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1.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Francês, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48248

RESUMO

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, chamou a atenção para a baixa taxa de vacinação contra a COVID-19 na América Latina e no Caribe e alertou que o controle do vírus levará anos se as atuais tendências persistirem.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , América , Vacinação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049876, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in secondary schools after their reopening in May 2020. DESIGN: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study after the reopening of schools and 4 months later. SETTING: Secondary school in Dresden, Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 1538 students grades 8-12 and 507 teachers from 13 schools. INTERVENTIONS: Serial blood sampling and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody assessment. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in study population. Number of undetected cases. RESULTS: 1538 students and 507 teachers were initially enrolled, and 1334 students and 445 teachers completed both study visits. The seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 0.6% in May/June and the same in September/October. Even in schools with reported COVID-19 cases before the lockdown of 13 March, no clusters could be identified. Of 12 persons with positive serology five had a known history of confirmed COVID-19; 23 out of 24 participants with a household history of COVID-91 were seronegative. CONCLUSIONS: Schools do not play a crucial role in driving the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. Transmission in families occurs very infrequently, and the number of unreported cases is low in this age group. These observations do not support school closures as a strategy fighting the pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00022455.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 589317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113595

RESUMO

Background: Hospital staff are at the frontline for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Understanding their perception of exposure risk is, therefore, important during the early phase of this pandemic. In this study, we evaluated the perception regarding risk of exposure to COVID-19 among Vietnamese hospital staff in Vietnam. Method: A cross-sectional online study was carried out to collect demographic data and risk exposure perception during the second week of the national lockdown in April 2020 in Vietnam. Seven hundred and forty two hospital staff were recruited using the snowball sampling to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding their risk exposure perception. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the construct validity of the questionnaire. Pearson coefficient analysis and multivariable regression models were applied to identify factors associated with the perceived COVID-19 exposure risk. Results: Participants perceived a high risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 (score = 3.4, SD = 0.8). They also perceived the workplace response to COVID-19 as inadequate (score = 2.0, SD = 0.5). In particular, participants who worked in the emergency or intensive care departments were more likely to perceive an exposure risk, compared to those in infectious disease control departments (Coef. = -0.38, 95%CI: -0.74; -0.02). Participants from central regions perceived a lower risk of exposure to COVID-19 than those from northern regions (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.28-0.96). Nurses were less likely than doctors to report being at risk of exposure to COVID-19 (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.95). Conclusions: We identified a high level of perceived risk regarding COVID-19 exposure among hospital staff during the unprecedented lockdown period in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach, incorporating improved risk communications, safety training and psychological support programs, for all hospital staff, including nurses and those residing in high population density areas, might further strengthen the national effort to control the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnã/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education (DE) replaced traditional "face-to-face" teaching and has become the main method of teaching. The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate the impact of DE by teachers in our department during the second semester of the 2019-20 academic year following the March-May 2020 Italian national lockdown and 2) evaluate the relationship between DE and the emotional well-being of teachers during the period of home confinement. METHODS: Ninety-seven university teachers (51.5% women; most represented age group 60-69 years range, 40.2%) responded to an anonymous online cross-sectional survey between July 15 - September 30, 2020, on the advantages and disadvantages of DE, developed by one online teacher focus group. The emotional conditions were assessed by a short version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The internal consistency reliability survey and the 10-item BDI-II were measured by Cronbach's alpha. A correlation analysis (r-Pearson) was conducted between the overall evaluation of the experience of DE and the variables included in the study. RESULTS: Teachers reported difficulties in technical aspects, and in psychological factors, as the discomfort of "speaking in the void" (64.7%). The absence of "face-to-face" eye contact with the students was complained by 81% of teachers. Significant impairments in sleep patterns and loss of energy were reported, with female teachers having greater difficulty concentrating than their male colleagues. A quarter of teachers showed depressive symptoms of varying severity. The most satisfied teachers were those most stimulated by DE (r = 0.752, p < 0.000), who showed a lower impact of depressive symptoms (r = - 0.289, p = 0.005). The teaching load in hours influenced the perception of disadvantages (r = 0.214, p = 0.035) and contributed to a lower appreciation of the challenges of DE. The more significant the manifestation of depressive symptoms during the lockdown was, the greater the subjective recovery of a good emotional condition once the domestic confinement was over (r = 0.344, p = 0.001), despite maintaining DE. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the impact of technical, didactic, and psychological difficulties of DE, reported by our teachers. The appreciation of their new learning promoted by DE seemed related to better emotional well-being of university teachers accepting this "challenge" in their important role in the high-education system, influencing good learning and promoting students' professional success.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades
5.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088789

RESUMO

AIMS: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK was placed under strict lockdown measures on 23 March 2020. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects on physical activity (PA) levels using data from the prospective Triage-HF Plus Evaluation study. METHODS: This study represents a cohort of adult patients with implanted cardiac devices capable of measuring activity by embedded accelerometery via a remote monitoring platform. Activity data were available for the 4 weeks pre-implementation and post implementation of 'stay at home' lockdown measures in the form of 'minutes active per day' (min/day). RESULTS: Data were analysed for 311 patients (77.2% men, mean age 68.8, frailty 55.9%. 92.2% established heart failure (HF) diagnosis, of these 51.2% New York Heart Association II), with comorbidities representative of a real-world cohort.Post-lockdown, a significant reduction in median PA equating to 20.8 active min/day was seen. The reduction was uniform with a slightly more pronounced drop in PA for women, but no statistically significant difference with respect to age, body mass index, frailty or device type. Activity dropped in the immediate 2-week period post-lockdown, but steadily returned thereafter. Median activity week 4 weeks post-lockdown remained significantly lower than 4 weeks pre-lockdown (p≤0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a population of predominantly HF patients with cardiac devices, activity reduced by approximately 20 min active per day in the immediate aftermath of strict COVID-19 lockdown measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04177199.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica , Distanciamento Físico , Telemedicina , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067316

RESUMO

This article aims to reflect on the challenges affecting people experiencing homelessness in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, due the COVID-19 pandemic. Participatory research was carried out to identify data related to sociodemographic profile; strategies for survival; health and social care support; and access to services during the pandemic. The research methodology was co-designed with NGOs and people with lived experience of homelessness and involved conducting semi-structured questionnaires with 304 participants in 2020. The results highlighted the worsening of the situation of extreme vulnerability and poverty already experienced by this population before the pandemic. Key strategies led by Third Sector organizations to reduce the spread of the virus, to minimize the financial impact of lockdown, and to increase emotional support and information on COVID-19 were presented. The conclusions show the complexity of issues affecting these groups and the need for urgent response from public policies and Government support to guarantee their rights, dignity, and respect during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Brasil/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067365

RESUMO

In March 2020, the Italian Government imposed mandatory home confinement to limit the spread of COVID-19. Few studies assessed the psychophysical impact of COVID-19 on chronically ill children. This study examined these effects on children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) and their caregivers. Seventy-one patients (7-13 years) with T1D and their caregivers were administered a survey created ad hoc and some standardized questionnaires, assessing psychological well-being and anxiety. Medical data (physical and biochemical characteristics) were recorded before (T0, January-February) and after (T1, May-June) the lockdown. Paired Student t-test, Spearman two-tailed correlations, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis. Children at T1 showed higher BMI (body mass index), daily total and basal insulin dose, and time spent in therapeutic range, and they showed lower HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), time spent above the therapeutic range, and standard deviations of the mean glucose values than at T0. A total of 32.9% scored in the clinical range for separation anxiety. The increase in separation anxiety was predicted by younger age, female gender, more recent T1D diagnosis, less time spent in therapeutic range at T1, and higher perceived fear of COVID-19 infection. In a pandemic context, separation anxiety may be stronger in younger females, with more recent T1D diagnosis and poor metabolic control, thus affecting the parent's ability to manage diabetes and to support children's autonomy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Ansiedade de Separação , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067390

RESUMO

The measures to fight the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic have been concentrated on inviting people to stay at home. This has reduced opportunities to exercise while also shedding some light on the importance of physical health. Based on an online survey, this paper investigated physical activity behaviours of a Belgians sample (n = 427) during the lockdown period between the end of May 2020 and the beginning of June 2020 and found that, during this period, the gap between sufficiently and insufficiently active individuals widened even more. This paper analysed important moderators of physical activity behaviours, such as barriers and benefits to exercise, digital support used to exercise, and individuals' emotional well-being. Descriptive analysis and analyses of variance indicated that, generally, individuals significantly increased their engagement in exercise, especially light- and moderate-intensity activities, mostly accepted the listed benefits but refused the listed barriers, increased their engagement in digital support and did not score high on any affective measures. A comparison between sufficiently active and insufficiently active individuals during the lockdown showed that the former engaged even more in physical activity, whereas the latter exercised equally (i.e., not enough) or even less compared to before the lockdown. By means of a logistic regression, five key factors of belonging to the sufficiently active group were revealed and discussed. Practical implications for government and policies are reviewed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Tecnologia Digital , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067534

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Social isolation and lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic have influenced dietary habits and physical activity of all the population, but the obese population is the most vulnerable to weight gain. Material and Methods: A group of 189 patients (166 female and 23 male) from the bariatric surgery waiting list filled in a survey about the influence of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on their dietary habits, physical activity, and the possibility of contact with their bariatric care center. Results: The majority of patients with weight gain declared a decrease in physical activity, compared to half of the patients without weight gain (50.5% vs. 74.5%, p < 0.05). The continuation of bariatric care and the possibility of contact with a bariatric surgeon, dietician, and psychologist had each significant influence on reducing the risk of patients' weight gain (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Maintaining physical activity and contact with bariatric care specialists are important factors in allowing to avoid weight gain in patients waiting for bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Listas de Espera
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070331

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is widely understood to have contributed to mental health problems. In Australia, young people (18-24 years) have been disproportionately affected. To date, research has predominantly focused on the presence or absence of mental illness symptoms, while aspects of mental well-being have been overlooked. We aimed to explore associations between potential risk and protective factors and mental health more comprehensively, using the Complete State Model of Mental Health. An online survey of 1004 young Australians (55% female; M age = 21.23) was undertaken. Assessment of both mental illness and mental well-being enabled participants to be cross-classified into four mental health states. Those with 'Floundering' (13%) or 'Struggling' (47.5%) mental health reported symptoms of mental illness; a 'Languishing' group (25.5%) did not report symptoms of mental illness but mental well-being was compromised relative to those who were 'Flourishing' (14%) with high mental well-being. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine associations, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Protective factors associated with Flourishing mental health included being in secure employment, using screen time to connect with others, and reporting high levels of hope. Both incidental and purposive contact with nature were also associated with Flourishing, while a lack of green/bluespace within walking distance was associated with Languishing, absence of outdoor residential space was associated with Floundering, and lower neighbourhood greenness was associated with all three suboptimal mental health states. Precarious employment, financial stress, living alone, reporting decreased screen time during lockdowns, lower levels of hope, and high disruption of core beliefs were also associated with Struggling and Floundering mental health. Those who were Languishing reported somewhat less hardship and little disruption to core beliefs, but lower levels of hope compared to young people who were Flourishing. This study highlights that young adults require dedicated mental health services to deal with current burden, but should also be supported through a range of preventive strategies which target mental health risk factors, like precarious employment, and enhance protective factors, such as urban green infrastructure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo de Tela , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak may have a large impact on orthodontic treatment. Regular orthodontic visits were strongly and widely interrupted by the unprecedented epidemiological threat. METHODS: The data regarding orthodontic queries were investigated in a real-time surveillance using Google Trends. Search terms "braces", "invisalign", "get braces", "get braces off", "braces pain" and the phrase "social distancing" were analyzed regarding the year preceding the pandemic outbreak and the time of the pandemic. Moreover, the five-year trend for queries "braces" vs. "invisalign", as an example of different types of orthodontic appliances, was compared. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in orthodontics phrase queries in the spring of 2020, connected with the worldwide restrictions and lockdowns announced all over the world. There was a lower interest in the "braces pain" query during the first lockdown in 2020. The number of searches for "invisalign" increased steadily over time, while the number of searches for "braces" was relatively stable across the investigated time period. CONCLUSIONS: The course of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a large impact on the orthodontic-related search queries. Orthodontists must be better-prepared for any sudden changes in the possible future in the epidemiological situation that may change accessibility to dental offices.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070796

RESUMO

This paper investigates the transformation of urban sound environments during the COVID-19 pandemic in Montreal, Canada. We report on comparisons of sound environments in three sites, before, during, and after the lockdown. The project is conducted in collaboration with the Montreal festival district (Quartier des Spectacles) as part of the Sounds in the City partnership. The analyses rely on continuous acoustic monitoring of three sites. The comparisons are presented in terms of (1) energetic acoustic indicators over different periods of time (Lden, Ld, Le, Ln), (2) statistical acoustic indicators (L10, L90), and (3) hourly, daily, and weekly profiles of sound levels throughout the day. Preliminary analyses reveal sound level reductions on the order of 6-7 dB(A) during lockdown, with differences more or less marked across sites and times of the day. After lockdown, sound levels gradually increased following an incremental relaxation of confinement. Within four weeks, sound levels measurements nearly reached the pre-COVID-19 levels despite a reduced number of pedestrian activities. Long-term measurements suggest a 'new normal' that is not quite as loud without festival activities, but that is also not characterizable as quiet. The study supports reframing debates about noise control and noise management of festival areas to also consider the sounds of such areas when festival sounds are not present.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071078

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic forced the population worldwide into lockdown. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of this measure on the health and comfort of university students and the role that the characteristics of the home may have played. It is essential to differentiate between the terms comfort and health both from the medical and architectural perspectives, as there are differences between the two concepts that are, nonetheless, shared by both disciplines. An online survey was fulfilled by 188 medicine and architecture undergraduate students at the University of Seville, Spain. In terms of health, 89% suffered neuropsychiatric disorders (56% anxiety and 49% depression), 38% gained weight and 59% reported alcohol consumption. In relation to comfort, the majority rated their home positively, comfortable in terms of room temperature and noise at night, and they had a good relationship with cohabitants. However, those who did not have a balcony or terrace would have liked to have open spaces They would have also liked to increase the size of their bedroom, where they spent most of their time and where they studied. A built-up environment gave them a sense of being imprisoned, while those who enjoyed open spaces found a sense of peace. The absence of open spaces in the house, the environment and the impossibility of making the most frequently used spaces more flexible may have had negative impacts on the health and comfort of university students during confinement.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Universidades
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071357

RESUMO

The lockdown social measures in Spain due to COVID-19 caused a significant decrease in urban noise levels, which was observed in most of the large cities. This paper presents an analysis of the noise levels in Barcelona, Spain, by means of an accurate analysis of the most relevant sensors deployed in the Barcelona Noise Monitoring Network. In this work, we present the LAeq levels in eight different locations from January 2020 to June 2020-from Superblocks to industrial zones-including and detailing all stages of the lockdown. Several comparisons were conducted with the monitoring data available from the former years (2019 and 2018-when available). The results of the analysis in Barcelona show a drastic LAeq reduction (-9 dBA), especially in nightlife areas of the city, moderate to high LAeq change (-7 dBA) in commercial and restaurants areas and a small decrease in LAeq (-5 dBA) in dense traffic areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic and the government restrictions significantly disturbed the daily functioning of people, thereby influencing healthy behaviors, such as physical activity-the core indicator of well-being. This study evaluates the associations between physical activity (PA), the level of stress and quality of sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. METHODS: An online survey was distributed during the governmental lockdown in April 2020 and included measures for assessing physical activity, stress and sleep. The surveyed participants included all adults aged 18 years and over. The final data were collected from the 1959 respondents using: International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). FINDINGS: Almost half of the respondents indicated a low level of PA, performing only 60 min of PA daily. Most of the participants reported a moderate or high level of stress (57% and 29%, respectively) and 64% of them reported poor quality of sleep. People with low levels of stress performed on average 85.1 min/day of walking (WPA), 40.9 min/day of moderate PA (MPA) or 52.6 min/day of vigorous PA (VPA). People with good quality of sleep performed 82.9 min/day of WPA, 43.6 min/day MPA and 40.5 min/day VPA. INTERPRETATION: The results from the study indicate that the volume of daily PA may be a predictor of the level of stress and sleep quality in adults during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. To retain a low level of stress and good quality of sleep, a lifestyle that allows to achieve a moderate level of physical activity should be maintained. The optimal daily dose of PA is at least 70 min per day, involving different intensities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071461

RESUMO

Background: During the last few decades the prevalence of lumbar disc herniation has been increasing constantly, thereby imposing a significant socioeconomic burden. Physiotherapy plays a crucial role in both surgical and conservative treatment of lumbar disc herniation, consequently the current COVID-19 pandemic with concomitant lockdowns has led to a shortage of physiotherapeutical care. In the light of these recent events publicly available physiotherapy tutorials may be a useful tool to address this problem. Aim: The main aim of this study was to assess the quality of online physiotherapy exercise tutorials for lumbar disc herniation. Materials & Methods: With YouTube being a widely known and used platform we screened 240 of the most viewed videos. A total of 76 videos met the inclusion criteria and were statistically analyzed. The videos were assessed using Global Quality Score, DISCERN Score and JAMA benchmark criteria and in regard to their applicability. Results: They displayed a wide range of views (44,969 to 5,448,717), likes (66 to 155,079) and dislikes (6 to 2339). The videos were assessed using Global Quality Score, DISCERN Score and JAMA benchmark criteria and in regard to their applicability. Neither the number of "Views", "Likes", nor "Dislikes" was found to have a significant association with any of the quality measures used in this study. Conclusion: Overall quality grade was determined as "moderate". Based on the data examined in this study, the use of YouTube videos as a source of therapy advice for lumbar spine disc herniation cannot be recommended universally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pandemias , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071475

RESUMO

This study explored how Covid-19 lockdown restrictions affected people's daily smoking routines and behaviours, including adherence and modifications to pre-established smoking restrictions in the home. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with smokers and non-smokers from smoking households 19 to 27 weeks after the first full UK lockdown ended in May 2020. A non-probability purposive sample representing 25 adults aged 21 or over living in households with at least 1 smoker were recruited to the study. A quota sampling strategy was used, according to age, gender, smoking status, family status, household composition, householder access to outdoor space, and change to work-life status. Most participants found lockdown increased the amount of time spent at home, where stresses associated with confinement, curtailment of social routines, removal of barriers and distractions to smoking due to home working, and feelings of boredom all contributed to increased smoking. Fewer factors were identified as reducing smoking during lockdown. Prominent examples included disruption to habitual smoking patterns and distraction from smoking associated with spending more time doing outdoor activities. Pressures placed on physical space and lack of privacy due to the confinement at home were responsible for displacement of smoking within the home, leading to breaking of smoke-free rules and family tensions, and in some cases to greater awareness amongst parents that their children smoked. Changes in daily routines associated with lockdown affected and displaced smoking behaviour both positively and negatively. Health improvement interventions could seek to harness positive changes in smoking associated with any future lockdown approaches. New home-working norms highlight the need for employers to support staff to reduce their smoking and to remain smoke-free.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumantes , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Reino Unido
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071535

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a great impact on mental health in society. Considering the little attention paid by scientific studies to either students or university staff during lockdown, the current study has two aims: (a) to analyze the evolution of mental health and (b) to identify predictors of educational/professional experience and online learning/teaching experience. (2) Methods: 1084 university students and 554 staff in total from four different countries (Spain, Colombia, Chile and Nicaragua) participated in the study, affiliated with nine different universities, four of them Spanish and one of which was online. We used an online survey known as LockedDown, which consists of 82 items, analyzed with classical multiple regression analyses and machine learning techniques. (3) Results: Stress level and feelings of anxiety and depression of students and staff either increased or remained over the weeks. A better online learning experience for university students was associated with the age, perception of the experience as beneficial and support of the university. (4) Conclusions: The study has shown evidence of the emotional impact and quality of life for both students and staff. For students, the evolution of feelings of anxiety and depression, as well as the support offered by the university affected the educational experience and online learning. For staff who experienced a positive professional experience, with access to services and products, the quality-of-life levels were maintained.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Chile , Colômbia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Nicarágua , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Estudantes , Universidades
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting decrease in the incidence of various categories of injuries, with the main focus on fractures and mild traumatic brain injuries in a paediatric population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated all children from 0 to 18 years of age presenting with an injury at the level 1 trauma centre of the University Clinic of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery in Vienna during the lockdown from 16 March to 29 May 2020 compared to records over the same timeframe from 2015 to 2019. RESULTS: In total, 14,707 patients with injuries were included. The lockdown did not lead to a significant decrease in fractures but, instead, yielded a highly significant increase in mild traumatic brain injuries when compared to all injuries that occurred (p = 0.082 and p = 0.0001) as well as acute injuries (excluding contusions, distortions and miscellaneous non-acute injuries) (p = 0.309 and p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of paediatric fractures did not decrease at the level 1 trauma centre, and a highly significant proportional increase in paediatric patients with mild traumatic brain injuries was observed during the COVID-19 lockdown. Therefore, medical resources should be maintained to treat paediatric trauma patients and provide neurological monitoring during pandemic lockdowns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
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