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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2931-2941, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467683

RESUMO

As a new strategy capable of uncovering the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, the quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker(QAMS) has been widely employed for the quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal materials, slices, and extracts. However, its application in the assessment of Chinese patent medicines is yet to be explored. By referring to the determination of three bufogenins in Bufonis Venenum by QAMS described in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 Edition), this paper selected seven representative preparations containing Bufonis Venenum and explored whether the relative correction factors(RCFs) of cinobufagin(CB) to bufalin(BF) and resibufogenin(RB) could be directly used for the quality control of Bufonis Venenum-contained preparations. Based on the qualitative analyses under the same chromatographic conditions as used for toad venom, combing specificity test, five preparations such as Yatong Yili Pills, Houzheng Pills, Xiongdan Jiuxin Pills, Liushen Pills and Niuhuang Xiaoyan Pills, were expected to use validated RCFs for the direct determination of three components. Taking Houzheng Pills as an example, the methodological validation of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin was carried out, and the recoveries of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 90.64%-106.1%. The obvious difference was not observed between the contents of bufalin and resibufogenin in 24 batches of preparation samples by QAMS and external reference method. In the tested samples, the content of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 1.27-2.61, 2.44-5.66 and 0.988-3.16 mg·g~(-1) in 10 batches of Liushen Pills samples. The contents of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 0.760-1.32, 1.35-2.39 and 0.600-1.55 mg·g~(-1) in 10 batches of Houzheng Pills samples from three manufacturers. The obtained data contribute to improving the quality standard of Bufonis Venenum-contained preparations, and they also provide some ideas for the application of QAMS in the quality evaluation and control of Chinese patent medicines.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4083-4088, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467717

RESUMO

Processing of Chinese medicinals with vinegar is one of the characteristic processing techniques. Vinegar is vital for the quality of vinegar-processed decoction pieces. However, there have been no specified standards for adjuvants. Through consulting relevant literature and monographs, we comprehensively reviewed the historical evolution of processing with vinegar in records, selection and application of vinegar, and summarized the relevant standards and current status of vinegar as an adjuvant in China. According to the records in literature, vinegar is effective in activating blood, moving qi, dispersing blood stasis, removing toxin, promoting appetite, and nourishing the liver. Traditionally, rice vinegar is chosen in processing. Nowadays, the vinegar made from rice under solid-state fermentation should be chosen. At present, only food standards can be taken for reference for vinegar in the processing. Integrative and specific inspection indicators are lacking, so the standards for adjuvants need to be improved urgently. In addition, the inadequacy in quality control and management is also a major problem to be solved. Through literature research, we reviewed the historical evolution and research advance in vinegar to provide a reference for the standardization and further research of vinegar used in the Chinese medicinal processing.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Oryza , Ácido Acético , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Controle de Qualidade
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4157-4166, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467728

RESUMO

This article aims to establish the fingerprints, determine the hemostatic pharmacodynamic indicators, and explore the spectrum-effect relationship of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in 12 different specifications. Firstly, HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) were employed to establish the fingerprints of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The rat plasma recalcification experiment and the rat gastric bleeding experiment were conducted to determine the pharmacodynamic indicators, including plasma recalcification time(PRT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT). Afterwards, the partial least squares method was employed to explore the spectrum-effect relationship of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in different specifications. Twenty-six common peaks were detected in the HPLC fingerprints of different specifications of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and 11 out of the 26 common peaks represented saponins. The content of dencichine was determined by LC-MS. The rat experiments showed that the pharmacodynamic indicators were significantly different among different specifications of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The spectrum-effect relationship was explored between 27 common components and pharmacodynamic indicators. Among them, 16 components had positive effects on the pharmacodynamic indicators of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and 11 exerted negative effects. This study provides a basis for the precision medication and quality control of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hemostáticos , Saponinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Controle de Qualidade , Ratos , Rizoma
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3739-3745, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472245

RESUMO

With the continuous improvement of people's living standards and the greatly accelerated pace of life, patients' requirements for traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) pharmaceutical care are constantly raised, and personalized TCM preparations used are increasing year by year. However, a series of problems, such as the bottleneck of preparation technology, the lack of preparation specifications, and the weak legal basis for supervision, have become prominent, leading to the uneven product quality of personalized pre-parations. This paper systematically summarized and analyzed the current situation and existing problems of personalized TCM preparations, including dosage form application, preparation technology, production equipment, quality standard, clinical application, and administration mode. Additionally, it put forward an inheritance and innovation research mode of personalized TCM preparation technology based on the physical fingerprint of raw materials and innovation research and intellectual property protection mode of "research-patent-technology-equipment-standard". Furthermore, innovative development strategies were proposed, such as the production standard system of clinical preparations based on the whole process traceability and the regional processing service mode of clinical preparations based on industry 4.0. The present study is expected to provide beneficial references for the inheritance and innovation development of personalized TCM preparations.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443604

RESUMO

The global market of food supplements is growing rapidly with a large turnover. Fish oil supplements represent a significant part of this turnover as they are believed to have important health benefits. Conversely, there are few papers in the literature about the quality control of fish oil capsules. As prior studies illustrate, a perfect agreement with the label is rarely found, and in some isolated cases, large amounts of soybean oil are also detected, indicating a true adulteration rather than a non-compliance with the label. None of the available studies refer to the Italian market, which ranks first in Europe in the consumption of food supplements. In this present communication, a quality control of fish-oil-based supplements from the Italian market was carried out for the first time. With minor deviations, all results showed substantial agreement with the label. However, the most important conclusion from this research is that compliance with the label is not enough to judge a product of good quality. The analysis of the overall fatty acid composition showed that some supplements have a high level of saturated fatty acids, and therefore they did not undergo a proper purification process. This may represent a safety issue since the purification process also allows the removal of toxic contaminants.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Óleos de Peixe/economia , Itália , Controle de Qualidade
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445648

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most extensively cultivated and used staple crops in human nutrition, while wheat bread is annually consumed in more than nine billion kilograms over the world. Consumers' purchase decisions on wheat bread are largely influenced by its nutritional and sensorial characteristics. In the last decades, metabolomics is considered an effective tool for elucidating the information on metabolites; however, the deep investigations on metabolites still remain a difficult and longtime action. This review gives emphasis on the achievements in wheat bread metabolomics by highlighting targeted and untargeted analyses used in this field. The metabolomics approaches are discussed in terms of quality, processing and safety of wheat and bread, while the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensorial and nutritional characteristics of wheat bread are pointed out. These aspects are of crucial importance in the context of new consumers' demands on healthy bakery products rich in bioactive compounds but, equally, with good sensorial acceptance. Moreover, metabolomics is a potential tool for assessing the changes in nutrient composition from breeding to processing, while monitoring and understanding the transformations of metabolites with bioactive properties, as well as the formation of compounds like toxins during wheat storage.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Metaboloma , Valor Nutritivo , Controle de Qualidade , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3270-3287, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396746

RESUMO

The multi-component pharmacokinetic study of Chinese herbal extracts elaborates the in vivo processes,including absorption,distribution,metabolism,and excretion,of multiple bioactive components,which is of significance in revealing pharmacodynamic material basis of Chinese herbal medicine. In recent years,with the innovation in ideas,and development of techniques and methods on traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) research,the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese herbal extracts were extensively performed,and notable progress has been made. This paper reviewed the advancement of multi-component pharmacokinetics of Chinese herbal extracts in recent five years from analysis technology of biological sample,the pharmacokinetic characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine with complex system,and the impacts of processing and pathological state on pharmacokinetics of Chinese herbal extracts,aiming to provide a reference for quality control,product development and rational medication of Chinese herbal extracts.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Controle de Qualidade
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 25-39, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382182

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional processing strongly affects the stability and the relative quantification of RNA molecules, so that steady-state levels of mature RNA, such as mRNAs, rarely reflect accurately the rate of in situ transcription in nuclei by RNA polymerases (RNAPs). The "Global Run-on Sequencing (GRO-Seq)" method, developed in 2008, combines the nuclear run-on assay with next-generation deep sequencing to detect nascent RNA levels to annotate the positions, the relative levels and the orientation of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules genome-wide. Thus, GRO-Seq is a powerful method to infer mechanistic insights into the multiple levels of transcriptional regulation such as promoter-proximal pausing of RNAP, bidirectional transcription, and enhancer activity. Here, we describe a protocol for mammalian cells that can reliably detect low abundant nascent RNA from both coding and noncoding genomic regions. This protocol can easily be adapted for most mammalian cells to define the transcriptionally active regions of the genome and to measure dynamic transcriptional responses with high sensitivity upon external stimuli.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcrição Genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Controle de Qualidade , RNA/genética , RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA não Traduzido/genética
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 105-121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382186

RESUMO

Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-Seq) is a method to investigate the accessibility of chromatin in a genome-wide fashion. In this chapter, we provide a brief history of the chromatin accessibility field followed by a detailed protocol to perform ATAC-Seq assay.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Análise de Dados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transposases/metabolismo
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 123-145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382187

RESUMO

The positioning of nucleosomes regulates the accessibility of genomic DNA and can impact the activities of functional elements. Nucleosome positioning is highly consistent at each genomic location in any particular cell-type, but can vary in an orchestrated fashion between different cell-types and between genomic loci according to their activities. Here, we describe a technique-"ChIP-MNase" (chromatin immunoprecipitation linked to micrococcal nuclease mapping)-to determine nucleosome positions at chosen sets of genomic features that can be defined by their molecular composition and recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation. ChIP-MNase enables high-resolution analysis of nucleosome positioning at genomic regions-of-interest and can allow differential analysis of alleles undergoing distinct molecular processes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Loci Gênicos , Nuclease do Micrococo/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Ligação Proteica , Controle de Qualidade
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 211-227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382192

RESUMO

The open chromatin enrichment and network Hi-C (OCEAN-C) was developed not only for identifying large-scale chromatin structures, including topologically associated domains (TADs) and A/B compartments, but also for globally mapping hubs of open chromatin interactions (HOCIs) and their interaction networks independent of antibody and bait-sequences.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ligação Proteica , Controle de Qualidade , Software , Transcrição Genética , Navegador
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372330

RESUMO

In this paper, we describe the needs and specific requirements of the aerospace industry in the field of metal machining; specifically, the concept of an edge-computing-based production supervision system for the aerospace industry using a tool and cutting process condition monitoring system. The new concept was developed based on experience gained during the implementation of research projects in Poland's Aviation Valley at aerospace plants such as Pratt & Whitney and Lockheed Martin. Commercial tool condition monitoring (TCM) and production monitoring systems do not effectively meet the requirements and specificity of the aerospace industry. The main objective of the system is real-time diagnostics and sharing of data, knowledge, and system configurations among technologists, line bosses, machine tool operators, and quality control. The concept presented in this paper is a special tool condition monitoring system comprising a three-stage (natural wear, accelerated wear, and catastrophic tool failure) set of diagnostic algorithms designed for short-run machining and aimed at protecting the workpiece from damage by a damaged or worn tool.


Assuntos
Aviação , Indústrias , Controle de Qualidade
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3529-3539, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402275

RESUMO

Bufonis Venenum,the dried secretion of Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus,is toxic and hard with the efficacy of removing toxicity for detumescence and relieving pain. The processing of Bufonis Venenum dates back to the Song dynasty. In addition to the wine-processing,milk-processing and talcum powder-processing,there were some other kinds of processing methods in ancient times,such as baking,calcining,water-soaking and vinegar-processing. Modern studies have shown that the Bufonis Venenum has the main chemical components of bufadienolides,indole alkaloids sterols,and other compounds. It has the pharmacological effects of antitumor,cardiac,antibacterial,and analgesic activities,local anesthesia,and so on. This paper reviews the processing evolution,chemical components and pharmacological effects of Bufonis Venenum,providing references for its special processing and modern research as well as the theoretical basis for the research on its processing mechanism and quality control.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos , Animais , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Bufonidae , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3605-3613, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402284

RESUMO

A novel HPLC method with the quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker( QAMS) combined with the dual-wavelength method was developed for simultaneous determination of six flavonoids in Dendrobium officinale stems from different producing areas,cultivation and processing methods to clarify the main factors contributing to the different composition of flavonoids.The separation of six flavonoids was performed on a Shiseido Capcell PAK MGⅡ C18 column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 µm) using a linear gradient elution system of acetonitrile-0. 1% formic acid aqueous solution. Schaftoside,isoschaftoside,vicenin-2,and glucosylvitexin were simultaneously analyzed using rutin as a reference standard at detection wavelength of 340 nm,and naringenin was determined at290 nm. The credibility and feasibility of QAMS method were validated and the results demonstrated that no significant differences were observed as compared with the external standard method. Finally,a total of 82 batches of D. officinale samples were analyzed and principal component analysis( PCA) and discriminant analysis were applied to distinguish and compare D. officinale samples from different producing areas,cultivation and processing methods. The results showed that the total flavonoid content of D. officinale stems cultivated in the simulated wild( attached tree cultivation or attached stone cultivation) was significantly higher than that in greenhouse bed cultivation. The content of flavonoids in simulated-wild D. officinale stems was higher in Jiangxi,Guizhou,Zhejiang,and Fujian provinces,while that in greenhouse bed cultivation was higher in Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. The content of naringenin was positively correlated with processing temperature,and that of the other five flavonoids was negatively correlated with processing temperature. PCA showed that wild-simulated D. officinale and greenhouse bed-cultivated D. officinale could be roughly divided into two clusters. The samples cultivated in the greenhouse bed were divided into four categories according to the geographical habitats. Wild-simulated D. officinale samples from Guizhou gathered together,and there was no obvious rule in samples from other producing areas. The established method simplified the determination method of flavonoids in D. officinale,and could provide the basis for effective quality control,cultivation and processing of D. officinale.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides , Controle de Qualidade
20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 9): 403, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have provided valuable insights into the mechanism of diseases and traits-associated genetic variants. However, it remains challenging to evaluate and control the quality of multi-source heterogeneous eQTL raw data for researchers with limited computational background. There is an urgent need to develop a powerful and user-friendly tool to automatically process the raw datasets in various formats and perform the eQTL mapping afterward. RESULTS: In this work, we present a pipeline for eQTL analysis, termed eQTLQC, featured with automated data preprocessing for both genotype data and gene expression data. Our pipeline provides a set of quality control and normalization approaches, and utilizes automated techniques to reduce manual intervention. We demonstrate the utility and robustness of this pipeline by performing eQTL case studies using multiple independent real-world datasets with RNA-seq data and whole genome sequencing (WGS) based genotype data. CONCLUSIONS: eQTLQC provides a reliable computational workflow for eQTL analysis. It provides standard quality control and normalization as well as eQTL mapping procedures for eQTL raw data in multiple formats. The source code, demo data, and instructions are freely available at https://github.com/stormlovetao/eQTLQC .


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Software , Controle de Qualidade , RNA-Seq , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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