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1.
Sports Health ; 11(4): 301-305, 2019 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136725

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There is an ever-increasing trend toward sports, fitness, and recreation activities, so the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament sports injuries has increased. Perhaps the greatest challenge for sports clinicians is to return the injured athlete back to his/her original sport at an even greater level of functional ability than preinjury. For this, rigorous and well-researched criteria are needed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Using medical subject headings and free-text words, an electronic search was conducted up to October 2018. Subject-specific search was based on the terms return to play and return to sport in combination with guidelines, criteria, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2. RESULTS: Five principal criteria were found, including psychological factors, performance/functional tests, strength tests, time, and modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. CONCLUSION: The psychological readiness of the player is a major factor in successful safe return to sport (SRTS) decision making. Although strength, performance, and functional tests presently form the mainstay of SRTS criteria, there exists very little scientific evidence for their validity. More protection should be provided to athletes with known risk factors. Movement quality is important, if not more important than the quantifiable measures. As a result of the significantly high rerupture rate in young individuals, delayed SRTS should be considered preferably beyond 9 months postsurgery.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos em Atletas/cirurgia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Volta ao Esporte , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Teste de Esforço , Medo , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Força Muscular , Recidiva , Volta ao Esporte/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(3): 699-703, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909667

RESUMO

Promoting breast cancer screening (BCS) behavior of women can lead to a reduction in mortality. The health locus of control affects cancer screening behavior of women; however, there is not sufficient evidence regaring this issue in Iran. The overall goal of our study is to determine the relationship of the health locus of control with the breast cancer screening belief of Iranian Women. This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 325 women in Tehran. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC), Breast Cancer Screening Belief Questionnaire (BCSBQ), and Demographic questionnaire were used for collecting data. Statistical analyze was performed by the SPSS version 17 software. The Pearson correlation and regression model were used for data analyze. In this study, 325 women, age 18 to 75 years, participated in this study. The mean±SD of BCSBQ and MHLC score was 40.72±10.41 and 67.78±17.67 respectively. The regression analysis showed that for the one-unit increase in the Internal Health Locus of Control (IHLC), Powerful others Health Locus of Control (PHLC), and Chance Health Locus of Control (CHLC) score (dimensions of Health Locus of Control), the total BCSBQ scores increased 0.54, 0.31, and 0.57 respectively. For each unit increase in age and education, the knowledge and perceptions of the BC score increased 0.05 and 0.23 units respectively. For the one-unit increase in the IHLC, PHLC, age, and education dimensions, the attitudes towards the general health checkup score increased 0.17, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.188 respectively. The current study provided new insights about the BCSB of Iranian women with MHLC. In the study, all the dimensions of the health locus of control were useful in predicting the breast cancer screening belief of the participants.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Cultura , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 66(2): 36-47, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The process of hospital admission undergone by expectant mothers readily induces feelings of loss of control, anxiousness, and uncertainty. Thus, education to promote the proper response of women to their impending hospital admission may be beneficial in terms of minimizing the number of labor-related hospital trips and the wastage of medical resources. PURPOSE: To explore the effects a labor-admission education program on perceived anxiousness, uncertainty, locus of control, and labor outcomes in expectant mothers. METHODS: A quasi-experimental research design was used to recruit participants. Eligible participants were primipara women who were expected to experience a complications-free pregnancy with a single fetus. A total of 151 participants were enrolled, with 76 assigned to the experimental group and 75 assigned to the control group. The experimental group received the labor and delivery education program intervention while the control group received standard nursing guidance. Participants received the education program in their regular prenatal checkup after the 35th gestational week. The intervention (education program) lasted an hour and included three parts: normal labor signs and appropriate timing of labor admission, self-care strategies at home, and indicators of the onset of labor. A structured questionnaire, including a basic OB/GYN datasheet, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of uncertainty and anxiety, the Labor Agentry Scale (LAS), and birth-outcome information, was used to collect data. Participants completed the three scales at two time points: 1) prior to admission and after the education program and 2) at 3-days postpartum. RESULTS: The findings support the effectiveness of providing a pre-admission education program in terms of lowering perceived uncertainty and anxiousness (p < .001), enhancing the locus of control during birth (p = .001), increasing awareness of the proper time for admission after the onset of labor (p = .001), and reducing the numbers of repeat trips to the hospital (p = .007) and consultations (p < .001). Further, the education program may improve the rate of 3cm-or-greater cervical dilation at admission (p < .001) and reduce the need for induced deliveries (p = .002). CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In the absence of contraindications, this education program should be provided to expectant mothers as an effective method to maximize the duration of the at-home, latent phase of labor in order to increase locus of control over delivery, reduce uncertainty and anxiousness, and attain optimal birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Gestantes/educação , Gestantes/psicologia , Educação Pré-Natal , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Incerteza
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 127: 19-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826693

RESUMO

Empirical evidence shows that most of the road safety efforts fail to reach the most risk-prone drivers. In light of this issue, we have developed this study in order to distinguish between high-risk drivers and low-risk drivers based on variables that have already been shown to affect the effectiveness of preventive messages: regulatory focus orientation, time perspective, locus of control and sensation seeking. We sent paper and pencil questionnaires to five thousand low-risk drivers and five thousand high-risk drivers randomly selected based on their driving records. A driver who has been convicted of two or more traffic infractions with demerit points (e.g., exceeding speed limits, red light violation, no seatbelt, etc.) in the last two years was considered a high-risk driver whereas a low-risk driver had no traffic offense registered in his driving record in the last four years. We received two thousand and sixty-four completed questionnaires for a response rate of 20.6%. Seven hundred and ninety-eight belonged to the group of high-risk drivers and one thousand two hundred and sixty-six to the group of low-risk drivers. The results show that a promotion focused orientation, a present hedonistic perspective, an internal locus of control, and sensation seeking are associated with more risky driving behaviors and could therefore distinguish between high-risk and low-risk drivers. These results increase the understanding of risky drivers' personalities and motivations. The literature review provides insight into how these findings might be considered in developing more effective road safety programs and campaigns, and the conclusion encourages researchers to explore these new avenues in future research.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção do Tempo
5.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 51(1): 7-15, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762937

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Researchers have developed various measures of pregnancy ambivalence in an effort to capture the nuance overlooked by conventional, binary measures of pregnancy intention. However, the conceptualization and operationalization of the concept of ambivalence vary widely and may miss the complexity inherent in pregnancy intentions, particularly for young people, among whom unintended pregnancy rates are highest. METHODS: To investigate the utility and accuracy of current measures of pregnancy ambivalence, a mixed-methods study was conducted with 50 young women and their male partners in northern California in 2015-2016. Survey data were used to descriptively analyze six existing pregnancy ambivalence measures; in-depth interviews addressing pregnancy desires and plans were deductively coded and thematically analyzed to understand why some participants appeared to be ambivalent from the survey data when their interview responses suggested otherwise. RESULTS: Eighty participants would be considered ambivalent by at least one measure. After assessment of the interview data, however, these measures were deemed to have misclassified almost all (78) participants. Qualitative analysis revealed several themes regarding misclassification: conflation of current pregnancy desires with expected postconception emotional responses; acceptability of an undesired pregnancy; tempering of survey responses to account for partners' desires; perceived lack of control regarding pregnancy; and, among participants with medical conditions perceived to impact fertility, subjugation of pregnancy desires in the interest of self-protection. CONCLUSIONS: Current approaches to measuring pregnancy ambivalence may fail to capture the intricacies of pregnancy intentions and may be ineffective if they do not account for young people's experiences, especially when used to inform clinical practice, programs and policy.


Assuntos
Intenção , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(2): 468-490, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719626

RESUMO

Despite its everyday ubiquity, not much is currently known about cognitive processes involved in flexible shifts of attention between external and internal information. An important model in the task-switching literature, which can serve as a blueprint for attentional flexibility, states that switch costs correspond to the time needed for a serial control mechanism to reallocate a limited resource from the previous task context to the current one. To formulate predictions from this model when applied to a switch between perceptual attention (external component) and working memory (WM; internal component), we first need to determine whether a single, serial control mechanism is in place and, subsequently, whether a limited resource is shared between them. Following a review of the literature, we predicted that a between-domain switch cost should be observed, and its size should be either similar or reduced compared to the standard, within-domain, switch cost. These latter two predictions derive from a shared resource account between external and internal attention or partial independence among them, respectively. In a second phase, we put to the test these opposing predictions in four successive behavioral experiments by means of a new paradigm suited to compare directly between- (internal to external) and within- (external to external) domain switch costs. Across them, we demonstrated the existence of a reliable between-domain switch cost whose magnitude was similar to the within-domain one, thereby lending support to the resource-sharing account.


Assuntos
Atenção , Controle Interno-Externo , Processos Mentais , Cognição , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Tempo de Reação
7.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 25(1): 91-103, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Advances in the etiology of substance use in ethnic minority youth over the last 30 years have not adequately addressed factors and conditions that protect youth from substance use. This research has also failed to consider the impact of ethnic identity and empowerment-based processes among urban youth of color. The aim of the present study was to uncover, first, the mediating effect of ethnic identity between community-based predictors (e.g., community participation and neighborhood sense of community) and 30-day substance use, and second, the mediating effect of intrapersonal psychological empowerment (PE) between ethnic identity and 30-day substance use. METHOD: Data were from a sample (N = 1,480) of African-American/Black (30.4%) and Hispanic/Latinx (59.1%) urban adolescents, who were largely female (61%) and between 16 and 18 years of age (70.5%). Main analytic procedures were carried out through AMOS structural equation modeling software. RESULTS: Results from this study displayed the importance of ethnic identity and PE as mechanisms associated with reducing 30-day substance use. Both PE and ethnic identity mediated the effect community-based predictors had in reducing 30-day substance use. In addition, PE was observed to also mediate the effect between ethnic identity and 30-day substance use, providing insight into the relationship between ethnic identity and PE. CONCLUSION: The salience of ethnic identity and PE as mechanisms associated with reducing 30-day substance use are discussed. In addition, findings provide useful insight into the development of youth- and community-based prevention policies and programming to help reduce substance use and empower adolescents of color. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poder (Psicologia) , Características de Residência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Body Image ; 28: 149-158, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716557

RESUMO

Female athletes are at risk for eating disorders due to the experience and internalization of pressures regarding various aspects of their bodies, including weight and appearance. Evaluating programs that address psychosocial antecedents and may reduce female athletes' risk is critical. We examined Bodies in Motion, a program based on cognitive dissonance and mindful self-compassion principles that integrates components of social media. Female athletes across nine NCAA athletic departments were assigned to Bodies in Motion (n = 57) or a wait-list control group (n = 40). Athletic department personnel were trained in the standardized program. Data were collected at three time-points - baseline, post-program, and three to four months later. Using Holm's algorithm to control for multiple comparisons, repeated measures ANOVAs showed that, after program completion, Bodies in Motion athletes reported less thin-ideal internalization, as compared to the control athletes, over time. We also observed varying group trajectories in outcome responses upon visual inspection of profile plots. These findings serve as the basis for future research suggestions involving larger sample sizes and prolonged measurement of outcomes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Dissonância Cognitiva , Atenção Plena , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Empatia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Aparência Física , Adulto Jovem
9.
Body Image ; 28: 159-167, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731427

RESUMO

Common models propose that the internalization of societal beauty ideals influences disordered eating behaviors and muscularity-oriented behaviors via body image concerns. However, previous studies addressing these pathways have been mainly cross-sectional and primarily included female samples. We investigated these pathways prospectively in male and female adolescents and young adults, examining two pathways: a 'weight/shape pathway,' linking thin-ideal internalization, weight/shape concern, and restrained eating, and a 'muscularity pathway,' linking athletic-ideal internalization, muscularity concern, and muscularity-oriented behavior. Across three time points, 973 participants from the German general population were assessed. Although the hypothesized pathways could not be supported in their complete temporal sequence, several hypothesized pathways occurred across two time points. Among others, weight/shape concern predicted restrained eating and the athletic ideal played a prominent role in the prediction of muscularity-oriented behavior in both genders.


Assuntos
Beleza , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Aparência Física , Somatotipos , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Med Syst ; 43(3): 70, 2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737600

RESUMO

Psychophysiological response of athletes with spinal cord injurie has not been reported yet in scientific literature. The aim of this study is to examine the psychophysiological stress response of Paralympic athlete during competitive activities. We collected the following psychophysiological measurements: anxiety-trait, anxiety-state, locus of control, perceived psychological stress, stress-copying style, rate of perceived exertion, perceived muscle pain, body temperature, forced vital capacity, blood oxygen saturation, blood glucose and lactate concentrations, isometric hand strength, cortical arousal, heart rate variability, heart rate and velocities of a female Paralympic spinal cord injured athlete in a 11 h and 44 min ultraendurance mountain event. An ultraendurance mountain even produced an increase in the sympathetic autonomous modulation, heart rate, lactate, muscular pain and rated of perceived exertion and a decrease in cortical arousal, hand strength and respiratory muscle in a spinal cord injurie female athlete during. The Paralympic athletes presented a low psychological inflexibility, high life engagement, strong internal locus of control, a low trait and state anxiety and medium perceived psychological stress. These results are consistent with the expected response during a highly stressful situation and consistent with previous findings in athletes without spinal cord injurie.


Assuntos
Atletas , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Gambl Stud ; 35(2): 447-464, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610506

RESUMO

Personal Feedback Interventions (PFIs) have been widely used to reduce the amount of time and money individuals spend on gambling. A central component of these interventions is personalized information about an individual's gambling behavior, often in comparison to others' gambling. The purpose of the present review and meta-analysis was to evaluate these interventions in terms of content, mode of delivery, target sample, and efficacy. Sixteen interventions from 11 studies were reviewed. We found a small, statistically significant effect in favor of PFIs versus control (d = 0.20, 95% CI 0.12, 0.27). Six moderators of intervention efficacy were explored. These interventions appeared to be most efficacious when used in populations of greater gambling severity, when individuals were provided with gambling-related educational information, and when used in conjunction with motivational interviewing. Factors associated with reduced efficacy include in-person delivery of feedback without motivational-interviewing and informing participants of their score on a psychological measure of gambling severity. Efficacy did not vary as a function of college or community samples. PFIs are a low cost, easily disseminated intervention that can be used as a harm-reduction strategy. However, more substantial effects may be attained if used as part of a larger course of therapy.


Assuntos
Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/prevenção & controle , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Perm J ; 23: 18-128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) is a degenerative nervous disorder that affects motor functioning. Although physical activity is beneficial, it often is reduced, and psychosocial issues persist such as low mood and perceptions of loss of control over health. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which a community-based physical activity/self-regulatory skills intervention affects overall physical activity and changes in psychosocial factors in adults with PD and in adults with reduced mobility without PD. METHODS: Existing participants (N = 45, mean age = 71 years) of community-based PD group movement classes, who also participated in an individualized 6-session protocol for exercise support that emphasized self-regulation through barriers, completed validated self-report surveys. Participants' mean length of movement class participation was 11.8 months at the time of survey administration. RESULTS: Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated significant improvements in physical activity, self-regulation, exercise self-efficacy, negative mood, and task social cohesion but not internal health locus of control. Improvement in social cohesion was significantly greater in the PD group (n = 27) than in the non-PD (n = 18) group. Changes in exercise self-efficacy mediated a significant relationship between changes in self-regulation and physical activity. Changes in social cohesion mediated a significant relationship between changes in physical activity and mood. Changes in mood and social cohesion had a reciprocal, mutually reinforcing relationship. For the PD group, length of program involvement predicted vigor change (r = 0.52, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The intervention demonstrated positive effects on physical activity and psychosocial factors in adults with PD and with reduced mobility. Effects on social cohesion were important. Such programming should be considered as an adjunct to traditional medical treatment.


Assuntos
Afeto , Exercício/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social
13.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 89(2): 212-221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676049

RESUMO

This study examined the association of parental self-stigma with child adjustment, and whether parenting self-efficacy and parenting distress mediated the association. Cross-sectional data were collected from 186 families living with kindergarten children identified to have disabilities in Hong Kong, China (mean age = 61.62 months; 76% of them were boys). Using questionnaires, 173 mothers and 112 fathers reported their own self-stigma, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting distress, as well as their children's prosocial behaviors and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Multigroup, path analyses revealed a group-invariant model for both mothers and fathers. Controlling for children's gender and age, parents' self-stigma was linked to fewer prosocial behaviors and more externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children. Moreover, such links were partially mediated by parenting self-efficacy, but not parenting distress. Theoretically, the findings highlighted the importance of considering family processes when examining the potential impact of parental self-stigma on child adjustment. Practically, the findings pointed to the utility of helping both mothers and fathers to deal with public stigma and increase their parenting self-efficacy in supporting the development of children with disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Familiar , Autoeficácia , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(2): e13346, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661280

RESUMO

Children and adolescents with renal disease experience daily social, emotional, and medical challenges. Renal transplantation can help to improve quality of life but requires a lifelong regimen of immunosuppressant medication to maintain health. Adherence to a daily complex regimen can be difficult, particularly for adolescents who are beginning to develop autonomy from caregivers and are faced with a unique set of socio-emotional challenges. This study examines two factors that have shown to influence adherence in other pediatric populations, namely family functioning and parent health locus of control, from mothers' perspectives, in predicting medication non-adherence for adolescents (ages 12-19 years) 1 year post-transplant. Non-adherence was defined as the percentage of missed doses and late doses of the weekly immunosuppressant doses prescribed. Regression results demonstrated that mothers' perceptions of poorer overall family functioning predicted missed medication doses (ΔR2  = 0.383, F(7, 21) = 2.570, P = 0.044) with significant contributions in the domains of problem-solving (ß = -0.795, t(21) = -2.927, P = 0.008) and affective involvement (ß = 0.872, t(21) = 3.370, P = 0.003). Moreover, mothers who perceived that their adolescent had control over his/her health also predicted more missed medication doses (ΔR2  = 0.133, F(1, 27) = 5.155, P = 0.031). Important implications for these findings include implementation of family-based interventions that promote developmentally appropriate skills for adolescents and cultivate emotional involvement within the family.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Controle Interno-Externo , Transplante de Rim , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Body Image ; 28: 101-109, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639976

RESUMO

Although appearance comparisons, self-monitoring, and appearance-related comments have been linked to body dissatisfaction in prior studies, the combined and unique influences of these variables on state body dissatisfaction in daily life has yet to be explored. The present study addressed this gap, and also evaluated whether these state-based effects were stronger for individuals with trait-level body image disturbances (internalization and body dissatisfaction). Eighty-four women completed baseline measures of trait internalization and body dissatisfaction, and then reported momentary experiences of body dissatisfaction, appearance self-monitoring, appearance-related comments, and appearance-based comparisons at up to 10 random times daily for seven days. Multilevel analyses confirmed that both appearance comparisons and commentary (both negative and positive) were predictive of changes in state body dissatisfaction when modelled individually as well as in a combined (full) model. Appearance self-monitoring was not a significant predictor, either individually or in the full model. These within-person relationships were not moderated by individual differences in trait body dissatisfaction and internalization of appearance standards. Accordingly, experiences of body dissatisfaction in daily life may be a common reaction to negative appearance comments and unflattering comparisons, yet positive comments and/or efforts to avoid appearance-based comparisons may have a positive effect on one's body image.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Aparência Física , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Emoções , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Psicometria , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur Psychiatry ; 57: 61-69, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability and problem behaviour (externalising and internalising problems) are variable and inter-related in children. However, it is not known if they mutually influence one another, if difficulties in one cause difficulties in the other, or if they are related only because they share causes. METHODS: Random-intercept cross-lagged models adjusted for confounding were fitted to explore this in 17,318 (51% male) children of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study at ages 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 years. Externalising and internalising problems were assessed using the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Cognitive ability was measured using standardised scores of age-appropriate validated cognitive ability assessments. Where multiple cognitive assessments were available a single score was derived using principal components analysis. RESULTS: There was much evidence for cross-domain longitudinal effects in childhood, especially for cognitive ability (on both internalising and externalising problems and in both males and females) and externalising problems (on internalising problems in both genders and cognitive ability in males). Bidirectional effects were childhood-limited, gender-specific and less consistent. The consistent bidirectional associations were, in males, between externalising problems and cognitive ability, and, in females, between externalising and internalising problems (although the effects of internalising problems were weak). In adolescence, only externalising problems had cross-domain effects such that, in both genders, they were associated with lower cognitive ability in subsequent measurements and increased levels of internalising problems. CONCLUSIONS: In either childhood or adolescence, reducing behavioural problems could have both emotional and cognitive benefits. In childhood, improving cognitive skills could reduce both emotional and behavioural problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Cognição , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
17.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(4): 495-518, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614727

RESUMO

We hypothesized that individuals in cultures typified by lower levels of relational mobility would tend to show more attention to the surrounding social and physical context (i.e., holistic vs. analytic thinking) compared with individuals in higher mobility cultural contexts. Six studies provided support for this idea. Studies 1a and 1b showed that differences in relational mobility in cultures as diverse as the U.S., Spain, Israel, Nigeria, and Morocco predicted patterns of dispositional bias as well as holistic (vs. analytic) attention. Study 2 demonstrated that, for Americans and Japanese, relational mobility offered better predictive validity of these cognitive tendencies than related cultural constructs; moreover, Studies 1b and 2 showed that relational mobility mediated cross-cultural differences in perception and attribution. Studies 3a and 3b showed that lower relational mobility induces a weaker sense of internal locus of control and a stronger sense of external locus of control, which led to more holistic (vs. analytic) cognition. Last, Study 4 replicated these results in an experimental setting and demonstrated the causal effect of relational mobility on analytic/holistic cognition. Overall, we suggest that relational mobility may be an important socioecological factor that can help explain robust cognitive differences observed across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Comparação Transcultural , Controle Interno-Externo , Relações Interpessoais , Pensamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/etnologia , Japão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Nigéria/etnologia , Percepção Social , Espanha/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
18.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(2): 152-159, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589938

RESUMO

Drawing on the Conservation of Resources Theory by Hobfoll, we examined the relationships between abusive supervision, job insecurity, locus of control, and employees' innovative behavior. Using self-reported data collected from employees among four enterprises in China (N = 641), we found that abusive supervision was positively correlated with job insecurity. In contrast, both job insecurity and abusive supervision were negatively correlated with employees' innovative behavior, with the impact of abusive supervision on innovative behavior being mediated by its effect on job insecurity. Having an external locus of control that served as a buffering factor for employees, mitigating the relationship between abusive supervision and job insecurity. These findings complement the existing research on the impacts of abusive leadership, providing practical information for enterprises on how to enhance levels of innovation and vitality among employees.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Invenções , Masculino , Organização e Administração
19.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 74-81, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm births rates of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW < 1500 g) are increasing. Prematurity poses several risks for emotional child development, e.g., internalizing symptoms. Our understanding of this condition in young children is limited, for at preschool age, symptoms have mostly been assessed from the mother's perspective only. METHODS: As part of the longitudinal HaFEn cohort-study in Hamburg, Germany, we measured the level of internalizing symptoms in VLBW and term preschoolers as well as predictors from four informants' perspectives: mother, father, teacher, and child. A multilevel model was constructed to examine predictors of internalizing symptoms. n = 104 VLBW and n = 79 term children were included. RESULTS: From both their parents' perspective, children with VLBW had a significantly higher level of internalizing symptoms. From the teacher's and child's own perspectives, there were no significant mean group differences. In the multilevel analyses, the results were different regarding the four perspectives. VLBW did not predict internalizing symptoms. From mother's perspective, her own postpartum psychological distress, and from father's perspective, his postpartum and current psychological distress predicted a higher level of internalizing symptoms in their offspring. From teacher's perspective, socio-economic status predicted internalizing symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The sample size was relatively small. Exclusion criteria and drop out of families could have created some selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to the importance of early identification of parental postpartum psychological distress given the potential for later internalizing symptoms in their children or the perception of their offspring as vulnerable and symptomatic, which may also impact the child's development.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1377, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colombia has one of the highest rates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancies - both of which are influenced by lack of condom use -, among adolescent population in Latin America; however, the mechanisms underlying the inconsistent use of condoms in this population are poorly understood. This descriptive and cross-sectional study's purpose was to examine sexual behavior and its precursors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and considering gender-based differences. Another objective was to study the mediating effect of intention in the relationship between behavior precursors and condom use based on the TPB. METHODS: We recruited 1100 adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years old (M = 15.94, SD = 1.30, 54.4% female) from Bogotá and Barranquilla, two of the cities with highest adolescent birth rates among adolescents in Colombia. Sociodemographic variables, knowledge on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV/AIDS-related attitudes, including attitudes toward the use of condoms, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and sexual behavior were assessed using self-reports. All analyses were run using SPSS v25. The indirect effect of intention to explain the relationship between precursors and the use of condoms during sexual intercourse was estimated using the PROCESS v3 macro. RESULTS: Descriptive analyses suggest a high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies associated to inconsistent condom use, medium-low level of knowledge about sexual health, low normative beliefs regarding peers' condom use, and a certain perceived difficulty for using condoms. Condoms are used 71% of the times they have sex, but only 22% of the participants use them consistently; girls use condoms more consistently than boys. Sexual risk characteristics differed significantly by gender. Mediation analyses indicated that condom use intention mediates the relationship between behavioral precursors and frequency of condom use, according to the TPB. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide a better understanding of sexual risk and highlight important implications for the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. There is a need of designing and implementing protocolized sexual health promotion programs in schools with the aim of reducing sexual risk behaviors in Colombian adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Controle Interno-Externo , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Colômbia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto Jovem
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