Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.142
Filtrar
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512742

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused an unparalleled public health crisis, delivering an immense shock to humanity. With the virus's health consequences largely unknown, different health systems around the globe have pursued various avenues of crisis management. South Korea, troubled early by the virus, was once the second most affected nation in the world. Arrays of measures in South Korea, such as large-scale diagnostic testing and technology-based comprehensive contact tracing, have brought about debates among public health experts and medical professionals. This case study describes the major cluster transmissions in SARS-CoV-2 hotspots in South Korea (such as a religious sect, a call center, logistics facilities, and nightclubs) and offers early observations on how South Korean public health authorities acted in response to the initial outbreak of the virus and to the new waves prompted by re-opening economies. We then discuss the way in which South Korea's experience can act as a reference for shaping other countries' public health strategies in pandemic crisis management.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Administração em Saúde Pública , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
MSMR ; 26(10): 2-12, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657583

RESUMO

Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMR/V) are highly communicable infectious diseases whose causative agents are spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or airborne droplets. Individuals at highest risk for MMR/V infections include infants; unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated persons; individuals living in communities with low vaccination rates or in crowded, unsanitary conditions; and persons with compromised immune systems. Between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2019, there were 5 confirmed measles cases and 64 confirmed mumps cases among all Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries. During this period, no cases of measles were reported among U.S. service members. There were 29 confirmed mumps cases among service members during the surveillance period; 2 cases occurred in 2016, 17 in 2017, 5 in 2018, and 5 in the first 6 months of 2019. There were 6 confirmed rubella cases among all MHS beneficiaries. Among service members, there were 39 confirmed cases of varicella during the surveillance period; 9 cases occurred in 2016, 11 in 2017, 11 in 2018, and 8 in the first 6 months of 2019. Recent trends in MMR/V in both military and civilian populations in the U.S. highlight the importance of primary and booster vaccinations.


Assuntos
Varicela/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Saúde Militar/tendências , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adulto , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 261-270, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564724

RESUMO

The convergence of humans, animals and our shared environment results in a dynamic in which the health of each group is inextricably linked. Taking into account the fact that the majority of emerging pathogens (e.g. highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI], severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) are zoonotic diseases, Egypt has established a national One Health coordination mechanism. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to provide a comprehensive, strategic approach to concurrent and future health challenges that are facing public and animal heath, including environmental impacts. In this way, the public health, animal health and environment sectors can improve disease mitigation measures, develop stronger and more stable public and animal health services, promote effective national communication strategies and improve One Health collaboration among all relevant sectors. In Egypt, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) currently assist in hosting the country's Four-Way Linking Task Force with the participation of the convening Ministries (Ministry of Health and Population, Ministry of Environment, and Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation [MOALR] - through the General Organisation for Veterinary Services and the MOALR's laboratories). In the context of the Emerging Pandemic Threats 2 Program, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), FAO plans to assist Egypt in establishing a robust, multidisciplinary and multisectoral One Health system. This system is based on the solid foundation of the Four-Way Linking Platform, which combines information from four functional streams - epidemiology, laboratories, and animal and human health. Egypt's platform will involve all sectors concerned with HPAI control and combine all stakeholders in an integrated, holistic approach to improve the detection of, response to and control of any threats at the human- animal-environment interface in Egypt.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Colaboração Intersetorial , Saúde Única , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Egito , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Nações Unidas , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
11.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 111-124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530392

RESUMO

Poverty magnifies limitations resulting from traditional biases and environmental risks in endemic areas. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Important for RNAS was networking across borders, not just on schistosomiasis but on the whole spectrum of endemic helminthiases, and this bore fruit in the form of the expansion of RNAS into the 'Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS+)', which focuses on technical standardization, supporting the growth of research capacity and the further development of networking. Administration is lean and largely virtual with the focus on connecting members via the Internet, providing databases and administrative back-up. The strategy emphasizes ways and means to alleviate the spectre of disease and poverty from the endemic areas through boosting research on target diseases and supporting collaboration between basic and operational research on the one hand and control/elimination activities on the other. RNAS+ also benefits from continuing input from outside research institutions in areas outside Southeast Asia. This paper is aiming to identify the priority actions to close the gap between researcher and policy makers.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa/tendências , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 273, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138266

RESUMO

The transmission soil transmitted helminths (STH) occurs via ingestion of or contact with infective stages present in soil contaminated with human faeces. It follows therefore that efforts to reduce faecal contamination of the environment should help to reduce risk of parasite exposure and improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are seen as essential for the long-term, sustainable control of STH. However, the link between WASH and STH is not always supported by the available evidence from randomised controlled trials, which report mixed effects of WASH intervention on infection risk. This review critically summarises the available trial evidence and offers an interpretation of the observed heterogeneity in findings. The review also discusses the implications of findings for control programmes and highlights three main issues which merit further consideration: intervention design, exposure assessment, and intervention fidelity assessment.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Saneamento/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Humanos , Saneamento/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(5): e1006977, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120877

RESUMO

The effectiveness of a mass vaccination program can engender its own undoing if individuals choose to not get vaccinated believing that they are already protected by herd immunity. This would appear to be the optimal decision for an individual, based on a strategic appraisal of her costs and benefits, even though she would be vulnerable during subsequent outbreaks if the majority of the population argues in this manner. We investigate how voluntary vaccination can nevertheless emerge in a social network of rational agents, who make informed decisions whether to be vaccinated, integrated with a model of epidemic dynamics. The information available to each agent includes the prevalence of the disease in their local network neighborhood and/or globally in the population, as well as the fraction of their neighbors that are protected against the disease. Crucially, the payoffs governing the decision of agents vary with disease prevalence, resulting in the vaccine uptake behavior changing in response to contagion spreading. The collective behavior of the agents responding to local prevalence can lead to a significant reduction in the final epidemic size, particularly for less contagious diseases having low basic reproduction number [Formula: see text]. Near the epidemic threshold ([Formula: see text]) the use of local prevalence information can result in divergent responses in the final vaccine coverage. Our results suggest that heterogeneity in the risk perception resulting from the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemic differentially affects agents' payoffs, which is a critical determinant of the success of voluntary vaccination schemes.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/tendências , Vacinação/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Doenças Transmissíveis , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos , Prevalência , Risco , Rede Social , Vacinação/tendências , Vacinas
16.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 56(1): 15-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070161

RESUMO

The global fight against malaria requires continual development of new tools. Collaborations in India have played a key role in MMV's partnerships to discover, develop and deliver new medicines. Over the last decade, India has become a focal point of global medicinal chemistry, and combined with investments in basic science, this has led to the discovery of new potential drugs. India also brings significant experience to drug development, in clinical trials, but also in formulation and manufacturing. Finally, innovative new approaches in case management have streamlined impact at the level of communities and the patients.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas
17.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 32(2): 165-177, abr. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182818

RESUMO

This paper seeks to explore the reasons for the low impact of nosocomial infection in the mainstream media and the responsibilities of physicians and journalists in terms of this situation. To this end, a small group of 13 experts met for round-table discussions, including physicians with expertise in nosocomial infection, medical lawsuits and ethics, as well as journalists from major mainstream Spanish media outlets. The various participants were asked a series of questions prior to the meeting, which were answered in writing by one of the speakers and discussed during the meeting by the whole group, the aim being to obtain consensual conclusions for each of them. The document was subsequently reviewed, edited and forwarded to all co-authors for their agreement. The opinions expressed are the personal opinions of the participants and not necessarily those of the institutions in which they work or with which they collaborate


Este documento busca explorar las razones del bajo impacto de la infección nosocomial en los medios de comunicación tradicionales y las responsabilidades de los médicos y periodistas en esta situación. Con este fin se realizó una mesa redonda con un pequeño grupo de 13 expertos, incluidos médicos con experiencia en infecciones nosocomiales, legislación médica y ética, así como periodistas de los principales medios de comunicación españoles. Antes de la reunión, se les hicieron una serie de preguntas a los participantes, las cuales fueron respondidas por escrito por cada uno y discutidas durante la reunión por todo el grupo, con el objetivo de obtener conclusiones consensuadas para cada una de ellas. El documento fue posteriormente revisado, editado y enviado a todos los coautores para su acuerdo. Las opiniones expresadas por cada participante son propias y no necesariamente de las instituciones en las que trabajan o con las que colaboran


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Opinião Pública , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Jornalismo/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871152

RESUMO

Hepatitis (HEV) is widely distributed in pigs and is transmitted with increasing numbers to humans by contact with pigs, contaminated food and blood transfusion. The virus is mostly apathogenic in pigs but may enhance the pathogenicity of other pig viruses. In humans, infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis and extrahepatic manifestations. In order to stop the emerging infection, effective counter-measures are required. First of all, transmission by blood products can be prevented by screening all blood donations. Meat and sausages should be appropriately cooked. Elimination of the virus from the entire pork production can be achieved by sensitive testing and elimination programs including early weaning, colostrum deprivation, Caesarean delivery, embryo transfer, treatment with antivirals, protection from de novo infection, and possibly vaccination. In addition, contaminated water, shellfish, vegetables, and fruits by HEV-contaminated manure should be avoided. A special situation is given in xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs in order to alleviate the lack of human transplants. The elimination of HEV from pigs, other animals and humans is consistent with the One Health concept, preventing subclinical infections in the animals as well as preventing transmission to humans and disease.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Hepatite E/prevenção & controle , Hepatite E/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Hepatite E/transmissão , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Carne/virologia , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Saúde Única , RNA Viral , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Transplante Heterólogo/efeitos adversos , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA