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Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(3): 146-152, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192316


España ha sido uno de los países con mayor afectación por la pandemia COVID-19. Hasta la fecha, un 22% de los casos notificados son personal sanitario, siendo significativamente mayor este porcentaje entre las mujeres (76% del personal sanitario contagiado). Ante la evidencia de que muchos profesionales sanitarios pueden haberse contagiado en su puesto de trabajo, hemos revisado la problemática en el ámbito de la salud laboral que produce la COVID-19. Se describen los decretos publicados por el Gobierno de España y las recomendaciones de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo. Concretamente se analiza la clasificación del SARS-CoV-2 como agente biológico del grupo 3, su calificación como accidente de trabajo o enfermedad profesional y sus repercusiones en las situaciones de incapacidades (temporales y permanentes), secuelas y muerte, así como el estudio de las posibles demandas de aquellos que lo han sufrido como consecuencia de falta de medidas preventivas

Spain is one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, 22% of reported cases are healthcare professionals, and 76% of them are women. Given that many healthcare professionals may have been infected in their workplace, we have reviewed the occupational health challenges posed by COVID-19. The Spanish laws and the recommendations of the International Labor Organization are described. The review covers the classification of SARS-CoV-2 as a biological agent in group 3 and of COVID-19 as an occupational accident or disease, its repercussions in temporary and permanent disabilities, sequelae and death, and the possible claims of those who may have developed the disease due to the lack of preventive measures

Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Licença Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Precauções Universais/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200900. 10 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1118684


El documento contiene los lineamientos para los estudios de validación de procedimientos diagnósticos del virus SARS-CoV-2.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Vírus da SARS
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 481-488, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879094


Based on archival materials, the Xiangya's anti-epidemic history in a century from its establishment to 2020 is divided into 4 stages. The first stage (1906-1926), Edward Hicks Hume and YAN Fuqing, the founders of Xiangya, prevented and controlled smallpox and plague. The second stage (1929-1953), during the resumption of Xiangya, students prevented and controlled cholera, plague, dysentery, typhus, and other infectious diseases. In the third stage (1953-1999), in a peacetime, Xiangya actively fought against schistosomiasis, hydatidosis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis and other epidemics. The fourth stage (2000-2020), the era of Central South University. Medical staff in Xiangya fight SARS, influenza A (H1N1) flu, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, coronavirus disease 2019, etc. Over the past hundred years, Xiangya people joined together to spread benevolence and love, apply medical knowledge and skills, combat the epidemic and rescue people in difficulties, which made a great contribution to the motherland and the people.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Epidemias/história , Betacoronavirus , China , Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Infecções por Coronavirus , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(7): 15-20, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872685


In December 2019 a respiratory illness known as Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19) broke out in a region in China and rapidly spread to become a pandemic affecting all sporting events worldwide. The Summer Olympics scheduled to be held in Tokyo were postponed until 2021, and all professional leagues in the United States postponed or canceled events. As the United States has begun to open up, there remains uncertainty of when sporting events can safely be held. Many professional leagues and the National Collegiate Athletic Association have established guidelines and recommendations for their athletes to compete safely. In this article, we review the protocols that have been established to allow athletes to return to play, and we review briefly the effects COVID-19 infection may have on athletes.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes/tendências , Atletas , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco
Tex Med ; 116(8): 20-25, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866271


Ricardo Garza, MD, was still walking the tightrope: standing, but unable to withstand another gust of wind. COVID-19 swept away about 35% of the San Antonio solo cardiologist's practice revenue, and that was just what he could calculate as he waited for insurers to process straggling claims. But he had returned to in-office operations without any layoffs. While some practices are surviving - and trying their best to prepare for future threats - others weren't so lucky. On-the-ground experiences align with the Texas Medical Association's Practice Viability Survey in showing COVID-19 was, and still is, a disruptor unlike any other - challenging or torpedoing the viability of various practice types.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prática Profissional , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prática Profissional/economia , Prática Profissional/tendências , Texas/epidemiologia
Tex Med ; 116(8): 34, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866275


Medical schools typically have predictable schedules. The timing of lectures, clerkships, exams, and even extracurricular activities tend to follow in the same grooves year after year. Students can reliably block out even minor events months ahead of time and be confident they'll take place. All that changed with COVID-19. Since March, when the pandemic began closing down schools, businesses, and other institutions across the state, figuring out what comes next in medical school has been anything but predictable.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Faculdades de Medicina , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Faculdades de Medicina/ética , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Ensino/ética , Ensino/psicologia , Texas/epidemiologia , Incerteza
F1000Res ; 9: 352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864104


Background: School closures have been a recommended non-pharmaceutical intervention in pandemic response owing to the potential to reduce transmission of infection between children, school staff and those that they contact. However, given the many roles that schools play in society, closure for any extended period is likely to have additional impacts. Literature reviews of research exploring school closure to date have focused upon epidemiological effects; there is an unmet need for research that considers the multiplicity of potential impacts of school closures. Methods: We used systematic searching, coding and synthesis techniques to develop a systems-based logic model. We included literature related to school closure planned in response to epidemics large and small, spanning the 1918-19 'flu pandemic through to the emerging literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus. We used over 170 research studies and a number of policy documents to inform our model. Results: The model organises the concepts used by authors into seven higher level domains: children's health and wellbeing, children's education, impacts on teachers and other school staff, the school organisation, considerations for parents and families, public health considerations, and broader economic impacts. The model also collates ideas about potential moderating factors and ethical considerations. While dependent upon the nature of epidemics experienced to date, we aim for the model to provide a starting point for theorising about school closures in general, and as part of a wider system that is influenced by contextual and population factors. Conclusions: The model highlights that the impacts of school closures are much broader than those related solely to health, and demonstrates that there is a need for further concerted work in this area. The publication of this logic model should help to frame future research in this area and aid decision-makers when considering future school closure policy and possible mitigation strategies.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Betacoronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(3): 109-118, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192312


El brote por el Coronavirus/COVID-19, declarado Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional el 30 de enero de 2020 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, ha sobrepasado en numerosos países la capacidad de respuesta del sistema sanitario por su alta contagiosidad, y la de gestión de las personas fallecidas por su elevado riesgo de letalidad. Se revisan las principales guías y protocolos promovidos por las instituciones y las principales sociedades científicas, orientados a la contención de la pandemia mediante la adopción de medidas de protección de los profesionales y a la adecuada gestión del alto número de cadáveres. Se analizan los centros especiales de recogida de cadáveres en situación de epidemias y las clasificaciones de los cadáveres en función del riesgo infecto-contagioso. Específicamente se resumen las resoluciones dictadas por las autoridades sanitarias y se describen los protocolos de actuación ante fallecidos durante la pandemia COVID-19, incluyendo las autopsias forenses

The Coronavirus/COVID-19 outbreak, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Importance on January 30, 2020 by the World Health Organization, has in many countries exceeded the capacity of health systems to respond, due to its high contagiousness and the capacity to manage the deceased, due to its high fatality risk. A review is necessary of the principal guidelines and protocols promoted by the institutions and the main scientific societies, aimed at containing the pandemic by adopting professional protection measures and appropriately managing the high number of cadavers. The temporary mortuaries in an epidemic crisis and the classification of bodies according to infectious risk are analysed. In particular the resolutions issued by the health authorities are summarised and the protocols for dealing with deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic are described, including forensic autopsies

Humanos , Cadáver , Sepultamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Precauções Universais/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(6): 363-370, ago.-sept. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190825


En enero de 2020 China identificó un nuevo virus de la familia de los Coronaviridae como causante de varios casos de neumonía de origen desconocido. Inicialmente confinado a la ciudad de Wuhan, se extendió posteriormente fuera de las fronteras chinas. En España, el primer caso se declaró el 31 de enero de 2020. El 11 de marzo, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró el brote de coronavirus como pandemia. El 16 de marzo había 139 países afectados. Ante esta situación, las Sociedades Científicas SEMICYUC y SEEIUC han decidido la elaboración de este plan de contingencia para dar respuesta a las necesidades que conllevará esta nueva enfermedad. Se pretende estimar la magnitud del problema e identificar las necesidades asistenciales, de recursos humanos y materiales, de manera que los servicios de medicina intensiva del país tengan una herramienta que les permita una planificación óptima y realista con que responder a la pandemia

In January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified a new virus of the Coronaviridae family as the cause of several cases of pneumonia of unknown aetiology. The outbreak was initially confined to Wuhan City, but then spread outside Chinese borders. On 31 January 2020, the first case was declared in Spain. On 11 March 2020, The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. On 16 March 2020, there were 139 countries affected. In this situation, the Scientific Societies SEMICYUC and SEEIUC, have decided to draw up this Contingency Plan to guide the response of the Intensive Care Services. The objectives of this plan are to estimate the magnitude of the problem and identify the necessary human and material resources. This is to provide the Spanish Intensive Medicine Services with a tool to programme optimal response strategies

Humanos , Planejamento em Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Espanha/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 11 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117907


El Programa Subregional para América del Sur (SAM) representa la visión estratégica de la OPS/OMS a mediano plazo para la subregión sudamericana. El Programa apoya las prioridades subregionales en materia de salud y busca armonizar el trabajo de OPS/OMS con los mecanismos de integración, particularmente con el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), el Organismo Andino de Salud - Convenio Hipólito Unanue (ORAS-CONHU), la Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica (OTCA), PROSUR, Alianza del Pacífico y otros socios.

Humanos , Administração de Recursos Humanos , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Áreas de Fronteira , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Mercosul , Betacoronavirus , América Latina
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4264, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848152


The pressing need to restart socioeconomic activities locked-down to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy must be coupled with effective methodologies to selectively relax containment measures. Here we employ a spatially explicit model, properly attentive to the role of inapparent infections, capable of: estimating the expected unfolding of the outbreak under continuous lockdown (baseline trajectory); assessing deviations from the baseline, should lockdown relaxations result in increased disease transmission; calculating the isolation effort required to prevent a resurgence of the outbreak. A 40% increase in effective transmission would yield a rebound of infections. A control effort capable of isolating daily  ~5.5% of the exposed and highly infectious individuals proves necessary to maintain the epidemic curve onto the decreasing baseline trajectory. We finally provide an ex-post assessment based on the epidemiological data that became available after the initial analysis and estimate the actual disease transmission that occurred after weakening the lockdown.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Previsões , Geografia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social