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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 103, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an endemic communicable disease in China, accounting for 90% of total reported cases worldwide. In this study, the authors want to investigate the risk factors for HFRS in recent years to provide the prevention and control advices. METHODS: A community-based, 1:2 matched case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors for HFRS. Cases were defined as laboratory-confirmed cases that tested positive for hantavirus-specific IgM antibodies. Two neighbourhood controls of each case were selected by sex, age and occupation. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect information and identify the risk factors for HFRS. RESULTS: Eighty-six matched pairs were investigated in the study. The median age of the cases was 55.0 years, 72.09% were male, and 73.26% were farmers. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, cleaning spare room at home (OR = 3.310, 95%CI 1.335-8.210) was found to be risk factor for infection; storing food and crops properly (OR = 0.279 95%CI 0.097-0.804) provided protection from infection. CONCLUSION: Storing food and crops properly seemed to be protective factor, which was important for HFRS prevention and control. More attention should be paid to promote comprehensive health education and behaviour change among high-risk populations in the HFRS endemic area.


Assuntos
Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Vírus Hantaan/imunologia , Vírus Hantaan/patogenicidade , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/transmissão , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Controle de Roedores
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35270-35274, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741277

RESUMO

Rodents infest urban environments, causing damage and acting as vectors for disease transmission. Currently, anticoagulants are the most widely used chemical rodenticides, and their extensive and widespread use can contaminate the environment. To ensure effectiveness and avoid accumulation of rodent baits in the environment, it is important to evaluate how long rodent baits maintain their palatability and efficacy. In rodent control programs, rodent baits are placed in locations such as sewers, but after a few days, baits appear altered, causing doubts about the control efficacy. For this reason, baits are replaced periodically, which increases costs and generation of chemical waste. The objective of this study was to evaluate the palatability and efficacy of commercial paraffin-type rodent bait blocks placed in sewers in São Paulo City over a period of 90 days. Bait blocks were placed in sewers and collected after 30, 60, and 90 days. Additionally, in a laboratory two-choice test, wild-caught urban Norway rats were offered 40-60 g of bait and an equal volume of standard rat pellets. The amount of bait and rat pellet consumed was registered, the palatability was calculated, and the efficacy was measured as the percentage mortality over 14 days. The results showed that, even when they had an altered appearance, bait blocks remained palatable to the rats and were effective after at least 90 days. Leaving bait blocks for longer periods could be an effective strategy for reducing costs and could help to ensure the control of urban rodents in an environmentally sustainable way.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Masculino , Ratos , Rodenticidas/análise
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007757, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545808

RESUMO

Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) has recently raised concern by causing geographic range expansion of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). SEOV infections in humans are significantly underestimated worldwide and epidemic dynamics of SEOV-related HFRS are poorly understood because of a lack of field data and empirically validated models. Here, we use mathematical models to examine both intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of disease transmission from animal (the Norway rat) to humans in a SEOV-endemic area in China. We found that rat eradication schemes and vaccination campaigns, but below the local elimination threshold, could diminish the amplitude of the HFRS epidemic but did not modify its seasonality. Models demonstrate population dynamics of the rodent host were insensitive to climate variations in urban settings, while relative humidity had a negative effect on the seasonality in transmission. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiology of SEOV-related HFRS, demonstrates asynchronies between rodent population dynamics and transmission rate, and identifies potential drivers of the SEOV seasonality.


Assuntos
Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/transmissão , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Clima , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Controle de Roedores , Roedores/virologia , Estações do Ano , Vírus Seoul , Vacinação
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 1051-1058, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326797

RESUMO

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are known to cause extensive secondary exposure in top predators in Europe and North America, but there remains a paucity of data in Asia. In this study, we collected 221 liver samples from 21 raptor species in Taiwan between 2010 and 2018. Most birds were recovered from rescue organizations, but some free-ranging individuals were obtained from bird-strike prevention measures at airports. ARs were detected in 10 species and more than half of the total samples. Common rodent-eating Black-winged Kites (Elanus caeruleus) had the highest prevalence (89.2%) and highest average sum concentration (0.211 ±â€¯0.219 mg/kg), which was similar between free-ranging birds at airports and injured birds from rescue organizations. Scavenging Black Kites (Milvus migrans) and snake-eating Crested Serpent-eagles (Spilornis cheela) had the second highest prevalence or sum concentration, respectively. Seven different AR compounds were detected, of which brodifacoum was the most common and had the highest average concentration, followed by flocoumafen and bromadiolone. The frequency of occurrence in the three most numerous species (Black-winged Kite, Crested Goshawk [Accipiter trivirgatus], and Collared Scops-owl [Otus lettia]) was significantly higher in autumn than summer, which is consistent with the timing of the Taiwanese government's supply of free ARs to farmers. Regional differences in the detection of individual compounds also tended to reflect differences in human population density and use patterns (in agriculture or urban-dominated environments). Clinical poisoning was confirmed in Black Kites with sum concentrations as low as 0.026 mg/kg; however, further study of interspecific differences in AR sensitivity and potential population effects are needed. In addition, continued monitoring remains important given the Taiwanese government has modified their farmland rodent control policy to gradually reduce free AR supplies since 2015.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Aves Predatórias/metabolismo , Rodenticidas/metabolismo , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/metabolismo , Animais , Controle de Roedores , Rodenticidas/análise , Taiwan
5.
Science ; 364(6444): 915-916, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171670
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18434-18439, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049861

RESUMO

Voles (Cricetidae) cause extensive damage to a variety of crops throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. The removal of vegetation from crop fields at the end of the growing season, combined with a subsequent burrow fumigant application of aluminum phosphide, has the potential to substantially curtail vole activity but has not been thoroughly examined. We set up a study to test the impact of these management tools in perennial globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) fields in Monterey County, CA, during 2010 and 2011, to determine their potential utility as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program for managing California voles (Microtus californicus). We used both chewing indices and mortality estimates derived via radiotelemetry to assess the efficacy of aboveground vegetation removal and aluminum phosphide applications on vole abundance. We determined the impact of plowing artichoke fields on vole activity as well. Both removal of vegetation and applications of aluminum phosphide substantially reduced vole presence within treated fields. Plowing also reduced vole abundance to the point of little residual activity following treatment. These management practices appear to be effective at eliminating voles from crop fields. Combining these tools with management practices designed to slow down reinvasion by neighboring vole populations (e.g., barriers, repellents, traps) has the potential to substantially reduce farmer reliance on rodenticides for vole management, although rodenticides will still be needed to curtail populations that reestablish within crop fields. Such an IPM approach should substantially benefit both farmers and agro-ecosystems.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Arvicolinae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Cynara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fumigação/métodos , Fosfinas/administração & dosagem , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Animais , California , Ecossistema , Rodenticidas/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano
7.
Integr Zool ; 14(4): 396-409, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983096

RESUMO

Rodents and weeds are important pests to rice crops in Southeast Asia. The interaction between these 2 major pests is poorly documented. In temperate cereal systems, seeds of grass weeds can be an important food source for rodents and weed cover along crop margins provides important refuge for rodents. In 2012 and 2013, a replicated study (n = 4) in Bago, Myanmar compared 4 treatments (rodents and weeds; no rodents and weeds; rodents and no weeds; no rodents and no weeds) each of 0.25 ha in transplanted rice. Weeds were managed with hand weeding in the wet season, and hand weeding and herbicides in the dry season. Plastic fences were installed to exclude rodents. We examined the weed cover and relative abundance of weed species, rodent damage, rodent population dynamics and rice yield loss caused by rodents and weeds. The dominant rodent species was Bandicota bengalensis. In the dry season, Cyperus difformis was dominant at the tillering stage and Echinochloa crus-galli was the dominant weed species at the booting stage. In the wet season E. crus-galli was a dominant weed throughout the season. Damage by rodents was higher in the dry season. There were larger economic benefits for best weed management and effective rodent control in the dry season (258 US$/ha) than in the wet season (30 US$/ha). Concurrent control of weeds in and around rice fields combined with coordinated community trapping of rodents during the early tillering stage and ripening stage of rice are recommended management options.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Oryza , Plantas Daninhas , Roedores , Animais , Herbicidas , Dinâmica Populacional , Controle de Roedores
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 640-649, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007139

RESUMO

The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host of Lassa virus, an arenavirus that causes Lassa haemorrhagic fever in humans in West Africa. Because no vaccine exists and therapeutic options are limited, preventing infection through rodent control and human behavioural measures is currently considered to be the only option. In order to assess the efficacy of rodent control, we performed a 4-year field experiment in rural Upper Guinea and developed a mathematical model to simulate different control strategies (annual density control, continuous density control, and rodent vaccination). For the field study, rodenticide baits were placed each year in three rural villages, while three other villages were used as controls. Rodents were trapped before and after every treatment and their antibody status and age were determined. Data from the field study were used to parameterize the mathematical model. In the field study, we found a significant negative effect of rodent control on seroprevalence, but this effect was small especially given the effort. Furthermore, the rodent populations recovered rapidly after rodenticide application, leading us to conclude that an annual control strategy is unlikely to significantly reduce Lassa virus spillover to humans. In agreement with this finding, the mathematical model suggests that the use of continuous control or rodent vaccination is the only strategy that could lead to Lassa virus elimination. These field and model results can serve as a guide for determining how long and frequent rodent control should be done in order to eliminate Lassa virus in rural villages.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , Vírus Lassa/imunologia , Murinae , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Guiné , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(6): 414-420, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785372

RESUMO

Rat carcasses obtained from pest control interventions can potentially be used for an efficient surveillance of zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis. To evaluate the performance of different laboratory methods for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp., heart and kidney samples from wild Norway rats were analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT, the gold standard), a commercial IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and by an optimized quantitative PCR (secY qPCR, followed by sequencing). We found secY qPCR to be as sensitive as MAT for screening of Leptospira infection in pest control rats and selected secY qPCR for a larger screening of rats from urban and rural areas in central and southern Sweden. We identified secY qPCR positive rats from the cities Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö, which were further confirmed by sequencing.


Assuntos
Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Controle de Roedores , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Cidades , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Suécia , Zoonoses
11.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(7): 1847-1854, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective management of ground squirrels relies on an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Rodenticides may be included in an IPM program, but they must be efficacious with minimal impact on nontarget species. A zinc phosphide-coated green bait may meet these requirements. We established a study in northeastern California to test zinc phosphide-coated cabbage as a management tool for Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi). We specifically addressed factors that would influence the efficacy of a baiting program, as well as potential exposure risk to nontarget species. RESULTS: We found that prebaiting was an important application strategy, and efficacy increased as ground squirrel abundance increased. Efficacy was also greater in western portions of the study area, likely due to greater bait consumption at western sites. Belding's ground squirrels fed most heavily on cabbage during mid-morning and late afternoon; bait applications shortly before these time periods would increase bait consumption while minimizing nontarget risk. Bait uptake was greatest around burrow entrances. The only nontarget species observed feeding on cabbage was the California kangaroo rat (Dipodomys californicus), although they were never observed feeding on treated cabbage. CONCLUSION: Zinc phosphide-coated cabbage can be an efficacious tool for managing ground squirrels, but there will be limitations on where and how it can be used effectively. It posed a low risk to nontarget species present in our study area, but nontarget risk could vary regionally. The use of a zinc phosphide-coated green bait should only be one part of an IPM strategy for managing ground squirrels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fosfinas/farmacologia , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Rodenticidas/farmacologia , Sciuridae/fisiologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Brassica , California , Dipodomys/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 6133-6140, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617892

RESUMO

The extensive use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) results in widespread unintentional exposure of non-target rodents and secondary poisoning of predators despite regulatory measures to manage and reduce exposure risk. To elucidate on the potential vectoring of ARs into surrounding habitats by non-target small mammals, we determined bromadiolone prevalence and concentrations in rodents and shrews near bait boxes during an experimental application of the poison for 2 weeks. Overall, bromadiolone was detected in 12.6% of all small rodents and insectivores. Less than 20 m from bait boxes, 48.6% of small mammals had detectable levels of bromadiolone. The prevalence of poisoned small mammals decreased with distance to bait boxes, but bromadiolone concentration in the rodenticide positive individuals did not. Poisoned small mammals were trapped up to 89 m from bait boxes. Bromadiolone concentrations in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) were higher than concentrations in bank vole (Myodes glareolus), field vole (Microtus agrestis), harvest mouse (Micromys minutus), and common shrew (Sorex araneus). Our field trials documents that chemical rodent control results in widespread exposure of non-target small mammals and that AR poisoned small mammals disperse away from bating sites to become available to predators and scavengers in large areas of the landscape. The results suggest that the unintentional secondary exposure of predators and scavengers is an unavoidable consequence of chemical rodent control outside buildings and infrastructures.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/análise , Arvicolinae , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Murinae , Rodenticidas/análise , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/toxicidade , Animais , Anticoagulantes/análise , Anticoagulantes/toxicidade , Dinamarca , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Predatório , Prevalência , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Roedores , Rodenticidas/toxicidade , Musaranhos
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(7): 1887-1893, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a cosmopolitan rodent that has become adapted to living in close association with humans and is considered a serious pest because it poses a risk to human health, and causes economic losses due to food and crop consumption and damage to buildings. Its control in livestock farms is achieved mainly through the application of anticoagulant rodenticides, but the effect of these compounds is limited due to the presence of resistant individuals and aversive behaviours. A potential alternative method is the use of chemical signals to reduce rodent reproductive success. In this study, we assessed the effects of odours from an unfamiliar male, 17ß-oestradiol, overcrowding, cat urine and 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) on the reproductive success of laboratory Mus musculus females. RESULTS: According to the generalized linear mixed models, cat urine odour increased the proportion of abortions per female, unfamiliar male odour decreased the mean number of offspring born per female, and TMT had an overall negative effect on mean offspring production at birth and at weaning. The other odours had no significant effects on reproductive success. CONCLUSIONS: TMT seems to be the best candidate for population control because it caused a decrease in the mean number of offspring born and the mean number of live offspring at weaning. TMT also has the advantage of being available in commercial forms. To be useful for rodent management in field conditions, these results should be confirmed using wild house mice females. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Camundongos/fisiologia , Odorantes , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Aborto Animal/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Gatos/urina , Aglomeração , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tiazóis/farmacologia
14.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(3): 343-348, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537417

RESUMO

Urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations can carry the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are numerous knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of MRSA in these populations that limit understanding of its ecology in urban environments. For example, fecal shedding of MRSA, which may increase environmental contamination, has been reported in other species; however, it is unknown whether Norway rats carry the bacteria rectally. Furthermore, while intermittent MRSA shedding has been shown in other species and may dictate when the risk of transmission is highest, duration of carriage has not been examined for Norway rats. Previous work has shown that lethal animal-control methods may increase the level of pathogens within reservoir populations, possibly by disrupting ecological patterns. However, the impact of rodent-control on potentially environmentally acquired pathogens like MRSA has not been tested. Using capture-mark-recapture methods in an inner-city neighborhood in Vancouver, Canada, we show that rats intermittently carry MRSA both in the rectum and oropharynx. By assessing the prevalence of MRSA before and after enacting a pest-control intervention, we report that kill-trapping had no impact on the prevalence of carriage of this environmentally-acquired agent.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Roedores , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Zoonoses
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(11): e0006829, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399142

RESUMO

Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by an arenavirus. The disease is endemic in West African countries, including Guinea. The rodents Mastomys natalensis and Mastomys erythroleucus have been identified as Lassa virus reservoirs in Guinea. In the absence of a vaccine, rodent control and human behavioural changes are the only options to prevent Lassa fever in highly endemic areas. We performed a 4 year intervention based on chemical rodent control, utilizing anticoagulant rodenticides in 3 villages and evaluating the rodent abundance before and after treatment. Three additional villages were investigated as controls. Analyses to assess the effectiveness of the intervention, bait consumption and rodent dynamics were performed. Anthropological investigations accompanied the intervention to integrate local understandings of human-rodent cohabitation and rodent control intervention. Patterns of bait consumption showed a peak at days 5-7 and no consumption at days 28-30. There was no difference between Bromadiolone and Difenacoum bait consumption. The main rodent species found in the houses was M. natalensis. The abundance of M. natalensis, as measured by the trapping success, varied between 3.6 and 16.7% before treatment and decreased significantly to 1-2% after treatment. Individuals in treated villages welcomed the intervention and trapping because mice are generally regarded as a nuisance. Immediate benefits from controlling rodents included protection of food and belongings. Before the intervention, local awareness of Lassa fever was non-existent. Despite their appreciation for the intervention, local individuals noted its limits and the need for complementary actions. Our results demonstrate that chemical treatment provides an effective tool to control local rodent populations and can serve as part of an effective, holistic approach combining rodent trapping, use of local rodenticides, environmental hygiene, house repairs and rodent-proof storage. These actions should be developed in collaboration with local stakeholders and communities.


Assuntos
Febre Lassa/transmissão , Murinae/fisiologia , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Rodenticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Guiné , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , Febre Lassa/virologia , Vírus Lassa/fisiologia , Camundongos , Murinae/classificação , Murinae/virologia , Controle de Roedores/instrumentação , Saúde da População Rural
16.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198952, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897991

RESUMO

Evolution in the Hawaiian Islands has produced a unique avian assemblage. Unfortunately, many of these bird species are highly endangered or extinct. Despite numerous and increasing threats and great effort aimed at saving endemic birds, we lack basic science necessary for understanding many species of concern. One such species is the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a rare songbird endemic to the island of Kaua'i and the only remaining native thrush on the island. At present, the Puaiohi's breeding population is estimated to be ~500 birds restricted to the Alaka'i Wilderness Preserve. We collected demographic data from 2007-2012 and supplemented it with published sources. Using Vortex, we developed stochastic population models to represent Puaiohi population dynamics under current and potential management scenarios to determine management's potential efficacy in aiding species recovery. Management scenarios modeled included rat control, habitat improvement, general survival facilitation, and provision of nest boxes. The model indicated a decline in abundance with a growth rate (r) of -0.267 under baseline conditions. Female and juvenile survival appeared to be the most influential parameters related to population growth and persistence, so management should focus on increasing female and juvenile Puaiohi survival. Rat control, even at more conservative levels, appeared to be the most effective method of increasing Puaiohi abundance. Our results indicate that practical, attainable management activities can increase Puaiohi and bring the species back from the brink of extinction. Such findings provide an example for other endangered species conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Passeriformes/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Hawaii , Masculino , Ratos , Controle de Roedores
17.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 18(9): 458-463, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768127

RESUMO

Rodents pose a significant threat to human health, particularly in rural subsistence farming communities in Africa, where rodents threaten food security and serve as reservoirs of human pathogens, including the agents of plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, rat-bite fever, Lassa fever, salmonellosis, and campylobacteriosis. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where a majority of residents live in Uganda government-defined poverty, rely on subsistence farming for a living, and frequently experience incursions of rodents into their homes. In this study, we show that rodent removal was achieved in a median of 6 days of intensive lethal trapping with multiple trap types (range: 0-16 days). However, rodent abundance in 68.9% of homesteads returned to pretreatment levels within a median of 8 weeks (range 1-24 weeks), and at least a single rodent was captured in all homesteads by a median of 2 weeks (range 1-16 weeks) after removal efforts were terminated. Results were similar between homesteads that practiced rodent control whether or not their neighbors implemented similar strategies. Overall, intensive lethal trapping inside homes appears to be effective at reducing rodent abundance, but control was short lived after trapping ceased.


Assuntos
Peste/prevenção & controle , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Roedores , Animais , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(7): 2752-2754, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656590

RESUMO

Rodents damaging alfalfa crops typically destined for export to booming Eastern markets often cause economical losses to farmers, but management interventions attempting to control rodents (i.e., use of rodenticides) are themselves damaging to biodiversity. These damages resonate beyond dairy feed producing regions through animal migration and are an overlooked part of the transferred environmental burden caused by a growing thirst for milk in China and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Indústria de Laticínios , Leite , Distribuição Animal , Ração Animal , Animais , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Medicago sativa , Ratos , Controle de Roedores
19.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195582, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668707

RESUMO

This paper describes the level of adoption of biosecurity practices performed on Australian commercial chicken meat and layer farms and farmer-perceived importance of these practices. On-farm interviews were conducted on 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. There was a high level of treatment of drinking water across all farm types; town water was the most common source. In general, meat chicken farms had a higher level of adoption of biosecurity practices than layer farms. Cage layer farms had the shortest median distance between sheds (7.75m) and between sheds and waterbodies (30m). Equipment sharing between sheds was performed on 43% of free range meat chicken farms compared to 92% of free range layer farms. There was little disinfection of this shared equipment across all farm types. Footbaths and visitor recording books were used by the majority of farms for all farm types except cage layer farms (25%). Wild birds in sheds were most commonly reported in free range meat chicken farms (73%). Dogs and cats were kept across all farm types, from 56% of barn layer farms to 89% of cage layer farms, and they had access to the sheds in the majority (67%) of cage layer farms and on the range in some free range layer farms (44%). Most biosecurity practices were rated on average as 'very important' by farmers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that for most biosecurity practices, performing a practice was significantly associated with higher perceived farmer importance of that biosecurity practice. These findings help identify farm types and certain biosecurity practices with low adoption levels. This information can aid decision-making on efforts used to improve adoption levels.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália , Aves , Desinfecção , Água Potável , Fazendas/organização & administração , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamíferos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Controle de Roedores , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Ecohealth ; 15(2): 348-359, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572697

RESUMO

The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host of Lassa arenavirus, the etiological agent of Lassa fever in humans. Because there exists no vaccine for human use, rodent control and adjusting human behavior are currently considered to be the only options for Lassa fever control. In order to develop efficient rodent control programs, more information about the host's ecology is needed. In this study, we investigated the spatial behavior of M. natalensis and other small rodents in two capture-mark-recapture and four dyed bait (Rhodamine B) experiments in Lassa fever-endemic villages in Upper Guinea. During the capture-mark-recapture studies, 23% of the recaptured M. natalensis moved between the houses and proximate fields. While M. natalensis was found over the entire study grid (2 ha), other rodent species (Praomys daltoni, Praomys rostratus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mus spp.) were mostly trapped in the surrounding fields. Distances between recapture occasions never exceeded 100 m for all rodent species. During the dyed bait experiments, 11% of M. natalensis and 41% of P. daltoni moved from the fields to houses. We conclude that commensal M. natalensis easily moves between houses and proximate fields in Guinea. We therefore consider occasional domestic rodent elimination to be an unsustainable approach to reduce Lassa virus transmission risk to humans, as M. natalensis is likely to reinvade houses quickly from fields in which rodents are not controlled. A combination of permanent rodent elimination with other control strategies (e.g., make houses rodent proof or attract predators) could be more effective for Lassa fever control, but must be further investigated.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Febre Lassa/veterinária , Controle de Roedores/organização & administração , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Animais , Doenças Endêmicas , Guiné , Humanos , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , Análise Espacial
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