Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 39(2): 13, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612293

RESUMO

During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine. This makes Fenner at least a partial exception to other senior disease ecologists in the region, most of whom learned their ecology from examining responses to agricultural challenges and animal husbandry problems in settler colonial society. Here I consider the local ecologies of knowledge in southeastern Australia during this period, and describe the particular cold-war intellectual niche that Fenner and Ratcliffe inhabited.


Assuntos
Ecologia/história , Epidemias/história , Mixomatose Infecciosa/história , Controle de Pragas/história , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ecologia/métodos , História do Século XX , Modelos Teóricos , Myxoma virus/fisiologia , Mixomatose Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Mixomatose Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Coelhos
2.
Pest Manag Sci ; 73(2): 305-312, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26941085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The muskrat is considered to be a pest species in the Netherlands, and a year-round control programme is in effect. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this programme using historical data on catch and effort collected at a provincial scale. RESULTS: The development of the catch differed between provinces, depending on the year of colonisation by muskrat and the investment of effort (measured as field hours). The catch did not peak in the same year for the various provinces, and provinces that were colonised earlier in time took longer to attain the peak catch. Trapping resulted in declining populations, but only after a certain threshold of annual effort in trapping had been surpassed. On average, populations were observed to decline when the annual effort exceeded 1.4 field hours per km of waterway for several successive years. Having reached a phase of greater control, control organisations tended to reduce effort. CONCLUSION: We conclude that control measures can make muskrat populations decline, provided that the effort is commensurate with the population size. Our study emphasises that experimentation is needed to confirm the causality of the findings, to establish the relation with damage or safety risk and to derive an optimal control strategy. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Controle de Pragas/história , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Espécies Introduzidas/história , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Baixos , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Demográfica , Rios
3.
Asclepio ; 68(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-153978

RESUMO

En 1941 se creó el Instituto Español de Entomología (IEE), heredero directo de la antigua Sección de Entomología del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Entre las labores encomendadas al nuevo establecimiento estaba la de aportar «a los Centros de aplicación los datos resultantes de los trabajos que en él se efectúen con los insectos, de interés económico y sanitario». Gonzalo Ceballos fue nombrado Director y sus propuestas, junto al trabajo de las instituciones encargadas de la gestión forestal, hicieron del IEE uno de los centros motores de muchas iniciativas en este campo. Su dirección supuso, además, una excelente oportunidad para cumplir los objetivos con los que fue concebido el Instituto. En este artículo se distinguen tres formas de participación respecto al estudio, gestión y control de plagas forestales. Por un lado, la implicación del IEE en la resolución de consultas de particulares, empresas e instituciones; en segundo lugar, el desarrollo de proyectos subvencionados por el Patronato Juan de la Cierva y, finalmente, las colaboraciones con diferentes cuerpos dependientes del Ministerio de Agricultura. Se constata que la falta de personal especializado en plagas adscrito al IEE supuso un grave inconveniente para que las iniciativas de Ceballos se desarrollaran más allá de su gestión (AU)


The Spanish Institute of Entomology (IEE) was founded in 1941, direct heir of the former Entomology Section of the National Museum of Natural Science. Among the tasks assigned to the new Institute was to provide "to the interested centers the data resulting from the work that he made with insects with economic and public health significance". Gonzalo Ceballos was appointed Director; his proposals, alongside the work of the institutions responsible for forest management, turned up the IEE into one of the driving forces of many initiatives in this field. His management also provided an excellent opportunity to meet the objectives for which the Institute was conceived. Three forms of participation were distinguished on the study, management and control of forest pests. On one hand, the involvement of the IEE in resolving queries from individuals, companies and institutions; second, the development of scientific projects supported by the Juan de la Cierva Board of Trustees and, finally, collaborations with different departments belonging of the Ministry of Agriculture. It is stated that, the lack of specialized personnel assigned to the IEE pests' management was a serious drawback to continue the initiatives of Ceballos be developed beyond management (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Entomologia/história , Entomologia/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/história , Florestas , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Controle de Pragas/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Pragas da Agricultura , Insetos Vetores , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Insetos/microbiologia
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 81(4): 377-410, Oct.-Dec. 2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1015905

RESUMO

Este texto é uma revisáo bibliográfica que abrange 30 anos de ocorrência do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), no Brasil. O bicudo é considerado uma das pragas mais prejudiciais à agricultura pelos danos que causa e pelas dificuldades de seu controle. Originário do México, esse inseto foi constatado pela primeira vez no Brasil em 1983 e duas safras após seu surgimento já estava disseminado nas principais áreas produtoras de algodão no país, onde se mantém até a atualidade. Quando não controlado, esse inseto pode destruir completamente a produção de um algodoal, já quando controlado os prejuízos variam de 3 a 75% da produtividade esperada. Os principais danos causados pelo bicudo são resultantes de orifícios promovidos nas estruturas reprodutivas da planta durante a alimentação e oviposição dos adultos, sendo os botões florais as estruturas preferencialmente atacadas pelo inseto. O período de ataque do bicudo às plantas de algodoeiro se inicia por volta dos 30 dias após a emergência, no estabelecimento vegetativo da cultura, passando pelo florescimento e frutificação e chegando até a fase de maturação, sendo que durante esse período vários métodos podem ser adotados visando ao seu controle. Para controle de A. grandis, no Brasil, são citados métodos de controle comportamental, controle cultural, resistência de plantas, controle biológico (predadores, parasitoides e patógenos), produtos naturais, controle legislativo e manejo integrado, além de iniciativas de programas de supressão populacional do inseto. O controle químico não é discutido neste artigo.(AU)


This paper is a literature review that covers 30 years of occurrence of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Brazil. The boll weevil is considered one of the most destructive pests in the agricultural system; the damage that it causes and the difficulties of its control in cotton is enormous. Originally from Mexico, this insect was first found in Brazil in 1983 and two seasons after the detection it was widespread in major cotton producing areas where it remains until today. When boll weevil is not controlled, it can completely destroy the economic cotton production; the losses range can vary from 3 to 75% of the expected productivity. The main damage caused by the boll weevil in cotton is promoted in the reproductive structures of the plant during feeding and oviposition of adult insects; the flower buds are preferentially attacked by the insect. The period of the weevil attack on cotton plants begins around 30 days after emergence, but it starts at the vegetative period; damage occurs at the flowering and fruiting period and reaches the maturation phase. During these periods several methods can be adopted aiming its control. To control A. grandis in Brazil the following methods are cited: behavioral control, cultural control, host plant resistance, biological control (predators, parasitoids, and pathogens), natural products, legislative control and integrated pest management, and program initiatives for suppression of the insect population. Chemical control is not discussed in this article.(AU)


Assuntos
Besouros , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Gossypium , Brasil , Controle de Pragas/história , Pragas da Agricultura , Insetos
6.
Neotrop Entomol ; 42(2): 119-27, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23949744

RESUMO

The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas/história , Controle de Pragas/tendências , Soja/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , História do Século XX
7.
Ambix ; 59(2): 88-108, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23057183

RESUMO

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Inseticidas/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle de Pragas/história , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/instrumentação , Agricultura/métodos , História do Século XX , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Malásia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/normas , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/normas , Reino Unido
11.
Agric Hist ; 84(1): 46-73, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20329355

RESUMO

Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Indústria Alimentícia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Controle de Pragas , Doenças das Plantas , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/educação , Agricultura/história , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/história , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Europa Oriental/etnologia , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Indústria Alimentícia/educação , Indústria Alimentícia/história , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Inspeção de Alimentos/economia , Inspeção de Alimentos/história , Inspeção de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , América do Norte/etnologia , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle de Pragas/história , Doenças das Plantas/economia , Doenças das Plantas/história , Plantas , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/educação , Saúde Pública/história
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 65(12): 1287-92, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19856383

RESUMO

During the 1960s, the California pear industry, on a per acre basis, was among the heaviest users of pesticides. Each season, multiple sprays of up to 14 active ingredients (chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates and carbamates) were typically applied for control of insects and mites. The cost of control escalated while damage from arthropod pests increased owing to greater pest resistance and more pest resurgence. The pear industry suffered classic symptoms of the 'pesticide treadmill'. By the late 1960s, key pear industry leaders demanded action. Simultaneously, newly emerging concepts of IPM were being developed and funded. With public awareness and environmental activism on the rise in the wake of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, the stage was set for change. This paper elucidates how pear growers, university researchers and extension agents, environmentalists, government regulators, private consultants, farm chemical suppliers and others contributed to the reduction in insecticide use in California pear orchards. Today, arthropod IPM in pears is characterized as relatively low input, biologically intensive and very successful. For example, in 2008 many pear growers only applied between three and five active ingredients (mainly organically certified) per season for control of arthropods.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas/história , Praguicidas/história , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Pyrus/parasitologia , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrópodes/fisiologia , California , História do Século XX , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/história
15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 65(12): 1267-86, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19834884

RESUMO

Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term 'bioresidual' was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Controle de Pragas/história , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Animais , Arizona , Ecossistema , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/fisiologia , História do Século XX , Inseticidas/economia , Inseticidas/história , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 65(12): 1298-304, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19731261

RESUMO

The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas/história , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Vitis/parasitologia , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrópodes/fisiologia , California , História do Século XX , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/história
19.
Asclepio ; 58(1): 249-280, ene.-jun. 2006.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-050808

RESUMO

La Estación de Patología Vegetal de Burjassot (Valencia), creada en 1924, desarrolló una intensa y destacada actividad de investigación original, adaptación de técnicas y divulgación en el ámbito del control de plagas. Especialmente notables fueron las iniciativas de lucha biológica, centradas en las plagas del naranjo. La lucha química también ocupó los esfuerzos del personal de este centro


The Estación de Patología Vegetal de Burjassot (Valencia), create in 1924, carried out important activities related to the control of pests, in varied fronts as original research, adaptation of techniques, and popularization. The biological control was highly practiced, and its was centered on orange pests. the chemical control of pests was also developed in this center


Assuntos
Pragas da Agricultura , Controle de Pragas/história , Agricultura/história , Pesquisa/história , Irrigação Agrícola
20.
Parassitologia ; 47(3-4): 379-86, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16866044

RESUMO

The present paper discusses the historical construction and legitimacy of Chagas disease as a distinct nosological entity and as a public health issue in Brazil. It focuses on the activities of a group of researchers from Oswaldo Cruz Institute who worked at the Centre for the Study and Prevention of Chagas disease, located in Bambuí, Minas Gerais. Led in the 1940s and 50s by Emmanuel Dias, disciple of Carlos Chagas, the group made important contributions to the clinical characterization of Chagas disease as a cardiac illness, established the fact that it was technically possible to control the disease by using residual insecticides, and engaged in intense political mobilization to have the disease included as part of the Health Ministry sanitation campaigns. My hypothesis is that the group's work was a determining factor in the overcoming of certain unresolved controversies that had surrounded the medical and social identity of the disease since the 1920s. I examine to what extent this process was directly linked both to post-war optimism over new possibilities of combating infectious diseases and to the national and international debate on the relation between health and economic and social development.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/história , Parasitologia/história , Academias e Institutos/história , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , História do Século XX , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Inseticidas/história , Controle de Pragas/história , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Saúde Pública/história , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA