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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 625, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480221

RESUMO

Controlling forest pests to maintain the sustainability of forests and ecosystem balance is one of the interests of modern forestry. In the evaluation of damage risks associated with forest pests, pheromone traps attract attention by providing early warnings. With the development of these traps in line with modern technology, more reliable data are obtained; these data are important in the identification and planning of pest management. In this study, a pheromone trap with electronic control unit was tested under field conditions. The capture of adult Ips sexdentatus under natural conditions during 103 days of the flying period was evaluated; 97.2% of the beetles captured in the trap were the target species. The comparison of the number of beetles recorded by the trap and manual counts revealed that the trap worked with an error margin of approximately 4%. However, no statistically significant difference was noted between these two counting methods. During the study, 59% of the total beetles were captured between May 27 and June 25. The average temperature at the period of the capture was 20.09 °C, average humidity was 66%, and average wind speed was 2.9 m/s. Of the captures, 73.9% occurred in the temperature range of 15-24.9 °C, 61.1% occurred in humidity range of 61-90%, 89.6% occurred at a wind speed of 0.3-5.4 m/s, and 77.3% occurred within the period from sunrise to sunset. When these four parameters were evaluated together, the most strongly associated parameter was daylight, followed by temperature, wind speed, and humidity.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , Ecossistema , Eletrônica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Controle de Insetos , Feromônios
2.
J Med Entomol ; 58(5): 2006-2011, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342359

RESUMO

Medical Entomology as a field is inherently global - thriving on international and interdisciplinary collaborations and affected dramatically by arthropod and pathogen invasions and introductions. This past year also will be remembered as the year in which the SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 pandemic affected every part of our lives and professional activities and impacted (or changed, sometimes in good ways) our ability to collaborate and detect or respond to invasions. This incredible year is the backdrop for the 2020 Highlights in Medical Entomology. This article highlights the broad scope of approaches and disciplines represented in the 2020 published literature, ranging from sensory and chemical ecology, population genetics, impacts of human-mediated environmental change on vector ecology, life history and the evolution of vector behaviors, to the latest developments in vector surveillance and control.


Assuntos
Entomologia , Aedes , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Controle de Insetos , Insetos Vetores , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(33): 9511-9519, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379409

RESUMO

The environmental impact of methyl bromide (MB) has resulted in its phase out as an insecticidal fumigant except for critical use exempted categories. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an environmentally sustainable MB alternative fumigant. trans-Cinnamaldehyde (TC), benzaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), hexanal, and ethyl formate (EF) are naturally occurring plant volatiles with insecticidal properties. This study assessed the toxicity of these plant volatiles to adult and egg stages of the spotted-wing drosophila (SWD) (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura). The plant volatile treatments had a significant effect on adult SWD mortality. The descending order of toxicity to adult SWD was benzaldehyde > AITC > TC > hexanal > EF at a headspace concentration of 0.50 µL/L air for 24 h. All the volatiles, at a concentration of 4.00 µL/L air, significantly inhibited larval emergence from SWD eggs in artificial diet compared to the control. At a 0.50 µL/L air level, among the volatiles tested, only AITC exhibited 100% inhibition against larval emergence from SWD eggs in blueberry fruits after 24 h exposure. In summary, this study shows that all volatiles tested elicited varying degrees of toxicity toward SWD adults and eggs. However, AITC was the most efficacious volatile and the one with the greatest promise as a post-harvest fumigant for both adult and egg stages of SWD.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Inseticidas , Animais , Drosophila , Frutas/química , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299307

RESUMO

Crop yield is severely affected by biotic and abiotic stresses. Plants adapt to these stresses mainly through gene expression reprogramming at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Recently, the exogenous application of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a sustainable and publicly acceptable alternative to genetic transformation, hence, small RNAs (micro-RNAs and small interfering RNAs) have an important role in combating biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. RNAi limits the transcript level by either suppressing transcription (transcriptional gene silencing) or activating sequence-specific RNA degradation (post-transcriptional gene silencing). Using RNAi tools and their respective targets in abiotic stress responses in many crops is well documented. Many miRNAs families are reported in plant tolerance response or adaptation to drought, salinity, and temperature stresses. In biotic stress, the spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) provides an intelligent method of using dsRNA as a trigger to silence target genes in pests and pathogens without producing side effects such as those caused by chemical pesticides. In this review, we focus on the potential of SIGS as the most recent application of RNAi in agriculture and point out the trends, challenges, and risks of production technologies. Additionally, we provide insights into the potential applications of exogenous RNAi against biotic stresses. We also review the current status of RNAi/miRNA tools and their respective targets on abiotic stress and the most common responsive miRNA families triggered by stress conditions in different crop species.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Inativação Gênica , Controle de Insetos , Insetos/genética , Insetos/patogenicidade , MicroRNAs/genética , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
5.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 135: 103597, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089822

RESUMO

Lepidopteran P450s of the CYP6B and CYP9A subfamilies are thought to play important roles in host plant adaptation and insecticide resistance. An increasing number of paralogs and orthologs with high levels of sequence identity have been found in these subfamilies by mining recent genome projects. However, the biochemical function of most of them remains unknown. A better understanding of the evolution of P450 genes and of the catalytic competence of the enzymes they encode is needed to facilitate studies of host plant use and insecticide resistance. Here, we focused on the full complement of CYP6B (4 genes) and CYP9A (7 genes) in the generalist herbivore, Helicoverpa armigera. These P450s were heterologously expressed in Sf9 cells and compared functionally. In vitro assays showed that all CYP6B and CYP9A P450s can metabolize esfenvalerate efficiently, except for the evolutionarily divergent CYP6B43. A new 2'-hydroxy-metabolite of esfenvalerate was identified and found to be the main metabolite produced by CYP9A12. All tested P450s showed only low induction responses to esfenvalerate. To put these results from H. armigera P450s in perspective, 158 complete CYP6B and 100 complete CYP9A genes from 34 ditrysian species were manually curated. The CYP9A subfamily was more widespread than the CYP6B subfamily and the latter showed dramatic gains and losses, with ten species lacking CYP6B genes. Two adjacent CYP6B loci were found on chromosome 21, with different fates during the evolution of Lepidoptera. The diversity and functional redundancy of CYP6B and CYP9A genes challenge resistance management and pest control strategies as many P450s are available to insects to cope with chemical stresses they encounter.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mariposas , Piretrinas , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Genes de Insetos , Genoma de Inseto , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacologia
6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(10): 4555-4563, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global pest spotted winged drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) continues to have a significant economic impact on fruit production in areas where it is established, in addition to newly invaded ranges. Management activities spanning national biosecurity responses to farm-scale pest control are limited by the inability to predict the timing and severity of seasonal outbreaks of D. suzukii and its climatic drivers. RESULTS: Here, we compiled and analysed data on international seasonal abundances for D. suzukii under different climates, crop types and management contexts to improve the predictability of seasonal population dynamics. In relating seasonal abundances to environmental predictors, specifically temperature, we found strong negative effects of exposure to high and low temperatures during the preceding month. Unlike most regional studies on D. suzukii phenology that focus on temperature in the physiological development range, we show that thermal extremes better explain seasonal population fluctuations. CONCLUSION: Although trap catches remain an indirect measure of infestations and must be interpreted carefully in terms of crop risk, our results should support monitoring programmes through enhanced knowledge of the climatic factors affecting D. suzukii population activity. The negative impact of high temperatures suggests that late-season management strategies focusing on manipulating crop microclimates to temperatures above 25 °C can reduce D. suzukii abundance. We show that early season abundance is modulated by climate, particularly the depth of cold extremes experienced in the preceding time interval. These associations may be further developed into early-season crop risk forecasts to support monitoring programs. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Controle de Insetos , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
7.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1513-1515, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185547

RESUMO

Objectives. To compare outcomes when pesticides are used to control bed bugs by professionals and nonprofessionals. Methods. All US National Pesticide Information Center inquiries from 2013 to 2017 were assessed to identify scenarios involving bed bugs and pesticide applications. Cases were evaluated with respect to types of applicators, misapplications, and human pesticide exposures. Results. Misapplications were more than twice as likely to be reported in cases involving nonprofessional applications (14%) as in cases involving professional applications (5%). Human exposures to pesticides were reported more often when pesticides were misapplied (70%) than when there were no apparent misapplications (31%). Conclusions. Both professionals and nonprofessionals may misuse pesticides to control bed bugs, which may increase the risks of exposure and adverse outcomes. Policy interventions may reduce pesticide incidents related to bed bug control by promoting professional involvement and adherence to product label instructions.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Exposição Ambiental , Controle de Insetos , Praguicidas , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Controle de Insetos/normas , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Praguicidas/toxicidade
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009389, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interruption of domestic vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is still an unmet goal in several American countries. In 2007 we launched a long-term intervention program aimed to suppress house infestation with the main domestic vector in southern South America (Triatoma infestans) and domestic transmission in Pampa del Indio, a resource-constrained, hyperendemic municipality with 1446 rural houses inhabited by Creole and indigenous people, in the Argentine Chaco ecoregion. Here, we assessed whether the 10-year insecticide-based program combined with community mobilization blocked vector-borne domestic transmission of T. cruzi to humans and dogs. METHODS: We carried out two municipality-wide, cross-sectional serosurveys of humans and dogs (considered sentinel animals) during 2016-2017 to compare with baseline data. We used a risk-stratified random sampling design to select 273 study houses; 410 people from 180 households and 492 dogs from 151 houses were examined for antibodies to T. cruzi using at least two serological methods. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi in children aged <16 years was 2.5% in 2017 (i.e., 4- to 11-fold lower than before interventions). The mean annual force of child infection (λ) sharply decreased from 2.18 to 0.34 per 100 person-years in 2017. One of 102 children born after interventions was seropositive for T. cruzi; he had lifetime residence in an apparently uninfested house, no outside travel history, and his mother was T. cruzi-seropositive. No incident case was detected among 114 seronegative people of all ages re-examined serologically. Dog seroprevalence was 3.05%. Among native dogs, λ in 2016 (1.21 per 100 dog-years) was 5 times lower than at program onset. Six native adult dogs born after interventions and with stable lifetime residence were T. cruzi-seropositive: three had exposure to T. infestans at their houses and one was an incident case. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the interruption of vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi to humans in rural Pampa del Indio. Congenital transmission was the most likely source of the only seropositive child born after interventions. Residual transmission to dogs was likely related to transient infestations and other transmission routes. Sustained vector control supplemented with human chemotherapy can lead to a substantial reduction of Chagas disease transmission in the Argentine Chaco.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Argentina , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Controle de Insetos , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Triatoma
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(10): 4400-4410, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance in arthropods is an inherited trait that has become a major cause of insect pest control failure. Monitoring the level of susceptibility and characterization of the type of resistance of key pest species aims to determine the risk of resistance selection in time to take action to mitigate control failures. Seven populations of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis, collected from cotton fields in the Semiarid and Cerrado areas of Brazil, were screened for their resistance to malathion and beta-cyfluthrin, insecticides widely recommended for control of boll weevil and other pests. RESULTS: The levels of adult mortality were variable for beta-cyfluthrin (0-82%) but invariant (100%) for malathion. Bioassays of concentration-mortality were used to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) for each insecticide. The LC-values corroborate the lack of resistance to field rates of malathion but high levels of resistance to beta-cyfluthrin from 62.7- to 439.7-fold. Weevils resistant to beta-cyfluthrin were found through genome sequencing to possess a kdr mutation through the L1014F substitution in the voltage gated-sodium channel gene. CONCLUSIONS: This study found boll weevil resistance to beta-cyfluthrin to be not mediated by carboxylesterases, but with cross-resistance to DDT and carbaryl, and kdr mutation as the major mechanism of the resistance in our samples. Caution is recommended in further use of beta-cyfluthrin against boll weevil due to potential resistance. Monitoring studies using other boll weevil populations are recommended to determine the geographic pattern and extent of pyrethroid resistance. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Piretrinas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Controle de Insetos , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Gorgulhos/genética
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009309, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983930

RESUMO

Elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Southeast Asia and global control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and VL are priorities of the World Health Organization (WHO). But is the existing evidence good enough for public health recommendations? This meta-review summarises the available and new evidence for vector control with the aims of establishing what is known about the value of vector control for the control of CL and VL, establishing gaps in knowledge, and particularly focusing on key recommendations for further scientific work. This meta-review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria, including (1) systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SRs/MAs) for (2) vector control methods and strategies and (3) for the control of CL and/or VL. Nine SRs/MAs were included, with different research questions and inclusion/exclusion criteria. The methods analysed for vector control can be broadly classified into (1) indoor residual spraying (IRS); (2) insecticide-treated nets (ITNs; including insecticide-impregnated bednets); (3) insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs; including insecticide-treated house screening); (4) insecticide-treated bedsheets (ITSs) and insecticide-treated fabrics (ITFs; including insecticide-treated clothing) and (5) durable wall lining (treated with insecticides) and other environmental measures to protect the house; (6) control of the reservoir host; and (7) strengthening vector control operations through health education. The existing SRs/MAs include a large variation of different primary studies, even for the same specific research sub-question. Also, the SRs/MAs are outdated, using available information until earlier than 2018 only. Assessing the quality of the SRs/MAs, there is a considerable degree of variation. It is therefore very difficult to summarise the results of the available SRs/MAs, with contradictory results for both vector indices and-if available-human transmission data. Conclusions of this meta-review are that (1) existing SRs/MAs and their results make policy recommendations for evidence-based vector control difficult; (2) further work is needed to establish efficacy and community effectiveness of key vector control methods with specific SRs and MAs (3) including vector and human transmission parameters; and (4) attempting to conclude with recommendations in different transmission scenarios.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas/farmacologia
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112324, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015630

RESUMO

Insecticides are extensively used worldwide to kill insect pests, yet organisms are most often exposed to insecticides at sublethal concentrations. Our understanding of sublethal effects on life histories is needed to predict the impact of insecticides on population dynamics and improve insecticide use and pest control. Sublethal concentrations can impact life histories directly and indirectly through changes in the intraspecific competition. Yet, few studies have evaluated the sublethal effects on intraspecific competition and these do not disentangle the insecticide effects on interference competition versus exploitative competition. As such, sublethal effects on the relative contribution of each pathways in shaping life histories are largely unknown, despite the fact that this can impact population dynamics. In this study, we focused on the neurotoxic insecticide spinosad and investigated its sublethal effects on interference among the aggressive larvae of the tortrix moth Adoxophyes honmai and the consequences for life histories. We conducted a set of paired experiments to disentangle the insecticide effects on interference from the ones on exploitation. Spinosad was found to amplify interference with most effects on mortality which lets us suggest that the insecticide likely increases the level of aggressive interactions resulting in more conspecific killings (e.g. cannibalism). Spinosad exposure was found to impair movement ability. Less movements may increase susceptibility to conspecific attacks and or increase aggresivity for better defence, two plausible mechanisms that could explain the increase in interference with insecticide. This study shows that insecticide at sublethal concentration can impact life histories by altering the strength of interference competition. Many organisms (pest and non-target species) compete through interference and theory predicts that a change in interference can substantially change dynamics. Our finding therefore reveals the importance of assessing the effect of insecticides on the mechanisms of competition when predicting their impact on populations.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/fisiologia , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
Plant Sci ; 308: 110930, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034878

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases in citrus worldwide. Unfortunately, HLB has no cure and management relies on insecticides to reduce populations of the vector, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). We propose an attract-and-kill strategy using a trap crop as an alternative to vector control to reduce transmission of the pathogen, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. We evaluated vector response to phytoene desaturase-silenced citrus trees using virus-induced gene silencing technology. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was used to produce a phytoene desaturase-silenced citrus (CTV-tPDS) that expresses visual, olfactory, and gustatory cues to attract D. citri. We found that D. citri were more attracted to CTV-tPDS plants with noticeably better fecundity and overall population fitness than on control plants. Moreover, rearing D. citri on CTV-tPDS plants significantly increased their survival probability compared with those reared on control plants. CTV-tPDS plants possessed reduced content of both carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments resulting in a consistent photobleached phenotype on citrus leaves which provided a sufficient close-range visual attractant to stimulate D. citri landing. Additionally, CTV-tPDS plants exhibited an enriched profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which offered adequate olfactory cues to attract psyllid from long-range. Finally, CTV-tPDS plants exhibited an enriched metabolite content of phloem sap and leaves which offered appropriate gustatory cues that influenced probing/feeding behavior. We believe that introducing CTV-tPDS plants (as a trap crop) to D. citri-infested orchards will attract and congregate psyllids to facilitate their removal from the target crop with insecticides or by other means. This new strategy could be deployed relatively quickly and economically to HLB-impacted citrus industries. Moreover, it is an eco-friendly strategy because it should partially reduce the input of chemical insecticides ameliorating the indirect cost of HLB infection.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes/fisiologia , Citrus/fisiologia , Inativação Gênica , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Animais , Citrus/genética , Controle de Insetos , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105953, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979638

RESUMO

Several light trap devices have been invented and developed to assess the abundance of sand flies. Traps available in the market have different designs and attractant combinations to catch sand fly vectors. We evaluated the efficacy of four commercial light traps and determined the effect of trap placement and carbon dioxide (CO2) on sand fly collection in northern Thailand. Trap evaluations were conducted at two natural caves located in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. In the first part of the study, the efficacies of four trap types including the Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (CDC LT), Encephalitis Vector Survey trap (EVS), CDC Updraft Blacklight trap (CDC UB), and Laika trap (LK) were evaluated and compared using a Latin square experimental design. The second half of the study evaluated the influence of trap placement and CO2 on sand fly collection. Additionally, CDC LT were placed inside, outside, and at the entrance of caves to compare the number of sand flies collected. For the trap efficacy experiment, a total of 11,876 phlebotomine sand flies were collected over 32 trap-nights. Results demonstrated that CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK collected significantly more sand flies than EVS (P > 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the numbers of sand flies collected by CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK. A total of 6,698 sand flies were collected from the trap placement and CO2 experiment over 72 trap-nights. Results showed that CO2 did not influence the numbers of sand flies captured (P < 0.05), whereas trap placement at the entrance of the caves resulted in collection of significantly more sand flies than traps placed inside and outside of the caves. We found the CDC LT, CDC UB, and LK without CO2 captured the greatest amount of sand flies. This was particularly observed when traps were placed at the entrance of a cave, perhaps because of the greater passage of stimuli caused by wind flow at the entrance of the cave. The light traps in this study can be used effectively to collect sand fly vectors in northern Thailand.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Cavernas , Vetores de Doenças , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Tailândia
14.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(3): 1201-1210, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837788

RESUMO

Management responses to invasive forest insects are facilitated by the use of detection traps ideally baited with species-specific semiochemicals. Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is currently invading North American forests, and since its detection in 2002, development of monitoring tools has been a primary research objective. We compared six trapping schemes for A. planipennis over 2 yr at sites in four U.S. states and one Canadian province that represented a range of background A. planipennis densities, canopy coverage, and ash basal area. We also developed a region-wide phenology model. Across all sites and both years, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile of adult flight occurred at 428, 587, and 837 accumulated degree-days, respectively, using a base temperature threshold of 10°C and a start date of 1 January. Most trapping schemes captured comparable numbers of beetles with the exception of purple prism traps (USDA APHIS PPQ), which captured significantly fewer adults. Trapping schemes varied in their trap catch across the gradient of ash basal area, although when considering trap catch as a binary response variable, trapping schemes were more likely to detect A. planipennis in areas with a higher ash component. Results could assist managers in optimizing trap selection, placement, and timing of deployment given local weather conditions, forest composition, and A. planipennis density.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fraxinus , Animais , Canadá , Controle de Insetos , Insetos , Larva , Feromônios
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831056

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility and resistance of some house fly strains of Musca domestica L. to the insect growth regulator insecticides triflumuron and pyriproxyfen in some locations in Riyadh city. Field-collected strains of M. domestica L. from five sites in Riyadh city that represented five slaughterhouse sites where flies spread significantly were tested against triflumuron and pyriproxyfen. Triflumuron LC50 values for the five collected strains ranged from 2.6 to 5.5 ppm, and the resistance factors (RFs) ranged from 13-fold to 27-fold that of the susceptible laboratory strain. Pyriproxyfen LC50 values for the field strains ranged from 0.9 to 1.8 ppm with RFs of 3-fold to 5-fold. These results indicate that pyriproxyfen is an effective insecticide to control house flies and should be used in rotation with other insecticides in the control programs applied by Riyadh municipality.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacologia , Moscas Domésticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Arábia Saudita
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831041

RESUMO

Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila, SWD) is a pandemic quarantine pest that attacks mostly red fruits. The high number of life cycles per year, its ability to rapidly invade and spread across new habitats, and highly polyphagous nature, makes this a particularly aggressive invasive species, for which efficient control methods are currently lacking. The use of native natural predators is particularly promising to anchor sustainable and efficient measures to control SWD. While several field studies have suggested the presence of potential predatory species in infested orchards, only a few confirmed the presence of SWD DNA in predators' gut content. Here, we use a DNA-based approach to identify SWD predators among the arthropod diversity in South Europe, by examining the gut content of potential predator specimens collected in SWD-infested berry fields in North Portugal. These specimens were morphologically identified to the family/order, and their gut content was screened for the presence of SWD DNA using PCR. New SWD predatory taxonomical groups were identified, as Opiliones and Hemerobiidae, in addition to known SWD predators, such as Hemerobiidae, Chrysopidae, Miridae, Carabidae, Formicidae and Araneae. Additionally, the presence of a spider family, Uloboridae, in the orchards was recorded for the first time, posing this family as another SWD-candidate predator. This study sets important bases to further investigate the potential large-scale use of some of these confirmed predator taxa for SWD control in South Europe.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos/genética , DNA/genética , Drosophila/genética , Frutas/parasitologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Portugal
18.
Environ Entomol ; 50(4): 795-802, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885809

RESUMO

Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), grape berry moth, is a major pest of grapes in Eastern North America. There is substantial regional variation in the response of male P. viteana to sex pheromone-baited monitoring traps in Michigan vineyards. Males are readily captured in traps in the southwest region, whereas in the northwest very few males are captured, despite larval infestation in grapes in both regions. Y-tube olfactometers and field experiments determined the response of male moths from northern and southern populations to the pheromone blend used in monitoring lures and to females from both regions. In Y-tube choice tests, males responded similarly to the standard pheromone blend, and males did not preferentially choose females from either region. In field trials, traps baited with unmated females were deployed to test the preference of resident males for females from the two regions and for standard pheromone lures. In southwest Michigan vineyards, significantly more males were caught in traps with a 1.0-µg standard pheromone lure than in traps with captive females collected from vineyards in both regions or in traps with a blank lure control. A similar pattern of male captures among lure treatments was observed in northwest vineyards, although many fewer males were trapped and differences among treatments were not significant. We conclude that the observed regional differences in male response to pheromone traps are not caused by variation in pheromone-mediated behavioral responses, suggesting that other biotic and/or abiotic differences determine the regional variation in captures of this species.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Atrativos Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Michigan , Feromônios/farmacologia , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia
19.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861348

RESUMO

The potential of the parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek for the biological control of the eucalyptus pest Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) nymphs is high. This research sought to analyze the courtship, male competition, and mating behavior of P. bliteus at the proportions of 1:1 and 2:1 males to female in a Petri dish (5 cm diameter), and to describe the ovary histology of virgin and mated females of this parasitoid. At 1:1, males touch the antennae and thorax-abdomen of females during courtship, but females avoid mate attempts before they are 48 h old. At 2:1, the competition between male parasitoids inhibits mating. The histology of ovaries of virgin and mated P. bliteus females is similar, with two well-defined germarium and vitellarium regions, with oocytes at different developmental stages, including mature ones rich in yolk and with eggshell. A clearer understanding of the reproductive behavior and histology of P. bliteus aids in the use of this parasitoid for the biological control of G. brimblecombei.


Assuntos
Himenópteros/anatomia & histologia , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Corte , Feminino , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemípteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Ninfa/parasitologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(3): 1249-1255, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860298

RESUMO

The development of baits for subterranean termite control over the past 25 yr has provided cost-effective alternatives to liquid termiticide treatments. Current bait products use one of the few available benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) labeled for subterranean termites. These insecticides are used because of their nonrepellency, their slow-acting mode of action, and their dose-independent lethal time. Although many studies have provided ample evidence of the efficacy of CSI baits for subterranean termite colony elimination, most have focused on hexaflumuron and noviflumuron. However, bait products using alternative CSIs have not received the same level of scrutiny, limiting the amount of evidence proving their efficacy. One such compound is novaluron, the active ingredient currently used in the Trelona ATBS-Advance Termite Baiting System bait product. The current study independently tested the efficacy of this commercially available bait formulation against whole colonies of Coptotermes gestroi (Wamann) (~63,910 workers) in the laboratory, using an extended experimental setup to simulate a 15-m foraging distance from the central part of the nest to the bait, while having access to alternative food sources. Treated colonies progressively ceased to feed on wood items within 45 d after being provided access to the novaluron bait formulation, with a subsequent progressive collapse of the population, leading to colony elimination by 91 d. This study therefore confirms the efficacy of novaluron baits against subterranean termites, and currently remains one of the few CSIs that can be applied for the successful control of Coptotermes infestations.


Assuntos
Baratas , Inseticidas , Isópteros , Animais , Controle de Insetos , Laboratórios , Compostos de Fenilureia
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