control. This study's results help higher education institutions to formulate strategies that create awareness among students and promote environmentally sustainable practices.


Assuntos
Atitude , Intenção , Controle Comportamental , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
8.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 49(3): 213-225, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802360

RESUMO

The scope of end-of-life communication is not well known among nephrology advanced practice nurses (APNs). Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, the study aimed to examine the independent effects of knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control on the engagement of APNs in end-of-life communication and the mediating and moderating effects of attitude and perceived behavioral control on the relationships between knowledge and end-of-life communication. A theoretically derived 17-item survey measuring the concepts was administered to a convenience sample of 127 APNs. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and multiple linear regression were employed. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control on end-of-life communication mediated and moderated the relationship between knowledge of end-of-life communication and engagement in end-of-life communication among nephrology APNs.


Assuntos
Nefrologia , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Controle Comportamental , Comunicação , Morte , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 466, 2022 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radically Open Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (RO DBT) is a novel transdiagnostic treatment that targets 'maladaptive overcontrol'; a transdiagnostic cluster of traits associated with excessive emotional and behavioural inhibitory control. Outcomes are promising for adults with a range of psychiatric disorders. No study to date has explored the adolescent experience of RO DBT. METHODS: Of the 25 eligible adolescents who received RO DBT between March 2015 and April 2017, 15 (14-17 years) consented and completed a semi-structured interview about their experience of treatment within 1 month of discharge. Interviews were recorded and then transcribed manually. Free text responses were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The majority (n = 13) had a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, although comorbidity was the norm, with 80.0% having two or more predicted comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. All had received some prior psychological treatment. Four themes were identified from analysis of transcripts: 1) Broadening Horizons, 2) Building Connections, 3) Flexibility, 4) Information Overload. Generally, RO DBT was perceived as helpful in both content and process. The focus on social and broader well-being, rather than specific mental health symptoms, was considered beneficial by many. Adolescents appreciated the group-based format of skills classes and reported benefiting from learning and practicing skills each week. The fourth theme, Information Overload, highlighted that for some, the amount of content felt overwhelming and that it was hard to remember and digest all the information, suggesting that adaptations, or simplifications, may be required to ensure accessibility for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: RO DBT is perceived as a relevant and beneficial new treatment for adolescents with maladaptive overcontrol. The broad treatment focus is perceived as unique and of particular benefit. It is reported to help with general and social functioning and foster cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Nevertheless, the amount and complexity of material was felt to be very large by some and may suggest the need for modified adolescent-specific materials.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Controle Comportamental , Emoções , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3990, 2022 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810193

RESUMO

A key feature of compulsive alcohol drinking is continuing to drink despite negative consequences. To examine the changes in neural activity that underlie this behavior, compulsive alcohol drinking was assessed in a validated rodent model of heritable risk for excessive drinking (alcohol preferring (P) rats). Neural activity was measured in dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC-a brain region involved in maladaptive decision-making) and assessed via change point analyses and novel principal component analyses. Neural population representations of specific decision-making variables were measured to determine how they were altered in animals that drink alcohol compulsively. Compulsive animals showed weakened representations of behavioral control signals, but strengthened representations of alcohol seeking-related signals. Finally, chemogenetic-based excitation of dmPFC prevented escalation of compulsive alcohol drinking. Collectively, these data indicate that compulsive alcohol drinking in rats is associated with alterations in dmPFC neural activity that underlie diminished behavioral control and enhanced seeking.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Roedores , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Comportamento Compulsivo , Etanol , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ratos
11.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 31(5): 1109-1124, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592928

RESUMO

Seclusion is used in forensic and general mental health settings to protect a person or others from harm. However, seclusion can result in trauma-related harm and re-traumatization with little known about the experience of seclusion for consumers in forensic mental health settings from their perspectives. This article explores consumer experiences of seclusion in forensic mental health settings and explores the differences between female and male experiences of seclusion. Five electronic databases were systematically searched using keywords and variations of experience, attitude, seclusion, coercion, forensic mental health, and forensic psychiatry. Inclusion criteria were original peer-reviewed studies conducted in adult forensic mental health settings reporting data on the experiences of or attitudes towards seclusion. Seven studies met the criteria for inclusion and a quality assessment was undertaken. Results found consumers in forensic mental health settings perceive seclusion to be harmful, a punishment for their behaviour, and largely a negative experience that impacts their emotional health. Some consumers report positive experiences of seclusion. Differences in the experience of seclusion for females and males are unclear. Further research is required to understand the experience of seclusion for women in forensic mental health settings. Identification and consideration of differences in the experience of seclusion for males and females may assist in identifying sex-specific interventions and may inform policy and practices to eliminate or reduce the trauma associated with seclusion use.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Isolamento de Pacientes , Adulto , Controle Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
13.
J Behav Med ; 45(3): 391-403, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362807

RESUMO

Previous studies among adolescents conceptualize behavioral cognitions [e.g., intentions and perceived behavioral control (PBC)] as stable trait-like factors despite evidence suggesting they vary momentarily. We examined whether intentions and PBC momentarily relate to subsequent sedentary time during non-school periods. Healthy adolescents (N = 15, ages 11-15) reported their intentions and PBC regarding sedentary leisure behaviors via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) up to seven times/day for 14 days. Sedentary time in the two hours following each EMA prompt was measured by ActivPAL accelerometers. When participants reported greater sedentary intentions (within-person ß = 1.1, 95% CI 0.2, 2.1, p = 0.0213) and sedentary PBC (within-person ß = 1.7, 95% CI 0.6, 2.8, p = 0.0029), they accumulated greater sedentary time. This demonstrates that sedentary intentions and PBC are acutely associated with sedentary time among adolescents. Our findings highlight the potential for implementing just-in-time activity interventions among adolescents during at-risk periods within the day, characterized by deviations from one's usual intentions and PBC levels.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Controle Comportamental , Criança , Humanos , Intenção , Atividades de Lazer
14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254628, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239787

RESUMO

Insects' ethology is an important factor when it is desired to carry out pest management. This knowledge makes it possible to manipulate behavioral activities, repel, or attract insects according to needs and interests. The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Mots., 1855) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the main stored grain pests, has been the target of studies of behavioral changes studies through natural substances due to its resistance to different insecticidal classes. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of sublethal concentrations of neem extract and copaiba oil on the locomotor behavior of S. zeamais. The behavioral characteristic considered were walking activity, the frequency of contact of insects with the treated grain mass, and the time spent for this behavior. The walking activity of the S. zeamais increased with exposure to Neem extract and Copaiba oil. In general, the Neem extract and Copaiba oil-induced more contact with grain mass than the control, suggesting an attractive effect on the insect, however more significant for the Neem oil. The insect's behavior was altered, presenting a specific path due to Copaiba oil and Neem extract stimuli. These results indicate that Copaiba oil and Neem extract can be a potential alternative for controlling S. zeamais on stored products since changes in this pests' behavior can reduce qualitative and quantitative grain damage. Thus, the development of products based on Copaiba oil and Neem extract may be helpful for storage pest management.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Gorgulhos , Animais , Controle Comportamental , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Melia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35214364

RESUMO

Restricted by the diversity and complexity of human behaviors, simulating a character to achieve human-level perception and motion control is still an active as well as a challenging area. We present a style-based teleoperation framework with the help of human perceptions and analyses to understand the tasks being handled and the unknown environment to control the character. In this framework, the motion optimization and body controller with center-of-mass and root virtual control (CR-VC) method are designed to achieve motion synchronization and style mimicking while maintaining the balance of the character. The motion optimization synthesizes the human high-level style features with the balance strategy to create a feasible, stylized, and stable pose for the character. The CR-VC method including the model-based torque compensation synchronizes the motion rhythm of the human and character. Without any inverse dynamics knowledge or offline preprocessing, our framework is generalized to various scenarios and robust to human behavior changes in real-time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this framework through the teleoperation experiments with different tasks, motion styles, and operators. This study is a step toward building a human-robot interaction that uses humans to help characters understand and achieve the tasks.


Assuntos
Robótica , Controle Comportamental , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Robótica/métodos
16.
Health Psychol ; 41(2): 155-167, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: According to the theory of planned behavior, individuals are more likely to act on their behavioral intentions, and report intentions aligned with their attitudes and subjective norm, when their perceived behavioral control (PBC) is high. We tested these predictions meta-analytically by estimating the moderating effect of PBC on the attitude-intention, subjective norm-intention, and the intention-behavior relations in studies applying the theory in the health behavior domain. METHOD: We conducted a preregistered secondary analysis of studies (k = 39, total N = 13,121) from two programs of research. Each study measured participants' attitude, subjective norms, PBC, and intentions in relation to health behaviors, and most (k = 36) measured health behavior at follow-up. Data were analyzed using meta-analytic structural equation modeling. Behavior type, scale score coverage, sample age, and publication states were included as moderators of model effects. RESULTS: PBC moderated the intention-behavior relation but not the attitude-intention and subjective norm-intention relations. All moderation effects exhibited significant heterogeneity. Analysis of moderators indicated that the PBC moderation effects on intention varied according to scale score coverage but not by the other moderator variables tested. CONCLUSIONS: Results support moderation of the intention-behavior relation by PBC in health behaviors. However, substantial unresolved heterogeneity in the effect across studies remained. Further, these effects may not generalize to other populations and moderator analyses were confined to broad categories. More research that tests these moderation effects in health behavior contexts and reports sufficient data necessary for conducting a meta-analysis is needed to enable moderator analyses with greater fidelity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Teoria Psicológica , Atitude , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263669, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139122

RESUMO

It has previously been shown that readers spend a great deal of time skim reading on the Web and that this type of reading can affect comprehension of text. Across two experiments, we examine how hyperlinks influence perceived importance of sentences and how perceived importance in turn affects reading behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants rated the importance of sentences across passages of Wikipedia text. In Experiment 2, a different set of participants read these passages while their eye movements were tracked, with the task being either reading for comprehension or skim reading. Reading times of sentences were analysed in relation to the type of task and the importance ratings from Experiment 1. Results from Experiment 1 show readers rated sentences without hyperlinks as being of less importance than sentences that did feature hyperlinks, and this effect is larger when sentences are lower on the page. It was also found that short sentences with more links were rated as more important, but only when they were presented at the top of the page. Long sentences with more links were rated as more important regardless of their position on the page. In Experiment 2, higher importance scores resulted in longer sentence reading times, measured as fixation durations. When skim reading, however, importance ratings had a lesser impact on online reading behaviour than when reading for comprehension. We suggest readers are less able to establish the importance of a sentence when skim reading, even though importance could have been assessed by information that would be fairly easy to extract (i.e. presence of hyperlinks, length of sentences, and position on the screen).


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Internet , Percepção/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Controle Comportamental/ética , Compreensão/fisiologia , Gráficos por Computador/ética , Gráficos por Computador/normas , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/ética , Internet/organização & administração , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Comunicação Persuasiva , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neurosci ; 42(12): 2552-2561, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110390

RESUMO

The chemogenetic technology referred to as designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) offers reversible means to control neuronal activity for investigating its functional correlation with behavioral action. Deschloroclozapine (DCZ), a recently developed highly potent and selective DREADD actuator, displays a capacity to expand the utility of DREADDs for chronic manipulation without side effects in nonhuman primates, which has not yet been validated. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of orally administered DCZ in female and male macaque monkeys. Pharmacokinetic analysis and PET occupancy examination demonstrated that oral administration of DCZ yielded slower and prolonged kinetics, and that its bioavailability was 10%-20% of that in the case of systemic injection. Oral DCZ (300-1000 µg/kg) induced significant working memory impairments for at least 4 h in monkeys with hM4Di expressed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 46). Repeated daily oral doses of DCZ consistently caused similar impairments over two weeks without discernible desensitization. Our results indicate that orally delivered DCZ affords a less invasive strategy for chronic but reversible chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity in nonhuman primates, and this has potential for clinical application.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The use of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) for chronic manipulation of neuronal activity for days to weeks may be feasible for investigating brain functions and behavior on a long time-scale, and thereby for developing therapeutics for brain disorders, such as epilepsy. Here we performed pharmacokinetics and in vivo occupancy study of orally administered deschloroclozapine to determine a dose range suitable for DREADDs studies. In monkeys expressing hM4Di in the prefrontal cortex, single and repeated daily doses significantly induced working-memory impairments for hours and over two weeks, respectively, without discernible desensitization. These results indicate that orally delivered deschloroclozapine produces long-term stable chemogenetic effects, and holds great promise for the translational use of DREADDs technology.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Drogas Desenhadas , Animais , Controle Comportamental , Clozapina/farmacologia , Drogas Desenhadas/farmacologia , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Neurônios
19.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(6): 923-933, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The main purposes of the current study are to examine 1) the influence of narrative vs statistics messages on COVID-19 related information seeking and COVID-19 vaccine intention and 2) the moderating role of perceived behavioral control (PBC). DESIGN: Data for a between-subject randomized experiment were collected online. The manipulation messages were presented as screenshots from the CDC's Facebook page. SETTING: The participants were recruited from Amazon MTurk. SUBJECTS: A total of 300 subjects participated in the study, who were 18 years and above (M = 38.40). MEASURES: Intention to seek information, COVID-19 vaccine intention, and PBC. ANALYSIS: To test the hypotheses, we utilized Hayes's (2014) PROCESS for SPSS (Model 1). For intention to seek information, the main effect of the message manipulation (narrative vs statistics) [b = -2.10, t (300) = -4.14, P < .001] and the interaction [b = .41, t (300) = 3.88, P < .001] were significant. For vaccine intention, the main effects of message manipulation [b = 1.64, t (300) = -2.61, P < .005] and the interaction [b = .34, t (300) = 2.64, P < .005] were significant. RESULTS: Our research found that narrative messages were more persuasive for both information seeking and vaccine intention. But this was true only in the case of individuals whose PBC was low. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have critical implications for vaccine promotion research.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Controle Comportamental , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Intenção
20.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(1): 83-90, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938354

RESUMO

The study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between women's perception of support and control during childbirth on fear of birth and mother's satisfaction. This descriptive study was carried out at the postpartum clinics of a state hospital. Seven hundred and twenty-five puerperal women were included in the sample. T test in independent groups and Pearson's correlation test were used in the evaluation of the data. Seventy-six percent of the puerperal women had vaginal birth, 24% had caesarean section. The mother's perception of control and support at birth was moderate (99.04 ± 17.30), the fear of birth was at clinical level in most of them (92.8%), and the satisfaction at vaginal and caesarean births was low. Puerperal women who had a planned pregnancy, non-invasive birth, birth without perineal tear had higher support and control perception at birth and lower fear of birth than who had unplanned pregnancy, invasive birth, or birth with a perineal tear (p<.05). Puerperal women who did not have any health problems during pregnancy and postpartum period had higher satisfaction levels compared to those who did (p<.05). The high level of perception of support and control at birth decreases the fear of childbirth and increases the satisfaction levels of puerperal women in vaginal and caesarean births. All health professionals, especially perinatal nurses and midwives, should strive to implement care initiatives that are appropriate to the needs of women.Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? The mode of delivery, insufficient supportive care during delivery, or perception of supportive care received are among the causes of trauma among women. Birth trauma may cause women to experience stress, anxiety, fear and loss of control, and maternal and foetal/neonatal health is adversely influenced during the delivery and postpartum period. A literature review revealed no study examining the effect of maternal perception of support and control during delivery on fear of childbirth and maternal satisfaction.What the results of this study add? Stronger perception of support and control during delivery reduces fear of childbirth, and also increases puerperal women's levels of satisfaction from care during vaginal and caesarean deliveries.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Facilitating women's achievement of personal control and expectations during childbirth should be the focus of care interventions. In line with these results, it may be recommended that all healthcare professionals, especially perinatal nurses and midwives, strive to implement care initiatives that comply with the needs of women.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Apoio Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Percepção , Gravidez
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