Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.019
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110947, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678751

RESUMO

Cyantraniliprole was recently registered for controlling the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei, the main coffee pest in the world. In this study, baseline determination and resistance monitoring to cyantraniliprole were carried out in Brazilian populations of H. hampei. Evaluations were carried out for three years with representative field-collected populations from nine coffee-producing states in Brazil, using artificial diet containing the insecticide. The likelihood of control failure due to cyantraniliprole resistance was also determined. Populations from Campo do Meio, Linhares and Jaú were more susceptible (<2-fold resistance) to cyantraniliprole than populations from Patrocínio and Londrina (17-fold). Nonetheless, the frequency of cyantraniliprole resistance insects was low and not significant throughout the regions survey and the likelihood of control failure was negligible. Therefore, cyantraniliprole remains an important management tool against the coffee berry borer without current problems of control failure. However, enough field variation in susceptibility to cyantraniliprole exists justifying attention and careful management of this insecticide to prevent quick development of insecticide resistance in populations of this insect pest species.


Assuntos
Coffea/parasitologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Gorgulhos/efeitos dos fármacos , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Coffea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probabilidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008404, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687497

RESUMO

The northeastern semiarid region stands out in the Brazilian context regarding the eco-epidemiology of Chagas disease, in which Triatoma brasiliensis is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Persistent house invasion threatens the relative levels of progress achieved over previous decades. We conducted an intervention trial with a five-year follow-up to assess the impacts of residual spraying with pyrethroid insecticides on house infestation with T. brasiliensis in 18 rural villages (242 houses) located in the Tauá, Ceará. House infestations were assessed by systematic manual searches for triatomines in every domestic and peridomestic habitat on five occasions. Triatomines were collected in peridomestic (57.5%), sylvatic (35.8%), and intradomiciliary (6.7%) habitats. The most important ecotopes of T. brasiliensis were containing roofing tiles, bricks or rocks (23.4% ± 9.1). Residual insecticide spraying substantially reduced baseline house infestation rates from 27.9% to 5.9% by 6 months post first spraying (MPS). The decline was substantially greater in intradomiciles (11.2% to 0.8%) than in peridomiciles (16.7% to 5%). The mean relative density of triatomines recovered its preintervention values at 14 MPS in intradomiciles, and in the main peridomestic ecotopes. The house infestation levels recorded at 14 MPS persisted thereafter despite all reinfested houses were selectively sprayed on every occasion. Overall average bug infection rates with T. cruzi in the five occasions were in intradomiciles (11.1%), peridomiciles (4.7%) and wild habitats (3.3%). In peridomicile T. cruzi infection rates decreased significantly at all stages after chemical intervention. In intradomicile, the only significant difference occurred at 20 MPS (7.7% to 30.8%). The vectorial capacity of T. brasiliensis, combined with its invasive potential from sylvatic sources and the limited effectiveness of chemical control in the harsh caatinga landscape, pose serious obstacles to the definite elimination of domestic transmission risks. Systematic vector surveillance supported by community participation and locally adapted environmental management measures are needed to reduce the risks of establishment of domestic transmission with T. cruzi in this region.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Triatoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Habitação , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Saúde da População Rural , Triatoma/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0229476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649703

RESUMO

Recent debates on insect decline require sound assessments on the relative drivers that may negatively impact insect populations. Often, baseline data rely on insect monitorings that integrate catches over long time periods. If, however, effects of time-critical environmental factors (e.g., light pollution) are of interest, higher temporal resolution of insect data is required during very specific time intervals (e.g., between dusk and dawn). Conventional time-critical insect trapping is labour-intensive (manual activation/deactivation) and temporally inaccurate as not all traps can be serviced synchronically at different sites. Also, temporal shifts of environmental conditions (e.g., sunset/sunrise) are not accounted for. We present a battery-driven automated insect flight-interception trap which samples insects during seven user-defined time intervals. A commercially available flight-interception trap is fitted to a turntable containing eight positions, seven of them holding cups and one consisting of a pass-through hole. While the cups sample insects during period of interest, the pass-through hole avoids unwanted sampling during time-intervals not of interest. Comparisons between two manual and two automated traps during 71 nights in 2018 showed no difference in caught insects. A study using 20 automated traps during 104 nights in 2019 proved that the automated flight-interception traps are reliable. The automated trap opens new research and application possibilities as arbitrary insect-sampling intervals can be defined. The trap proves efficient, saving manpower and associated costs as activation/deactivation is required only every seven sampling intervals. In addition, the timing of the traps is accurate, as all traps sample at exactly the same intervals and ensure comparability. The automated trap is low maintenance and robust due to straightforward technical design. It can be controlled manually or via smartphone through a Bluetooth connection. Full construction details are given in Appendices.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Automação , Desenho de Equipamento
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701965

RESUMO

The dosage sprayed upon per unit area is an important index to measure the effects of pesticide application. Owing to the fact that parameters such as flight height, flight speed, and spray swath can change at any given time, it is impossible to ensure a consistent amount of pesticide application per unit area during the course of aerial variable spray. In order to ensure a consistent amount of pesticide application per unit area, a set of control models of aerial variable spray using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was proposed, and the corresponding control system was developed based on the technology of aerial variable spray. According to the change of flight parameters, this system was able to adjust the opening degree of solenoid valve through the control model of aerial variable spray. After that, the amount per unit time would change to ensure a consistent amount of pesticide application per unit area, which effectively avoided the phenomenon of uneven pesticide application and improved the accuracy. According to the actual demand for the area in need of pesticide application, the operator can manually control the amount of pesticide applied and change the dosage sprayed upon per unit area to achieve a better effect. Through field tests, it was verified that the system has high accuracy of variable control. The deviation range was between 0.11% and 9.79%, which met the demands of agricultural aviation pesticide application. Furthermore, the system had strong stability for working continuously for more than 6 h at 30°C to meet the environmental requirements of pesticide application via UAV. All the data related to the pesticide application were stored in this system, which provided a reference for the further study of the precision technology in pesticide application. The model proposed in this paper also provided a theoretical basis for the technology development of aerial variable spray.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Agricultura , Aeronaves , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Robótica
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491140

RESUMO

Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera) is a major pest of soybean in the Brazil. It is known that the reduction of proteolytic activity by the ingestion of protease inhibitors reduces digestion and larval development of the insects. Control via inhibition of the digestive enzymes necessitates deeper knowledge of the enzyme kinetics and the characterization of the inhibition kinetics of these proteases, for better understanding of the active centers and action mechanisms of this enzyme. Trypsin-like proteases found in the gut of Anticarsia gemmatalis were purified in a p-aminobenzamidine agarose column. Kinetic characterization showed KM 0.503 mM for the L-BApNA substrate; Vmax= 46.650 nM s-1; Vmax/[E]= 9.256 nM s-1 mg L-1 and Vmax/[E]/KM= 18.402 nM s-1 mg L-1 mM. The Ki values for the inhibitors benzamidine, berenil, SKTI and SBBI were 11.2 µM, 32.4 µM, 0.25 nM and 1.4 nM, respectively, and all revealed linear competitive inhibition. The SKTI showed the greatest inhibition, which makes it a promising subject for future research to manufacture peptide mimetic inhibitors.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Lepidópteros/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Animais , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Cinética , Lepidópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(4): e21685, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350927

RESUMO

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is one of the most notorious and difficult to control pests of potato and other solanaceous crops in North America. This insect has evolved a remarkable ability to detoxify both plant and synthetic toxins, allowing it to feed on solanaceous plants containing toxic alkaloids and to develop resistance to synthetic chemicals used for its control. RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural mechanism that evolved as an immune response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses where dsRNA triggers silencing of target gene expression. RNAi is being developed as a method to control CPB. Here, we evaluated four CPB-specific genes to identify targets for RNAi-mediated control of this insect. Out of the four dsRNAs evaluated in CPB larvae and adults, dsIAP (dsRNA targeting inhibitor of apoptosis, iap gene) performed better than dsActin, dsHSP70, and dsDynamin in inducing larval mortality. However, in adults, the mortality induced by dsActin is significantly higher than the mortality induced by dsIAP, dsHSP70, and dsDynamin. Interestingly, a combination of dsIAP and dsActin performed better than either dsIAP or dsActin alone by inducing feeding inhibition in 24 hr and mortality in 48 hr in larvae. When the dsIAP and dsActin were expressed in the Escherichia coli HT115 strain and applied as a heat-killed bacterial spray on potato plants, it protected the plants from CPB damage. These studies show that the combination of dsIAP and dsActin shows promise as an insecticide to control CPB.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Interferência de RNA , Actinas/genética , Animais , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Solanum tuberosum
8.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(4): e21690, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394499

RESUMO

The harlequin bug (HB), Murgantia histrionica, is a major pest of cabbage family plants throughout its range in the United States. RNA interference (RNAi) is a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism that is showing promise as a biopesticide due to the ability to target species-specific genes necessary for growth and/or survival with synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the present study, dsRNA stability assays revealed that nucleases present in the saliva of harlequin bugs did not rapidly degrade dsRNA. We tracked the movement and localization of radioactively labeled dsRNA in both mustard plant seedlings and harlequin bug nymphs that fed on treated host plants. Movement of 32 P-labeled-dsRNA from soil to plant and plant to insect was detected. The efficacy of RNAi in inducing mortality in harlequin bug adults and nymphs injected or fed with dsRNA targeting inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), ATPase N2B (ATPase), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-ß catalytic subunit (PP1), signal recognition particle 54 kDa protein (SRP), and G protein-coupled receptor 161-like (GPCR) genes was evaluated. Injection of dsRNA targeting candidate genes into adults caused between 40% and 75% mortality and induced significant knockdown of target gene expression. Feeding dsRNA targeting the IAP gene to nymphs by plant-mediated and droplet feeding methods induced knockdown of the target gene and caused 40-55% mortality. These findings suggest that RNAi may be a viable approach for managing this pest.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Heterópteros/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mostardeira/parasitologia , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Ribonucleases , Saliva/enzimologia , Solo/química
9.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(4): e21689, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394607

RESUMO

Apoptosis has been widely studied from mammals to insects. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein is a negative regulator of apoptosis. Recent studies suggest that iap genes could be excellent targets for RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated control of insect pests. However, not much is known about iap genes in one of the well-known insect model species, Tribolium castaneum. The orthologues of five iap genes were identified in T. castaneum by searching its genome at NCBI (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and UniProt (https://www.uniprot.org/) databases using Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti IAP protein sequences as queries. RNAi assays were performed in T. castaneum cell line (TcA) and larvae. The knockdown of iap1 gene induced a distinct apoptotic phenotype in TcA cells and induced 91% mortality in T. castaneum larvae. Whereas, knockdown of iap5 resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation in TcA cells and developmental defects in T. castaneum larvae which led to 100% mortality. Knockdown of the other three iap genes identified did not cause a significant effect on cells or insects. These data increase our understanding of iap genes in insects and provide opportunities for developing iap1 and iap5 as targets for RNAi-based insect pest control.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/genética , Interferência de RNA , Tribolium/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tribolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(4): e21692, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441400

RESUMO

The southern green stink bug (SGSB, Nezara viridula) is an emerging polyphagous pest in many regions of the world. RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable method for understanding gene function and holds great potential for pest management. However, RNAi efficiency is variable among insects and the differences in transport of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are one of the major factors that contribute to this variability. In this study, Cy3 labeled dsRNA was used to track the transport of dsRNA in SGSB tissues. Cy3_dsRNA was detected in the hemocytes, fat body (FB), epidermis, and midgut tissues at 24-72 hr after injection. Orally delivered Cy3_dsRNA or Cypher-5E labeled dsRNA was mostly detected in the midgut and a few signals were detected in parts of the FB and epidermis. Both injected and fed Cy3_dsRNA showed stronger signals in SGSB tissues when compared to Cy3_siRNA (small interfering RNA) or Cy3_shRNA (short hairpin RNA). dsRNA targeting the gene for a vacuolar-sorting protein, SNF7, induced higher knockdown of the target gene and greater SGSB mortality compared to siRNA or shRNA targeting this gene. 32 P-labeled dsRNA injected into SGSB was processed into siRNA, but fed 32 P-labeled dsRNA was not efficiently processed into siRNA. These data suggest that transport of orally delivered dsRNA across the midgut epithelium is not efficient in SGSB which may contribute to variable RNAi efficiency. Targeting genes expressed in the midgut rather than other tissues and using dsRNA instead of siRNA or shRNA would be more effective for RNAi-mediated control of this pest.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Heterópteros/genética , Injeções , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno
11.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(4): e21678, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297364

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable method for understanding the gene function and holds great potential for insect pest management. While RNAi is efficient and systemic in coleopteran insects, RNAi is inefficient in lepidopteran insects. In this study, we explored the possibility of improving RNAi in the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda cells by formulating dsRNA with Cellfectin II (CFII) transfection reagent. The CFII formulated dsRNA was protected from degradation by endonucleases present in Sf9 cells conditioned medium, hemolymph and midgut lumen contents collected from the FAW larvae. Lipid formulated dsRNA also showed reduced accumulation in the endosomes of Sf9 cells and FAW tissues. Exposing Sf9 cells and tissues to CFII formulated dsRNA caused a significant knockdown of endogenous genes. CFII formulated dsIAP fed to FAW larvae induced knockdown of iap gene, growth retardation and mortality. Processing of dsRNA into siRNA was detected in Sf9 cells and Spodoptera frugiperda larvae treated with CFII conjugated 32 P-UTP labeled dsGFP. Overall, the present study concluded that delivering dsRNA formulated with CFII transfection reagent helps dsRNA escapes from the endosomal accumulation and improved RNAi efficiency in the FAW cells and tissues.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/administração & dosagem , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Endossomos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transfecção/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243466

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) supplementation is well-known for enhancing plant resistance to insect pests, however, only recently studies revealed that Si accumulation in the plant not only confers a mechanical barrier to insect feeding, but also primes jasmonic acid-dependent defenses. Here, we examined whether Si supplementation alters wheat volatile emissions that influence the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) olfactory preference and the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes. Even though Si accumulation in wheat did not impact aphid performance, we found that R. padi preferred constitutive volatiles from-Si wheat over those emitted by +Si wheat plants. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, the parasitoid was attracted to volatiles from +Si uninfested wheat, but not to those from-Si uninfested wheat. +Si and-Si aphid-infested plants released equally attractive blends to the aphid parasitoid; however, wasps were unable to distinguish +Si uninfested plant odors from those of aphid-infested treatments. GC-MS analyses revealed that +Si uninfested wheat plants emitted increased amounts of a single compound, geranyl acetone, compared to -Si uninfested wheat, but similar to those emitted by aphid-infested treatments. By contrast, Si supplementation in wheat did not alter composition of aphid-induced plant volatiles. Our results show that changes in wheat volatile blend induced by Si accumulation mediate the non-preference behavior of the bird cherry-oat aphid and the attraction of its parasitoid L. testaceipes. Conversely to the literature, Si supplementation by itself seems to work as an elicitor of induced defenses in wheat, and not as a priming agent.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Silício/farmacologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vespas , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Silício/metabolismo , Olfato , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236101

RESUMO

The translocation of chemical insecticides in corn plants could enhance the control of Spodoptera frugiperda, based on their application form. Chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole were applied via seed treatment and foliar spray in corn (VE and V3) to characterize the systemic action of both molecules in leaves that appeared after application. Bioassays with S. frugiperda and chemical quantification in LC-MS/MS confirmed the absorption and upward translocation of chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole by xylem to new leaves. Both insecticides caused the mortality of larvae up to stage V6 (57.5±9.5% for chlorantraniliprole and 40±8.1% for cyantraniliprole), indicating the translocation of insecticides into leaves of corn plants when applied via seed treatment. However, the translocation of chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole from sprayed leaves to new leaves was not observed, regardless of the stage of application plus the next first, second and third stages. An increased dosage of cyantraniliprole did not influence on its translocation in plant tissues, however, it influenced on the present amount of active ingredient. The application of chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole in seed treatment is an important alternative for integrated pest management. The absorption and redistribution capacity of chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole throughout the plant confer a prolonged residual action with satisfactory control of S. frugiperda.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays , ortoaminobenzoatos/toxicidade , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Sementes
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267901

RESUMO

Plants interact with a great variety of microorganisms that inhabit the rhizosphere or the epiphytic and endophytic phyllosphere and that play critical roles in plant growth as well as the biocontrol of phytopathogens and insect pests. Avocado fruit damage caused by the thrips species Scirtothrips perseae leads to economic losses of 12-51% in many countries. In this study, a screening of bacteria associated with the rhizosphere or endophytic phyllosphere of avocado roots was performed to identify bacterial isolates with plant growth-promoting activity in vitro assays with Arabidopsis seedlings and to assess the biocontrol activity of the isolates against Scirtothrips perseae. The isolates with beneficial, pathogenic and/or neutral effects on Arabidopsis seedlings were identified. The plant growth-promoting bacteria were clustered in two different groups (G1 and G3B) based on their effects on root architecture and auxin responses, particularly bacteria of the Pseudomonas genus (MRf4-2, MRf4-4 and TRf2-7) and one Serratia sp. (TS3-6). Twenty strains were selected based on their plant growth promotion characteristics to evaluate their potential as thrips biocontrol agents. Analyzing the biocontrol activity of S. perseae, it was identified that Chryseobacterium sp. shows an entomopathogenic effect on avocado thrips survival. Through the metabolic profiling of compounds produced by bacteria with plant growth promotion activity, bioactive cyclodipeptides (CDPs) that could be responsible for the plant growth-promoting activity in Arabidopsis were identified in Pseudomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. This study unravels the diversity of bacteria from the avocado rhizosphere and highlights the potential of a unique isolate to achieve the biocontrol of S. perseae.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Persea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Persea/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tisanópteros/microbiologia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/microbiologia , Animais , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Plântula/metabolismo , Serratia/metabolismo , Stenotrophomonas/metabolismo
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 25, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved access to health care and quality of services require integrated efforts and innovations, including community empowerment and participation in transformation processes. Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that is generally controlled by insecticide spraying. To achieve community empowerment in a health program, actions for social innovations may include: community-based research, interdisciplinary and intersectoral participation, community perception of direct benefits and participation in health or environmental improvements. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the processes by which an interdisciplinary team, in collaboration with communities of Comapa, Guatemala, developed an effective solution to address the risk for Chagas disease. METHODS: A qualitative study involving interviews semi-structured and direct observation was conducted using a case study approach to describe and understand the community-based research and intervention process developed by researchers from the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology of the Universidad de San Carlos of Guatemala (Laboratorio de Entomologia y Parasitologia Aplicada). Nine interviews were conducted with the investigators, innovators, members of the community in which the intervention had been implemented. NVivo software (version 12) was used for the emergent coding and analysis of the interviews. RESULTS: Processes of social transformation were evident within households, and the communities that transcended the mere improvement of walls and floors. New social dynamics that favored the household economy and conditions of hygiene and home care that positively impacted the health of the community. We describe how the integration of criteria of social innovation into a home improvement strategy for Chagas disease control, can generate processes of transformation in health by considering sociocultural conditions, encouraging dialogue between public health approaches and traditional practices. We identify and discuss processes for Social Innovations in Health and identify their potential in improving community health in Latin America. CONCLUSIONS: When social innovation criteria are included in a health control initiative, the community-based research and the interdisciplinary and intersectoral participation facilitate the implementation of the control strategy, the perceived benefits by the community and its empowerment to sustain and share the strategy. The case study provided understanding of the intersectoral and interdisciplinary dynamics in particular contexts, and documented the relevance of innovation criteria in health processes.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Controle de Insetos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/psicologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Participação da Comunidade , Empoderamento , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Guatemala , Humanos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Características de Residência , Triatoma
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 210, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128628

RESUMO

Stored grain pests cause great damage to various grain products, and protection against these pests is currently based on synthetic insecticides and fumigants. As a result, these chemicals cause problems, including grain contamination with chemical residues and the development of resistance by insect pests to these chemicals. Therefore, to combat this issue, in the present study, an enhanced form of diatomaceous earth (DE), Grain-Guard, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) were evaluated alone and in combination against adults of Liposcelis paeta (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). M. anisopliae was used at a rate of 1.7 × 104 conidia kg-1 grain alone as well as with two doses of DE (25 and 50 ppm) on wheat under different exposure time courses (4, 7, and 14 days). It is worth mentioning that the combination of M. anisopliae and DE was highly effective against the adults of L. paeta, C. ferrugineus, R. dominica, and T. castaneum after 14 days of exposure. When DE and M. anisopliae were applied alone, DE showed more effectiveness than fungal conidia. Progeny emergence was decreased when modified DE was applied at a high dose rate with the fungus and suppressed at a low dose. The cadavers of all species in the trials showed a maximum percentage of mycosis, and sporulation (conidia/ml) also showed the same result when the fungus was tested alone, while low mycosis and sporulation were achieved under the application of a mixture with a high dose of modified DE. Our findings indicate the best possible combination of DE (at low dose rates) along with a fungus that might contribute to lowering health and environmental risks.


Assuntos
Besouros , Terra de Diatomáceas , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Metarhizium , Animais , Grão Comestível , Monitoramento Ambiental , Controle de Insetos/métodos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0227831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142522

RESUMO

Orthaga olivacea Warre (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important agricultural pest of camphor trees (Cinnamomum camphora). To further supplement the known genome-level features of related species, the complete mitochondrial genome of Orthaga olivacea is amplified, sequenced, annotated, analyzed, and compared with 58 other species of Lepidopteran. The complete sequence is 15,174 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a putative control region. Base composition is biased toward adenine and thymine (79.02% A+T) and A+T skew are slightly negative. Twelve of the 13 PCGs use typical ATN start codons. The exception is cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) that utilizes a CGA initiation codon. Nine PCGs have standard termination codon (TAA); others have incomplete stop codons, a single T or TA nucleotide. All the tRNA genes have the typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for trnS(AGN), in which dihydrouridine (DHU) arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. The A+T-rich region (293 bp) contains a typical Lepidopter motifs 'ATAGA' followed by a 17 bp poly-T stretch, and a microsatellite-like (AT)13 repeat. Codon usage analysis revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Tyr and Phe were the most frequently used amino acids, while Cys was the least utilized. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that among sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, Orthaga olivacea Warre was most closely related to Hypsopygia regina, and confirmed that Orthaga olivacea Warre belongs to the Pyralidae family.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum camphora/parasitologia , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
J Insect Sci ; 20(2)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191794

RESUMO

A follow-up study was conducted to further evaluate the marking efficiency of broadcast spray applications of egg albumin (from chicken egg whites) on Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in alfalfa. A previous study recorded exceptional marking efficiency (e.g., >95% of the population) on H. convergens when using relatively high concentrations (10 to 50%) of chicken egg whites. The present study examines marking efficiency of egg whites using lower concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0%. We used cadaver and free-roaming beetles to measure protein mark acquisition (and retention) of each protein concentration by direct contact with the spray application and incidental contact with protein residue on the plant tissue, respectively. The vertical distribution of the protein mark was also determined by sampling the upper and lower portions of the alfalfa canopy. The data indicate, regardless of the egg white treatment, that the backpack sprayer provided uniform coverage of egg albumin on the alfalfa plants and cadaver beetles. Also, almost every free-roaming beetle acquired a mark within 24 h after contact exposure to protein marked plants. This study shows that a very low concentration of egg albumin is sufficient for marking arthropods directly in the field.


Assuntos
Albuminas/análise , Proteínas do Ovo/análise , Entomologia/métodos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Besouros
19.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(4): 423-437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041675

RESUMO

The family Tephritidae (order: Diptera), commonly known as fruit flies, comprises a widely distributed group of agricultural pests. The tephritid pests infest multiple species of fruits and vegetables, resulting in huge crop losses. Here, we summarize the composition and diversity of tephritid gut-associated bacteria communities and host intrinsic and environmental factors that influence the microbiome structures. Diverse members of Enterobacteriaceae, most commonly Klebsiella and Enterobacter bacteria, are prevalent in fruit flies guts. Roles played by gut bacteria in host nutrition, development, physiology and resistance to insecticides and pathogens are also addressed. This review provides an overview of fruit fly microbiome structure and points to diverse roles that it can play in fly physiology and survival. It also considers potential use of this knowledge for the control of economically important fruit flies, including the sterile insect technique and cue-lure baiting.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tephritidae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Tephritidae/fisiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008011, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly disease transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes on the Indian subcontinent, with a promising means of vector control being orally treating cattle with fipronil-based drugs. While prior research investigating the dynamic relationship between timing of fipronil-based control schemes and the seasonality of sand flies provides insights into potential of treatment on a large scale, ecological uncertainties remain. We investigated how uncertainties associated with sand fly ecology might affect our ability to assess efficacy of fipronil-based control schemes. To do this, we used a previously-described, individual-based, stochastic sand fly model to quantify how uncertainties associated with 1) the percentage of female sand flies taking blood meals from cattle, and 2) the percentage of female sand flies ovipositing in organic matter containing feces from treated cattle might impact the efficacy of fipronil-based sand fly control schemes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Assuming no prior knowledge of sand fly blood meal and oviposition sites, the probabilities of achieving effective sand fly population reduction with treatments performed 3, 6 and 12 times per year were ≈5-22%, ≈27-36%, and ≈46-54%, respectively. Assuming ≥50% of sand flies feed on cattle, probabilities of achieving efficacious control increased to ≈8-31%, ≈15-42%, and ≈52-65%. Assuming also that ≥50% of sand flies oviposit in cattle feces, the above probabilities increased further to ≈14-53%, ≈31-81%, and ≈89-97%. CONCLUSIONS: Our assessments of the efficacy of fipronil-based cattle treatments in controlling sand fly populations depend on our assumptions regarding key aspects of sand fly ecology. Assessments are most sensitive to assumptions concerning the percentage of sand flies ovipositing in feces of treated cattle, thus emphasizing the importance of identifying sand fly oviposition sites. Our results place the evaluation of fipronil-based cattle treatment within a broader ecological context, which could aid in the planning and execution of a largescale field trial.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Índia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Incerteza
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA