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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632685

RESUMO

Among novel strategies proposed in pest management, synergistic agents are used to improve insecticide efficacy through an elevation of intracellular calcium concentration that activates the calcium-dependent intracellular pathway. This leads to a changed target site conformation and to increased sensitivity to insecticides while reducing their concentrations. Because virus-like particles (VLPs) increase the intracellular calcium concentration, they can be used as a synergistic agent to synergize the effect of insecticides. VLPs are self-assembled viral protein complexes, and by contrast to entomopathogen viruses, they are devoid of genetic material, which makes them non-infectious and safer than viruses. Although VLPs are well-known to be used in human health, we propose in this study the development of a promising strategy based on the use of VLPs as synergistic agents in pest management. This will lead to increased insecticides efficacy while reducing their concentrations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Controle de Pragas , Vírus , Cálcio/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Proteínas Virais , Vírus/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267607, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588121

RESUMO

Weather is the most important driver of crop development. However, spatial variability in weather makes it hard to obtain reliable high resolution datasets across large areas. Most growers rely on data from a single station that can be up to 50km away to make decisions about irrigation, pest management and penology-associated cultural practices at the block level. In this regard, we hypothesize that kriging a large network of weather stations can improve thermal time data quality compared to using the closest station. This study aims to explore the spatial variability in California's Central Valley and what is the relationship between the density of weather stations used and the error in the measurement of temperature related metrics and derived models. For this purpose, we used temperature records from January 1st 2020 to March 1st 2021 collected by the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and a system of 731 weather stations placed above the canopy of trees in commercial orchards (in-orchard). We observed large discrepancies (>300 GDDTb0) in thermal time accumulation between using an interpolation of all stations available and just using the closest CIMIS station. Our data suggests these differences are not systematic bias but true differences in mesoclimate. Similar results were observed for chill accumulation in areas especially prone to not meeting pistachio chill requirements where the discrepancies between using the site-specific in-orchard weather station network and not using them were up to 10 CP. The use of this high resolution network of weather stations revealed spatial patterns in grape, almond, pistachio and pests phenology not reported before. Whereas previous studies have been focused on predictions at the county or state or regional level, our data suggests that a finer resolution can result in major improvements in the quality of data crucial for crop decision making.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas , Tempo (Meteorologia) , California , Temperatura
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267984, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594241

RESUMO

A major challenge in sustainable agriculture is finding solutions to manage crop-damaging pests such as herbivores while protecting beneficial organisms such as pollinators. Squash is a highly pollinator-dependent crop that is also attractive to herbivores like the striped cucumber beetle. While synthetic insecticides can provide control of insect pests, they can also affect non-target organisms such as pollinators. Thus, growers need to balance pest management with pollinator protection to ensure optimal yield. Thiamethoxam is a commonly used systemic insecticide that translocates throughout plants, leaving residues in nectar and pollen. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there are uses of this insecticide that provides efficient pest control while minimizing pesticide pollinator exposure. Specifically, we tested how different prophylactic application methods (seed treatments, in-furrow applications, and early foliar sprays) of commercially available thiamethoxam products impact pest control, bee visitation, yield, and pesticide residues in flowers of squash crops. We found that among the different methods of thiamethoxam application, in-furrow application best prevented defoliation and resulted in the highest fruit weight and number. However, it also produced the most frequent and highest concentrations of thiamethoxam in nectar and pollen, reaching lethal levels for squash bees. Our study provides evidence that under current application methods, thiamethoxam does not provide a sustainable solution for squash growers and further research is required on more efficient pesticide delivery methods, as well as non-pesticide pest control measurements.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Inseticidas , Animais , Abelhas , Produtos Agrícolas , Cucurbita/química , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides , Controle de Pragas , Néctar de Plantas/química , Tiametoxam
5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267789, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594266

RESUMO

Vector control remains an important strategy in preventing rodent-borne diseases. Studies quantifying the impact of anticoagulant bait use on rodent populations are scarce in tropical settings. This study examined the impact of anticoagulant bait use on three measures of rodent activity in Singapore to inform rodent-borne disease control strategies. Using a controlled interrupted time-series analytical design with negative binomial and linear regression models, the average rodent activity levels were compared in the pre- and post-intervention periods. There was a 62.7% (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR): 0.373, 95% CI: [0.224, 0.620]) reduction in the number of rodents caught, a 25.8-unit (coefficient = -25.829, 95% CI: [-29.855, -21.804]) reduction in the number of 30 g/unit baits consumed and a 61.9% (IRR: 0.381, 95% CI: [0.218, 0.665]) reduction in the number of marred bait stations relative to the pre-intervention period. There was a rise in all three outcome measures within four months after the post-intervention period. This study provided strong evidence that anticoagulant baits substantially reduces rodent activity. The population resurgence after the post-intervention period reinforces the importance of timing the resumption of control measures aimed at reducing rodent-borne disease transmission.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Controle de Roedores , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Controle de Pragas , Roedores , Singapura/epidemiologia
7.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(7): 2860-2871, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bryobia (Koch) mites belong to the economically important spider mite family, the Tetranychidae, with >130 species described worldwide. Due to taxonomic difficulties and most species being asexual, species identification relies heavily on genetic markers. Multiple putative Bryobia mite species have been identified attacking pastures and grain crops in Australia. In this study, we collected 79 field populations of Bryobia mites and combined these with 134 populations that were collected previously. We characterised taxonomic variation of mites using 28S rDNA amplicon-based DNA metabarcoding using next-generation sequencing approaches and direct Sanger sequencing. We then undertook species distribution modelling of the main genetic lineages and examined the chemical responses of multiple field populations. RESULTS: We identified 47 unique haplotypes across all mites sampled that grouped into four distinct genetic lineages. These lineages have different distributions, with three of the four putative lineages showing different climatic envelopes, as inferred from species distribution modelling. Bryobia mite populations also showed different responses to a widely used insecticide (the organophosphate, omethoate), but not to another chemical (the pyrethroid, bifenthrin) when examined using laboratory bioassays. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that cryptic diversity is likely to complicate the formulation of management strategies for Bryobia mites. Although focussed on Australia, this study demonstrates the challenges of studying Bryobia and highlights the importance of further research into this complex group of mites across the world. © 2022 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Tetranychidae , Animais , Austrália , Produtos Agrícolas , Controle de Pragas , Tetranychidae/genética
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(7): 2746-2758, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419941

RESUMO

The development of agrochemical products faces many scientific challenges. After selection of an agrochemical candidate its properties will have to be optimized to guarantee best bioavailability and stability under many different conditions in various formulation types. These challenges are influenced by the solid-state properties of the active ingredient and this makes the selection of an optimized solid-state form of modern agrochemicals at early development stages very valuable. The increasing awareness of the solid state of agrochemicals is reflected in the importance of polymorphism patent applications, which may enhance the risk of litigations. This review aims to present strategies for the solid-form selection process of agrochemical development candidates. It introduces the different techniques for crystallization and analytics and demonstrates the influence of the solid state on different formulation types. © 2022 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Proteção de Cultivos , Agroquímicos/química , Controle de Pragas
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(7): 3108-3116, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis is the main vector of important stunting pathogens that affect maize production. Currently, there are no effective methods available to manage this pest without adverse impact on the environment. In this context, genomic-based technologies such as RNA interference (RNAi) provide a more environmentally friendly pest control strategy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the application of RNAi in D. maidis and determine the function of a candidate gene related to insect reproduction and propagation. RESULTS: We have characterized the core RNAi genes and evaluated the functionality of the RNAi machinery. We assessed the potential of RNAi technology in D. maidis via injection or ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to adult females. We chose Bicaudal C (BicC) as a target gene due to its important role during insect oogenesis. Administration of dsRNABicC caused significant reductions in the transcript levels (fold changes up to 170 times) and ovipositions. Phenotypic analysis of the ovaries revealed alterations in oocyte development, providing additional confirmation for our results and supporting the idea that Dmai-BicC is a key player of D. maidis oogenesis. CONCLUSION: This is, to our knowledge, the first report of efficient RNAi in D. maidis. We believe our findings provide a starting point for future control strategies against one of the most important maize pests in the Americas. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino , Hemípteros/genética , Controle de Pragas , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Zea mays/genética
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(15): 17783-17793, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393856

RESUMO

Advanced intelligent systems for delivery of pesticides or fertilizers require formulations that allow for long-term efficacy. In this work, a metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid was developed for long-term pest management and micronutrient supply. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 was fabricated for crop micronutrients (Zn2+) supply and insecticide dinotefuran (DNF) encapsulation. Polymethylmethacrylate was polymerized in situ to impart the MOF hybrid with sustained cargo delivery. Then, zein was introduced to facilitate protease-triggered cargo release associated with the microenvironment of pests and targeted release. The resulting MOF hybrid exhibited stimulus-responsive, slow-release behaviors. Sustained DNF delivery was achieved over a period of at least 32 days in soil. Compared with that of free DNF, the UV resistance of DNF in the MOF hybrid increased by nearly 10 times, and the insecticidal efficiency increased 33.3% with leaching treatment and 40.1% after incubating in a greenhouse for 14 days. This MOF hybrid provides a controlled, targeted, and sustained delivery formulation for long-term pest management and crop micronutrient supply and has huge application prospects in sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Oligoelementos , Fertilizantes , Micronutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Controle de Pragas
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2119959119, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377782

RESUMO

Biodiversity-mediated ecosystem services (ES) support human well-being, but their values are typically estimated individually. Although ES are part of complex socioecological systems, we know surprisingly little about how multiple ES interact ecologically and economically. Interactions could be positive (synergy), negative (trade-offs), or absent (additive effects), with strong implications for management and valuation. Here, we evaluate the interactions of two ES, pollination and pest control, via a factorial field experiment in 30 Costa Rican coffee farms. We found synergistic interactions between these two critical ES to crop production. The combined positive effects of birds and bees on fruit set, fruit weight, and fruit weight uniformity were greater than their individual effects. This represents experimental evidence at realistic farm scales of positive interactions among ES in agricultural systems. These synergies suggest that assessments of individual ES may underestimate the benefits biodiversity provides to agriculture and human well-being. Using our experimental results, we demonstrate that bird pest control and bee pollination services translate directly into monetary benefits to coffee farmers. Excluding both birds and bees resulted in an average yield reduction of 24.7% (equivalent to losing US$1,066.00/ha). These findings highlight that habitat enhancements to support native biodiversity can have multiple benefits for coffee, a valuable crop that supports rural livelihoods worldwide. Accounting for potential interactions among ES is essential to quantifying their combined ecological and economic value.


Assuntos
Café , Produção Agrícola , Controle de Pragas , Polinização , Biodiversidade
12.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(3): 757-766, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323936

RESUMO

Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a key insect pest in soybean fields in Brazil but data are lacking on the relationship between pest abundance and crop yield and quality. Controlled infestation studies were conducted on caged soybean plants in the field over a two year period at two sites in Brazil. Differences in temperature in the two years affected population growth of B. tabaci, reaching 413 nymphs per leaflet in the first year, and 179 the second year even when the average temperature was 3ºC higher. Higher temperatures promoted a shorter lifecycle and nearly one more generation. Yield was affected with losses up to 500 kg/ha in 2017/2018 and 1,147 kg/ha in 2018/2019. A decrease in the weight of a thousand grains of 18 and 33 g was observed in the first and second year, respectively. No significant differences were observed in grain germination, but estimated losses in protein content were up to 440 kg/ha at the highest infestation level. Pest density and yield data were used to estimate economic injury levels (EILs). EILs ranged from 2.5 to 25.67 nymphs per leaflet and 0.17-1.79 adults per leaflet over a range of control costs, soybean production values, and control efficacies. These results should provide data useful toward development of pest management decision making tools.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Ninfa , Controle de Pragas , Crescimento Demográfico , Soja
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(7): 2767-2778, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is a global threat to sugar beet crops, and is found in every major sugar beet growing region. Annual losses due to this nematode can be severe, being estimated at €90 m in Europe alone in the 1990s. Fortunately tolerant, resistant and partially resistant varieties have since been introduced which help to limit yield loss and are now widely being deployed in infested fields. However, understanding yield performance of these varieties has been difficult, especially when variety testing programmes usually require uninfested fields. RESULTS: For the first time, and in a standardised manner, we can now assess simultaneously the resistance of different varieties to BCN and their actual yield tolerance, by comparing them to varieties grown in uninfested micro-plots alongside those which are infested. This method provides new insights on variety yield performance and nematode reproduction over an entire growing season. In addition, the investigations are also been able to detect significant physiological differences in the development and growth of the tolerant varieties' canopies and leaf chlorophyll levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are of direct benefit to sugar beet growers challenged by BCN. The standardised testing provides new information on predicted variety performance. We found that these tests are justified, as not all tolerant varieties respond in the same manner to nematode infestation. Therefore, these assessments will become a vital part of variety testing for sugar beet growers, allowing for tailored deployment of variety types and more informed decision making on-farm, helping to maximise yields whilst minimising nematode damage. © 2022 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Cistos , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Controle de Pragas , Açúcares , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(6): 2477-2491, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural enemy pest control is becoming more desirable as restrictions increase on pesticide use. Carabid beetles are proven agents of natural-enemy pest control (NPC), controlling pests and weeds in crop areas. Agro-ecological measures can be effective for boosting carabid abundance and associated NPC, but the benefits of specific interventions to production are seldom communicated to farmers. We explore pathways to improved NPC by engaging farmers and increasing knowledge about farm management practices (FMPs) beneficial to carabids using engagement materials. We used a questionnaire to measure awareness, beliefs and attitudes to carabids and analysed these within a framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), relative to a control group. RESULTS: We found awareness of carabid predation to be associated with beliefs of pest and weed control efficacy. Within the framework of TPB, we found that current implementation of FMPs was higher if farmers perceived them to be both important for carabids and easy to implement. This was also true for future intention to implement, yet the perceived importance was influenced by engagement materials. Field margins/buffer strips and beetle banks (16% and 13% of responses) were the most favoured by farmers as interventions for carabids. CONCLUSION: The TPB is a valuable tool with which to examine internal elements of farmer behaviour. In this study self-selected participants were influenced by online engagement in a single intervention, proving this approach has the potential to change behaviour. Our results are evidence for the effectiveness of raising awareness of NPC to change attitudes and increase uptake of sustainable practices.


Assuntos
Besouros , Praguicidas , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Intenção , Controle de Pragas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263620, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134064

RESUMO

Insect immune responses to multiple pathogen groups including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes have traditionally been documented in model insects such as Drosophila melanogaster, or medically important insects such as Aedes aegypti. Despite their potential importance in understanding the efficacy of pathogens as biological control agents, these responses are infrequently studied in agriculturally important pests. Additionally, studies that investigate responses of a host species to different pathogen groups are uncommon, and typically focus on only a single time point during infection. As such, a robust understanding of immune system responses over the time of infection is often lacking in many pest species. This study was conducted to understand how 3rd instar larvae of the major insect pest Helicoverpa zea responded through the course of an infection by four different pathogenic groups: viruses, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes; by sampling at three different times post-inoculation. Physiological immune responses were assessed at 4-, 24-, and 48-hours post-infection by measuring hemolymph phenoloxidase concentrations, hemolymph prophenoloxidase concentrations, hemocyte counts, and encapsulation ability. Transcriptional immune responses were measured at 24-, 48-, and 72-hours post-infection by quantifying the expression of PPO2, Argonaute-2, JNK, Dorsal, and Relish. This gene set covers the major known immune pathways: phenoloxidase cascade, siRNA, JNK pathway, Toll pathway, and IMD pathway. Our results indicate H. zea has an extreme immune response to Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria, a mild response to Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, and little-to-no detectable response to either the fungus Beauveria bassiana or Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes.


Assuntos
Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/patogenicidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Imunidade , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/imunologia , Larva/metabolismo , Lepidópteros/genética , Lepidópteros/imunologia , Mariposas/imunologia , Nucleopoliedrovírus/patogenicidade , Controle de Pragas/métodos
16.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(3): 490-502, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129714

RESUMO

Mortality of agricultural pests caused by arthropod predators is a valuable ecosystem service for crop production. The earwig, Euborellia annulipes (Lucas), attacks different pest species in various crop ecosystems, including larvae and pupae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boh.). In this study, multiple factors were assessed to measure the selectivity of insecticides used against sap-sucking and chewing cotton pests for two E. annulipes populations. Nymphs and adults of E. annulipes were exposed to the insecticides in two ways: ingestion of contaminated prey, and contact with dried residues on either inert surfaces or treated plants bearing prey. Pymetrozine, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram had little effect on the predator regardless the tested earwig population, life stage with developmental time and survival, or the route of exposure (ingestion and residual). Cyantraniliprole dried-residue impeded nymph to complete development and only 27% of adults survived until 20 days after exposure. Pyriproxyfen was harmless through acute toxicity to nymphs and adult earwigs (70-100% survival 72 h after exposure), but prevented normal development of nymphs to adults causing chronic toxicity. Chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and malathion were harmful to the predator regardless life stage or method of exposure. The negative impact of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and indoxacarb was diminished when exposure occurred on plants with predator allowed to shelter in the soil. The results indicate that insecticide selectivity outcome varies by the insecticide, predator life stage and the predator's behavior. Therefore, testing different predator life stages via several routes of exposure, without denying the insect the opportunity to engage in its normal behavior can provide better estimates of insecticide selectivity.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Insetos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Malation , Controle de Pragas
17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 213: 112427, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219966

RESUMO

Here, we present an inverse Pickering emulsion-based formulation for Bacillus thuringiensis serovar aizawai (BtA) encapsulations utilized towards pest control applications. The emulsification was carried out by high shear homogenization process via ULTRA-TURRAX®. The water-in-mineral oil emulsions were stabilized by commercial hydrophobic silica. Different silica contents and water/oil ratios were studied. Stable emulsions were obtained at 2 and 3 wt% silica at 30% and 20% water volumes, respectively. The structure of the Pickering emulsions were characterized by laser scanning confocal microscopy and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. The BtA cells, spores and crystals were encapsulated in the water droplets of the inverse Pickering emulsions. An emulsion composed of 3 wt% silica and 30% water was found to be the most suitable for encapsulation. The pest control efficiency of the encapsulated BtA against Spodoptera littoralis first instar larvae was tested. The studied BtA/emulsion system exhibited a mortality rate of 92%. However, the non-formulated BtA has shown 71% mortality, and the emulsion alone resulted in only 9% mortality. These findings confirm that an emulsion with encapsulated BtA can function as an efficient formulation for biopesticides.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Emulsões/química , Controle de Pragas , Dióxido de Silício , Água/química
18.
J Insect Sci ; 22(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137130

RESUMO

The American beekeeping industry continually experiences colony mortality with annual losses as high as 43%. A leading cause of this is the exotic, ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae). Integrated Pest Management (IPM) options are used to keep mite populations from reaching lethal levels, however, due to resistance and/or the lack of suitable treatment options, novel controls for reducing mites are warranted. Oxalic acid for controlling V. destructor has become a popular treatment regimen among commercial and backyard beekeepers. Applying vaporized oxalic acid inside a honey bee hive is a legal application method in the U.S., and results in the death of exposed mites. However, if mites are in the reproductive stage and therefore under the protective wax capping, oxalic acid is ineffective. One popular method of applying oxalic is vaporizing multiple times over several weeks to try and circumvent the problem of mites hiding in brood cells. By comparing against control colonies, we tested oxalic acid vaporization in colonies treated with seven applications separated by 5 d (35 d total). We tested in apiaries in Georgia and Alabama during 2019 and 2020, totaling 99 colonies. We found that adult honey bees Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and developing brood experienced no adverse impacts from the oxalic vaporization regime. However, we did not find evidence that frequent periodic application of oxalic during brood-rearing periods is capable of bringing V. destructor populations below treatment thresholds.


Assuntos
Abelhas/parasitologia , Ácido Oxálico/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas , Varroidae , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Varroidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Volatilização
19.
J Insect Sci ; 22(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137134

RESUMO

Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) is arguably the most damaging parasitic mite that attacks honey bees worldwide. Since its initial host switch from the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Varroa has become a widely successful invasive species, attacking honey bees on almost every continent where apiculture is practiced. Two haplotypes of V. destructor (Japanese and Korean) parasitize A. mellifera, both of which vector various honey bee-associated viruses. As the population of Varroa grows within a colony in the spring and summer, so do the levels of viral infections. Not surprisingly, high Varroa parasitization impacts bees at the individual level, causing bees to exhibit lower weight, decreased learning capacity, and shorter lifespan. High levels of Varroa infestation can lead to colony-wide varroosis and eventually colony death, especially when no control measures are taken against the mites. Varroa has become a successful parasite of A. mellifera because of its ability to reproduce within both drone cells and worker cells, which allows populations to expand rapidly. Varroa uses several chemical cues to complete its life cycle, many of which remain understudied and should be further explored. Given the growing reports of pesticide resistance by Varroa in several countries, a better understanding of the mite's basic biology is needed to find alternative pest management strategies. This review focuses on the genetics, behavior, and chemical ecology of V. destructor within A. mellifera colonies, and points to areas of research that should be exploited to better control this pervasive honey bee enemy.


Assuntos
Abelhas/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Varroidae , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Controle de Pragas , Estações do Ano , Varroidae/genética
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(2): 501-507, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148392

RESUMO

The ham mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae), is a common pest infesting several stored products, particularly the aged hams. In this study, we reported the efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) fumigation, a recently discovered fumigation treatment under the ultra-low oxygen environment, at various concentrations and time under the laboratory conditions at 25°C against different mite stages on both dietary media and ham meat. Our results showed that NO fumigation was effective against all mite stages and 100% control was achieved. Generally, the egg was the most tolerant stage and required 48-, 24-, 16-, and 8-h treatments to achieve 100% mortality at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% NO concentration on dietary media, respectively. Tyrophagus putrescentiae mobile immatures and adult stages were less tolerant, and 100% mortality was achieved after 16-, 8-, 8-, and 4-h treatment at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% NO, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of NO on egg was 0.86, 0.68, and 0.32% for 8-, 16-, and 24-h treatments. In addition, a confirmatory test was conducted on ham meat at 0.5 and 1.0% of NO and similar efficacy was found. Complete control of egg was achieved after 48- and 24-h treatment at 0.5 and 1.0% of NO, respectively, and larvae and adult mites were 100% controlled after 16 and 8 h at 0.5 and 1.0% of NO, respectively. Our results demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against T. putrescentiae and can be a potential alternative treatment to methyl bromide for cured-ham pest control.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Ácaros , Animais , Fumigação , Óxido Nítrico , Controle de Pragas/métodos
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