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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987750

RESUMO

The true extent of the mental health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic are unclear, but early evidence suggests poorer mental health among those exposed to the pandemic. The Internet may have differential effects, by both connecting people with resources, or reinforce the constant checking of negative information. Moreover, locus of control becomes important in an uncontrollable pandemic. The current study aimed to examine whether exposure to COVID-19 would relate to greater symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and to examine the role of internet use and locus of control. Adults in the United States and five European countries (N = 1723) answered an online survey through the website Mturk. Results show elevated psychological symptoms among those who have become infected with COVID-19 or perceive themselves to be at high risk if infected. Experience using the Internet relates to fewer symptoms, but information seeking is associated with more symptoms. Internet social capital relates to fewer symptoms of depression. Having an external locus of control relates to greater symptoms. These findings suggest that public health officials need to focus on the mental health effects of the pandemic, and that internet use and locus of control could be targets to improve mental health in the population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Controle Interno-Externo , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787989

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate behavioural problems throughout childhood and adolescent, and its relationship with socioeconomic position (SEP) and early parenting environment. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study conducted in the UK, behavioural problems of 14 452 children were analysed using a growth curve model. The children were followed from birth to adolescence, and their behavioural problems were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was sub-scaled into externalising and internalising problems. After assessing the general trajectory of children's behavioural problems, variables representing SEP and parenting environments were introduced to the model to analyse the association with children's outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, children's trajectories in externalising problems showed a decreasing trend while internalising problems increased as they aged. Household income and maternal education in early childhood were independently associated with children's behavioural problems, while the association for maternal occupation was significantly weaker. Positive early parenting environments attenuated the association between SEP and children's behavioural problems. Also, with regards to children's behavioural problems, positive parenting explained more variance between children compared to SEP. Favourable parent-child relationship buffered the income gradient in children's behavioural problems during early childhood, and although this buffering effect did not last until adolescence, those who had good parent-child relationships developed better outcomes regardless of their SEP. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study emphasise the importance of a positive early parenting environment for improving and reducing the socioeconomic gap in children's behavioural problems and encourages policies to promote better parenting circumstances.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Classe Social , Meio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
3.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(3): 173-174, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681578

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about healthcare, economic, and psychological crises around the world. The psychological impact on adolescents is likely going to be uneven across different societies, as cultures vary in terms of their dominant learning style that may influence how people cope with uncertainty and perceive their sense of control. We postulate that for adolescents in individualistic cultures where individual learning prevails, their sense of control might be undermined by societal disease-control regulations that restrict personal freedoms, while adolescents' sense of control might increase via participating in societal preventive efforts in collectivistic cultures where social learning is more prevalent. Individual differences regarding one's sense of control would, in turn, have implications for adolescents' short-term adjustments to COVID-19-related challenges and their future development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle Interno-Externo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicologia do Adolescente , Incerteza , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Liberdade , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
4.
Public Health ; 185: 209-211, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to estimate associations between health locus of control (HLC) and mortality. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: The public health survey in Scania 2008 was linked to the Swedish cause of death register. In this study of 10,757 men and 12,322 women aged 18-80 years, 421 men and 235 women died during the 5.3-year follow-up. Survival analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Respondents with only some or no internal HLC had significantly higher hazard rate ratios (HRRs) compared with respondents with high HLC. For women, the HRRs of those with low HLC did not significantly differ from the reference group after final adjustments for health-related behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: HLC is a predictor of mortality, and this association is to an important extent mediated by health-related behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Controle Interno-Externo , Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neuropsychopharmacol Hung ; 22(2): 48-55, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683328

RESUMO

The health locus of control has been extensively analyzed in diff erent patient populations suff ering from chronic somatic illnesses due to its infl uence on adherence to long-term therapies. Despite of the fact that adherence is one of the most important factors which needs to be taken into consideration in the oupatient care of psychiatric patients, there is a scarcity of studies regarding HLOC in this population. In this review we provide an overview of study results regarding HLOC in somatic and psychiatric patients. Based on these results we conclude that in the case of patients suff ering from chronic illnesses, a higher internal HLOC is associated with less severe depressive symptoms and better adherence and quality of life. Nevertheless, the results of the follow-up studies indicate that change of HLOC (from internal to external) can be adaptive when the outcome is not favourable or the treatment is not eff ective. The continuous evaluation of HLOC of psychiatric patients in treatment may provide necessary information for the planning of interventions to help this process. Taking into consideration that the patients' perception of control is often impaired due to the nature of psychiatric illnesses we propose evaluation of psychobiological factors infl uencing health locus of control in order to facilitate the planning of these interventions.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo
6.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 534-535, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478546

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on health, economies, and other societal pillars. The Maltese archipelago has also been affected by this viral threat. Due to Malta's characteristics as one of the smallest islands in Europe, the picture, which shall be portrayed in this article, may have some unique features, especially in terms of mental health and societal well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções , Controle Interno-Externo , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina , Adulto , Humanos , Malta
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186274

RESUMO

How to overcome informational conformity consumer behavior when faced with threats of death is a social problem in response to COVID-19. This research is based on the terror management theory, the need to belong theory and the materialism theory. It uses a theoretical model to determine the relationships between threats of death and informational conformity consumer behavior. From 1453 samples collected during outbreak of COVID-19 in China, we used a structural equation model to test multiple research hypotheses. The result shows that threats of death are positively associated with a need to belong, materialism and informational conformity consumer behavior. The need to belong and materialism can play a mediating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior, and perceived social support can play a moderating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral , Conformidade Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384598

RESUMO

How to overcome informational conformity consumer behavior when faced with threats of death is a social problem in response to COVID-19. This research is based on the terror management theory, the need to belong theory and the materialism theory. It uses a theoretical model to determine the relationships between threats of death and informational conformity consumer behavior. From 1453 samples collected during outbreak of COVID-19 in China, we used a structural equation model to test multiple research hypotheses. The result shows that threats of death are positively associated with a need to belong, materialism and informational conformity consumer behavior. The need to belong and materialism can play a mediating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior, and perceived social support can play a moderating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral , Conformidade Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421752

RESUMO

Core self-evaluation (CSE) is a theory that includes four personality dimensions: self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control and emotional stability. CSE proved to be a significant predictor of the research on cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses across various situations in the workplace. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between personality traits of the core self-evaluation and clinical decision-making in nurses' profession. A cross-sectional design was applied. Data was collected with standardized instruments: Core Self-Evaluation Scale and Clinical Decision-Making Nurses Scale, 584 nurses have participated in the study. Correlation and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the relations and prediction of variables. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between overall core self-evaluation and nurses' clinical decision-making, and there is a significant contribution of self-esteem, self-efficacy and locus of control on all dimensions of clinical decision, especially in the area of canvassing of objectives and values. Nurses with high CSE have positive self-views and tend to be confident in their ability and they also feel in control while performing nursing interventions, whereas those with low CSE tend to have fewer accessible positive resources and are more prone to risk aversion.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Enfermagem , Determinação da Personalidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Local de Trabalho
10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(6): 895-905, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) is characterized by unsatisfactory defecation and difficult or infrequent stools. CIC affects 9%-20% of adults in the United States, and although prevalent, gaps in knowledge remain regarding CIC healthcare seeking and medication use in the community. We recruited a population-based sample to determine the prevalence and predictors of (i) individuals having discussed their constipation symptoms with a healthcare provider and (ii) the use of constipation therapies. METHODS: We recruited a representative sample of Americans aged 18 years or older who had experienced constipation. Those who met the Rome IV criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and opioid-induced constipation were excluded. The survey included questions on constipation severity, healthcare seeking, and the use of constipation medications. We used multivariable regression methods to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 4,702 participants had experienced constipation (24.0% met the Rome IV CIC criteria). Among all respondents with previous constipation, 37.6% discussed their symptoms with a clinician (primary care provider 87.6%, gastroenterologist 26.0%, and urgent care/emergency room physician 7.7%). Age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, employment status, having a source of usual care, insurance status, comorbidities, locus of control, and constipation severity were associated with seeking care (P < 0.05). Overall, 47.8% of respondents were taking medication to manage their constipation: over-the-counter medication(s) only, 93.5%; prescription medication(s) only, 1.3%; and both over-the-counter medication(s) and prescription medication(s), 5.2%. DISCUSSION: We found that 3 of 5 Americans with constipation have never discussed their symptoms with a healthcare provider. Furthermore, the use of prescription medications for managing constipation symptoms is low because individuals mainly rely on over-the-counter therapies.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bisacodil/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Ácido Dioctil Sulfossuccínico/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Emprego , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastroenterologistas , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Interno-Externo , Lactulose/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Senosídeos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Tensoativos/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 400-405, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345033

RESUMO

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not to heavily rely on screen media devices to regulate children's distress, many parents often resort to this regulatory strategy. However, little is known about the long-term implications of using this strategy for children's emotional functioning. To address this issue, this study examined the longitudinal links between the use of media to regulate distress and children's negative emotionality (NE) during toddlerhood, a period in which children strongly rely on external regulation. We also examined whether children with initially high NE were more sensitive to the effects of this regulatory strategy on subsequent NE. Participants were 207 mothers who completed questionnaires assessing child NE, use of media to regulate distress, child screen time, and demographic covariates at 2 time points: 18 months (T1) and 26 months (T2) of children's age. Use of media to regulate child distress at T1 did not directly predict child NE at T2, and vice versa. However, there was a significant interaction between child NE and use of media to regulate distress at T1 in predicting NE at T2. Simple slopes analysis indicated that maternal use of media to regulate distress was positively related to increases in children's NE, but only for children with initially low NE, and not for children with initially high NE. Our findings can inform family-based prevention initiatives that may be delivered in community pediatric settings, aiming at promoting thoughtful use of media in young children's everyday lives.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Mães/psicologia , Negativismo , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Aggress Behav ; 46(3): 278-286, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147859

RESUMO

Narcissism and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have demonstrated relations with youth aggression across studies. However, different forms of narcissism and internalizing problems may exacerbate the relation between CU traits and aggression. To that end, the current study examined the degree to which interactions among internalizing problems, CU traits, and dimensions of narcissism related to aggression in a sample of 219 adolescents (83.1% males), ages 16-19, enrolled in a military-style residential program. Consistent with previous research, psychopathy-linked narcissism significantly moderated the relation between CU traits and aggression. Addtionally, self-reported aggression was highest among adolescents who endorsed high levels of CU traits, psychopathy-linked narcissism, and internalizing problems. The same pattern of results was not evident for other forms of narcissism. These results suggest that internalizing problems further increase the probability of aggression among adolescents with psychopathic tendencies (i.e., CU traits, psychopathy-linked narcissism). Further implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Narcisismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 384-391, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096655

RESUMO

Limited research has examined bidirectional associations between modern media (e.g., smartphone, tablet) use and behavior in early childhood. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that, over 6 months, (H1) child externalizing behavior would predict later media use, mediated by parenting stress, and (H2) media use would predict later externalizing behavior. Participants included mothers and fathers from 183 heterosexual couples with a child 1-5 years old, followed for 6 months-assessed at baseline, 1, and 6 months. Frequency of child media use was assessed at baseline and 6 months through parent report across eight items (e.g., television [TV], smartphone, tablet use). Child externalizing behavior was assessed through the Child Behavioral Checklist, and parent stress through the Parenting Stress Index. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Mothers were 31.8 (standard deviation [SD] = 4.2), fathers 33.3 (SD = 4.9), and children 3.0 years old (SD = 1.2). Structural equation models showed good overall fit. As hypothesized, we found that (H1) greater child externalizing behavior predicted greater parenting stress (ß = 0.48, p < 0.001), which predicted increases in child media use (ß = 0.15, p < 0.05); however, (H2) child media use did not predict later externalizing behavior (ß = 0.06, p = 0.23). In post hoc analyses, results differed slightly by specific type of media; for example, externalizing behavior was associated with later tablet and game use, whereas TV use predicted increases in externalizing behavior. Our results suggest that child behavior problems associate with later media use habits, possibly as a parent coping strategy, which should be considered when providing clinical guidance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Interno-Externo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Problema
14.
Qual Life Res ; 29(5): 1271-1279, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A diagnosis of breast cancer or melanoma is a traumatic life event that patients have to face. However, their locus-of-control (LOC) beliefs and coping strategies as well as the associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes over time are still not well known and rarely compared by cancer site. METHODS: The objective of this longitudinal study was to assess the association of LOC (Cancer Locus-of-Control Scale) and coping (Brief Cope) changes, with change in HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30) over time in newly diagnosed breast cancer and melanoma patients at 1, 6, 12, and 24 month post-diagnosis. Mixed models were used to compare LOC and coping longitudinal changes as well as their associations with HRQoL changes in early-stage breast cancer and melanoma patients. RESULTS: Overall, 215 breast cancer and 78 melanoma patients participated in the study. At baseline, HRQoL levels were often higher for breast cancer compared to melanoma patients. For breast cancer and melanoma patients, negative coping strategies and perceived control over the course of illness were negatively and positively associated with HRQoL changes, respectively. For breast cancer patients only, emotional coping and internal causal attribution were negatively associated with HRQoL changes. For both cancer sites, living with a partner correlated with worse HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding coping strategies and LOC beliefs used by patients soon after their cancer diagnosis and over the course of illness can help identifying psychological and supportive care to modify maladaptive thoughts and beliefs and promote more adaptive behaviors to ultimately improve patients' well-being and HRQoL.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Melanoma/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(2): 399-409, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907699

RESUMO

Social media use is associated with body image concerns, disordered eating and body change behaviors in adolescents. This study aimed to examine these relationships within a biopsychosocial framework and test an integrated model. A sample of 681 adolescents (49% female), mean age = 12.76 years (SD = 0.74), completed a questionnaire assessing social media use, depression, self-esteem, body mass index, social media and muscular ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and muscle-building behaviors. Path analysis was used to test the hypothetical model, which after modification revealed good fit to the data, although gender differences emerged. The findings suggest that biopsychosocial frameworks are useful for conceptualizing relationships between social media use and body image, eating, and muscle building outcomes.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Rede Social , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psychol Health ; 35(2): 210-238, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321993

RESUMO

Objective: To examine unique relations of three distinct dimensions of desirability of control with psychological and physical well-being and coping. Design: Study 1 (n = 122) surveyed undergraduates' response to everyday stressors, and Study 2 (n = 105) examined undergraduates' adjustment to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks at 1 and 3 months post-attack. Main outcome measures included psychological distress, perceived stress, rumination, health behaviors, alcohol use and active vs. avoidant coping. Study 1 Results: Self- and other-control were associated with active coping, whereas relinquishing control was linked with avoidant coping. Only relinquishing control was uniquely linked with outcomes, including worse psychological and physical well-being and alcohol use; avoidant coping mediated relations to psychological well-being. Study 2 Results: Again, self-control was associated with active coping whereas relinquishing control was linked with avoidant coping. Self-control was associated with enhanced psychological well-being at T1 and increases in well-being over time; by contrast, relinquishing control was associated with worse T1 psychological well-being, which was mediated by avoidant coping. Conclusion: This is the first study to examine the unique contribution of each DOC dimension with outcomes. Self-control and relinquishing control showed divergent relations to psychological well-being, mediated by different coping pathways.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Controle Interno-Externo , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Scand J Public Health ; 48(2): 125-133, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057049

RESUMO

Background: Knowledge is needed on associations between job demands and job control and long-term sickness absence (SA) and unemployment. We explored associations of job demands and job control with SA/disability pension (DP) and unemployment among women and men in paid work. Methods: We included all 2,194,694 individuals living in Sweden in 2001, aged 30-54 years, and in paid work. The Swedish Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) was used to ascertain levels of job demands and job control. Individuals were categorized into nine groups based on combinations of high, medium, or low values on both demands and control. Using multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of job demands and job control with risk of long-term SA/DP (>183 net days) and long-term unemployment (>183 days). Results: Regarding SA/DP, among women the risk was highest for those in occupations with low demands and low control (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.28-1.36), whereas among men the risk was highest among those in occupations with high demands and low control (OR=1.22; 1.11-1.34). Regarding unemployment, among women the risk was highest among those in occupations with low demands and medium control (OR=1.30; 1.24-1.37), whereas among men the risk was highest for those in occupations with low demands and high control (OR=1.54; 1.46-1.62). Conclusions: Using a JEM among all in a population rather than for specific occupations gives a more comprehensive view of the associations between job demands/job control and long-term SA/DP and unemployment, respectively.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Interno-Externo , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
18.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(1): 39-50, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863419

RESUMO

Although well-recognized and clinically relevant, impaired awareness of problem and pathological gambling (IAPPG) is a poorly understood phenomenon that contributes to treatment denial and negative clinical and social outcomes. In this study, we aimed to conduct a systematic review of the measures available to assess problem gambling awareness, evaluate their psychometric properties, and determine the extent to which they cover the core domains of illness awareness: General Disorder Awareness, Symptom Attribution, Awareness of Need for Treatment, and Awareness of Negative Consequences. A systematic search using OVID database (Medline®, PsycINFO, and Embase) was performed to identify English language papers describing gambling awareness measures. We identified only 8 measures partially assessing IAPPG. Measures differed in their effectiveness and comprehensiveness in evaluating IAPPG. Most measures were principally developed to evaluate barriers or motivators to treatment-seeking among gamblers and were not specific to IAPPG. Two were psychometrically validated, but the items were not specific to the evaluation of subjective awareness of the disorder and they only covered up to two domains of IAPPG. With the development and psychometric validation of an easy-to-use, comprehensive measure of subjective IAPPG, future studies will be able to investigate the role of IAPPG in help-seeking behavior, treatment adherence, and clinical and social outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Psicometria , Autocuidado/psicologia
19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(1): 141-146, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologic medications have advanced the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) but are underutilized in the treatment algorithm. One reason may be related to patients' concerns about adverse events and their perceptions of risk. The aim of this study was to compare patients' perceptions of risk of IBD treatment with their perceived risk of everyday occurrences and other medications and how these perceptions may be influenced by personality traits. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of consecutive IBD patients was conducted at a single tertiary care center. Participants were asked to report about their perception of risk of IBD medications, non-IBD medications, invasive procedures, and everyday life occurrences. Participants responded also to the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale to characterize beliefs about control over health outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 130 patients with IBD completed the questionnaires. There was a broad range of disease severity and prior medication use. Biologics elicited the highest dread of all IBD medications, but this was still lower than their fear of surgery. Patients believed that biologics were of higher benefit than immunomodulators and mesalamines, but riskier. Having the personality trait of an internally developed locus of control was associated with the perception that biologics are less dreadful. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBD perceive biologics to be of higher benefit but riskier and more dreadful as compared with immunomodulators. Risk perception may be about more than their knowledge base but also about how much control patients typically believe they have over their daily lives.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Colite Ulcerativa/psicologia , Doença de Crohn/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Medição de Risco , Assunção de Riscos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0223945, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830055

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that people often separate the present self from past selves. Applying knowledge gained from intergroup research to the interpersonal domain, we argue that the degree to which people identify with their past self (self-identification) influences their reaction when recalling a past event during which they harmed another person. Because they feel close to their past self, we expected this to be threatening for high self-identifiers, and expected them to be motivated to avoid self-critical emotions and blame. Using four meta-analyses, conducted on a set of seven experimental studies, we investigated four ways in which high self-identifiers can distance themselves from the event: by feeling compassion, by taking a third-person rather than first-person perspective, by emphasizing ways in which their present self is different to their past self, and by disidentifying with the past self altogether. We found the strongest interaction effects for compassion: whereas a compassion manipulation increased self-critical emotions and self-blame about the past event for low self-identifiers, it decreased them for high self-identifiers. We argue that this occurs because the other-focused nature of compassion allows high self-identifiers subtly to shift the focus away from their harmful behavior. Our concept of past self-identification had stronger effects than a measure of self-continuity beliefs. It also correlated only moderately with the latter, suggesting they are distinct concepts. Our findings suggest that, ironically, the most effective way to protect the self against reminders of an undesirable past, may be to have compassion for our victims.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Cura Mental/psicologia , Resolução de Problemas , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Adulto Jovem
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