Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.877
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045018

RESUMO

Violence-free family ties, non-violent peers or attachment to society have been pointed out as protective factors against different types of extremism and violent radicalization by international literature. However, more detail needs to be provided about which specific aspects within these realms (friendship/family/community) are effective in challenging violence and how they operate in practice. Recent research conducted under the framework of the PROTON project (Horizon 2020) has analyzed the social and ethical impacts of counter-terrorism and organized crime policies in six European countries. In this article we discuss some identified common features among practices that, developed by organized actors operating at the local level (e.g.: grassroots-based associations, educational institutions, other type of organized networks for prevention, NGOs), are contributing to preventing youth violent radicalization, a phenomenon of growing concern in Europe and beyond. Standing on a solid rejection to violence, these shared features are the following: a bottom-up approach in setting allies with key stakeholders from the community or/and family members to intervene; the promotion of trustworthy and healthy friendship relationships; debunking the lure surrounding violent subjects ("false heroes") and violence in the different contexts, especially in the socioeducational one.


Assuntos
Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Meio Social , Participação dos Interessados , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013632, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a possible trigger for increases in loneliness and social isolation among older people due to the restrictions on movement that many countries have put in place. Loneliness and social isolation are consistently identified as risk factors for poor mental and physical health in older people. Video calls may help older people stay connected during the current crisis by widening the participant's social circle or by increasing the frequency of contact with existing acquaintances. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this rapid review is to assess the effectiveness of video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older adults. The review also sought to address the effectiveness of video calls on reducing symptoms of depression and improving quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL from 1 January 2004 to 7 April 2020. We also searched the references of relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including cluster designs) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded all other study designs. The samples in included studies needed to have a mean age of at least 65 years. We included studies that included participants whether or not they were experiencing symptoms of loneliness or social isolation at baseline. Any intervention in which a core component involved the use of the internet to facilitate video calls or video conferencing through computers, smartphones or tablets with the intention of reducing loneliness or social isolation, or both, in older adults was eligible for inclusion. We included studies in the review if they reported self-report measures of loneliness, social isolation, symptoms of depression or quality of life.  Two review authors screened 25% of abstracts; a third review author resolved conflicts. A single review author screened the remaining abstracts. The second review author screened all excluded abstracts and we resolved conflicts by consensus or by involving a third review author. We followed the same process for full-text articles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data, which another review author checked. The primary outcomes were loneliness and social isolation and the secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and quality of life. One review author rated the certainty of evidence for the primary outcomes according to the GRADE approach and another review author checked the ratings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for the primary outcome, loneliness, and the secondary outcome, symptoms of depression. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three cluster quasi-randomised trials, which together included 201 participants. The included studies compared video call interventions to usual care in nursing homes. None of these studies were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Each study measured loneliness using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Total scores range from 20 (least lonely) to 80 (most lonely). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale compared to usual care at three months (mean difference (MD) -0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.28 to 2.41; 3 studies; 201 participants), at six months (MD -0.34, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.72; 2 studies; 152 participants) and at 12 months (MD -2.40, 95% CI -7.20 to 2.40; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. None of the included studies reported social isolation as an outcome. Each study measured symptoms of depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Total scores range from 0 (better) to 30 (worse). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale compared to usual care at three months' follow-up (MD 0.41, 95% CI -0.90 to 1.72; 3 studies; 201 participants) or six months' follow-up (MD -0.83, 95% CI -2.43 to 0.76; 2 studies, 152 participants). The evidence suggests that video calls may have a small effect on symptoms of depression at one-year follow-up, though this finding is imprecise (MD -2.04, 95% CI -3.98 to -0.10; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. Only one study, with 62 participants, reported quality of life. The study measured quality of life using a Taiwanese adaptation of the Short-Form 36-question health survey (SF-36), which consists of eight subscales that measure different aspects of quality of life: physical function; physical role; emotional role; social function; pain: vitality; mental health; and physical health. Each subscale is scored from 0 (poor health) to 100 (good health). The evidence is very uncertain and suggests that there may be little to no difference between people allocated to usual care and those allocated to video calls in three-month scores in physical function (MD 2.88, 95% CI -5.01 to 10.77), physical role (MD -7.66, 95% CI -24.08 to 8.76), emotional role (MD -7.18, 95% CI -16.23 to 1.87), social function (MD 2.77, 95% CI -8.87 to 14.41), pain scores (MD -3.25, 95% CI -15.11 to 8.61), vitality scores (MD -3.60, 95% CI -9.01 to 1.81), mental health (MD 9.19, 95% CI 0.36 to 18.02) and physical health (MD 5.16, 95% CI -2.48 to 12.80). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on this review there is currently very uncertain evidence on the effectiveness of video call interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults. The review did not include any studies that reported evidence of the effectiveness of video call interventions to address social isolation in older adults. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of video calls for outcomes of symptoms of depression was very uncertain. Future research in this area needs to use more rigorous methods and more diverse and representative participants. Specifically, future studies should target older adults, who are demonstrably lonely or socially isolated, or both, across a range of settings to determine whether video call interventions are effective in a population in which these outcomes are in need of improvement.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Solidão/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053665

RESUMO

Simple instructions have been shown to robustly influence individual creativity, which is key to solve local problems. Building on social labeling theory, we examine the possibility of nudging individual's creativity using "creative" and "not creative" labels. Study 1 showed that subjects labeled as "creative" or "not creative" performed better in a creative task than unlabeled subjects and established the moderating effect of self-perceived creativity. Among subjects scoring low on self-perceived creativity, those labeled as "creative" performed better than those labeled as "not creative". Conversely, among subjects scoring high on self-perceived creativity, those labeled as "not creative" tend to perform better than those labeled as "creative". Study 2 and Study 3 further explored the psychological mechanisms at play in both cases: specifically, Study 2 showed that applying a "creative" label has the ability to increase creative self-efficacy through self-perceived creativity, whereas Study 3 demonstrated that applying a "not creative" label has the ability to increase individual creativity performance through a higher involvement in the creative task.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Autoeficácia , Identificação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
4.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 64(5): 539-563, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889457

RESUMO

The purposes of this study are to examine how social learning processes and social structure correlate with delinquency among Turkish adolescents and to articulate to what extent Akers's social structure and social learning (SSSL) theory explains delinquency in Turkey, which is a different cultural context from Western countries in terms of family structure, level of collectivism or individualism, religion, belief systems, and norms. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by providing the first study testing Akers's theory in the Turkish context. Analyses, relying on a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework, showed that the social learning process accounted for a substantial amount of variation in explaining adolescent delinquency. We also found that social learning process somewhat mediates social structural effects on delinquency.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Condicionamento Psicológico , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Aprendizado Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Turquia
5.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 64(1): 22-37, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221027

RESUMO

Chinese education system comprises high schools and vocational school, and their differences on delinquency have seldom been investigated. From the perspective of general strain theory, the present study examined the differences among high school and vocational school students for delinquency, strain, and other explanatory variables. General strain theory delineates the effect of strain on delinquency or deviance and presents the paths from strain to delinquency or deviance through social control and social learning variables. Using a sample of 1,852 tenth-grade students in Guangzhou City, the present study tests the intervening paths from strains to deviance among high school and vocational school students. Results indicated that vocational school students have higher likelihood to be strained and delinquent, and have lower social control and higher interactions with delinquent peers. School type is a significant predictor for strain, as well as social control and delinquent peers.


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Teoria Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas/classificação , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Aprendizado Social
6.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(1): 259-276, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119509

RESUMO

Internet gambling has been widely legalised in recognition of its capacity to, and the importance of, providing consumer protection tools to prevent and minimise gambling-related harms. Most licensed Internet gambling sites are required to provide consumer protection tools, including activity statements, deposit limits, and time-outs (temporary self-exclusion). However, few Internet gambling customers engage with the tools. An online survey of 564 customers of Australian Internet gambling sites aimed to understand the extent to which consumer protection tools are used, characteristics of those using these tools, and the perceptions and attitudes towards tool use, including barriers to use. Most participants were aware of the tools and had accessed activity statements; few had used deposit limits (24.5%) or time-outs (8.1%) but use of these restrictive tools was higher among those at-risk of gambling problems. Satisfaction with tools was generally high among users and tools were mostly used as intended; however, only moderate changes in behaviour were reported. Participants predominately did not use the restrictive tools as they did not see these as relevant for them, and they were perceived to be intended for people with gambling problems. The findings are important to drive necessary improvements to consumer protection efforts including efforts to encourage perception that tools are relevant for all customers. Changes to current practice, including terminology and promotion of tools, are needed by Internet gambling operators and policy makers to improve the utilisation and effectiveness of consumer protection tools to enable sustainable gambling among the broader cohort of Internet gamblers.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Jogo de Azar/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775387

RESUMO

Adolescents actively use social media, which engages them cognitively, emotionally, and behaviorally. However, the underlying psychological mechanisms of engagement have not been adequately addressed. The present study examined adolescents' psychological processes as these develop in their everyday interactions via social media. The sample comprised six focus groups with 42 adolescents from UK-based schools. Data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. The resulting concepts related to individual, social, and structurally related processes, highlighting a synergy between the processes underlying use and a gradual reduction of control as individual, social, and structurally led processes emerge, conceptualized as the 'control model' of social media engagement. The findings highlight a controlling aspect in engagement and a dynamic interplay between the processes as mutually determining the quality and the intensity of the interaction. Recommendations are provided for examining control as a main emotional, cognitive, and behavioral mechanism in problematic and/or addictive social media and smartphone use.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Teoria Fundamentada , Smartphone , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 111(6): 606-615, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African American smokers suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease caused, in part, by lower rates of smoking cessation. We examined whether smoke-free home policies and delay discounting were differentially associated with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and nicotine dependence (ND) among African Americans and Whites. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from 65 African American (n = 40) and White (n = 25) smokers who completed measures of CPD, ND, tobacco craving, stress, depression, home smoking policy, and delay discounting. RESULTS: A significant interaction was found between race and home smoking policy on CPD (B = -11.21, p = 0.002) and ND (B = -3.42, p = 0.004). Smoke-free policies in the home were associated with fewer CPD and lower ND levels among Whites, but not among African Americans. Whites who allowed smoking in their homes had significantly greater mean CPD and higher mean ND than their counterparts who did not allow smoking in the home. Among African American smokers, there were no differences in CPD and ND among those who allowed smoking in their home versus those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: The findings extend the scientific literature by suggesting that a malleable environmental factor (home smoking policy) commonly associated with cessation among Whites does not have the same influence on cessation among African American.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/etnologia , Tabagismo/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Controles Informais da Sociedade
10.
Hist Psychol ; 22(4): 328-350, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355662

RESUMO

Coined in the 1990s, the term "Internet addiction" encapsulates a brief but influential human history of technological advancement and psychological development. However, most studies have treated Internet addiction as a "global" concept in the realm of science without taking into consideration its sociocultural meanings and local history. In China, obsessive online gaming behavior among youth is viewed as a national issue of public health and social control. This article examines the special development of interventions to address Internet addiction in China within a broader local history of culturally inflected social control, market reform, the one-child policy, and psychology. Based on historical review and ethnographic data from a treatment center specializing in Internet addiction, this article presents a deep analysis of what Internet addiction means in Chinese lives. It argues that Internet addiction is, in fact, a cultural idiom of distress related to social control rather than a universal syndrome of self-control. It represents the dynamic interactions between Confucian family values and market reform, the one-child policy, and recent trends in psychology and technology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Internet , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/história , China , Confucionismo , Cultura , História do Século XX , Humanos , Internet/história , Medicalização , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo
11.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 353-364, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273601

RESUMO

Although "you are what you eat" is a well-worn cliché, personal identity does not figure prominently in many debates about the ethics of eating interventions. This paper contributes to a growing philosophical literature theorizing the connection between eating and identity and exploring its implications for eating interventions. I explore how "identity-policing," a key mechanism for the social constitution and maintenance of identity, applies to eating and trace its ethical implications for eating interventions. I argue that identity policing can be harmful and that eating interventions can subject people to these harms by invoking identity policing qua intervention strategy or by encouraging people to eat in ways that subject them to policing from others. While these harms may be outweighed by the benefits of the intervention being promoted, they should nonetheless be acknowledged and accounted for. To aid in these evaluations, I consider factors that modulate the presence and severity of identity-policing and discuss strategies for developing less harmful eating interventions. I conclude by considering the relationship between identity-policing and identity loss caused by long-term diet change. This paper contributes to the centering of identity in food ethics and to a more comprehensive picture of identity's ethical importance for eating interventions.


Assuntos
Dieta/ética , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/ética , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Identificação Social , Humanos , Motivação , Marginalização Social , Normas Sociais
12.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(10): 1101-1116, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335306

RESUMO

Our aim was to develop a framework-based weight control behavior questionnaire (Weight-CuRB) and test its psychometric properties among a non-probability sample of 240 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Appropriate validity, simplicity, functionality and reliability were observed for the Weight-CuRB. The explanatory model fits the data well (χ2 [139] = 245.835, p < .001, CFI = 0.950, NFI = 0.901, IFI = 0.950, RMSEA = 0.057[(0.045-0.068]). To our knowledge, this was the first study to develop and validate a framework-based instrument aiming at cognitive needs assessment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The weight-CuRB may be useful in addressing the core cognitive determinants of weight control among the patients.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Ganho de Peso
13.
J Community Psychol ; 47(7): 1568-1590, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209901

RESUMO

AIMS: This study examines the moderating role of parental neighborhood perceptions on the relationship between neighborhood structural disadvantage and adolescent depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) consisting of 12,105 adolescents and their parents were used. RESULTS: Mixed effects multilevel modeling revealed that parental-perceived neighborhood disorder was associated with higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms (ß = .27, p ≤ .001). The interaction between neighborhood concentrated poverty and parental-perceived neighborhood disorder was also significant (ß = -.14, p ≤ .01). Low and high levels of parental-perceived neighborhood disorder were associated with lower (ß = -.41, p < .05) and higher (ß = .46, p ≤ .01) levels of adolescent depressive symptoms, respectively, with increasing concentrated poverty. Parental-perceived collective efficacy was not associated with adolescent depressive symptoms nor was it a moderator. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the neighborhood's social environment may mitigate adolescent depressive symptoms. Implications for structural interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Características de Residência , Meio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Pobreza/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (31): 28-56, enero-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004711

RESUMO

Resumo Neste artigo, pretendemos seguir o curso da ideia de 'direitos LGBT' na ONU, tomados como direitos humanos relacionados com a orientação sexual e com a identidade de gênero. Nosso argumento consiste em que esses direitos são acionados pelos atores políticos como 'direitos morais' e a ONU tem dado uma contribuição importante para torná-los direitos postos. Pressupomos que, justamente por tais direitos não estarem consagrados no direito internacional, ações e reações no debate acerca de 'direitos LGBT' se dão nas fissuras deste arcabouço. Neste artigo, assinalamos quais são essas fissuras e abordamos como os atores políticos as têm explorado. Os dados analisados aqui foram coletados mediante pesquisa documental e bibliográfica.


Abstract In this article, we intend to follow the course of the idea of 'LGBT rights' in the UN, understood as human rights related to sexual orientation and gender identity. Our argument is that these rights are used by political actors as 'moral rights', and the UN has given an important contribution to establish them in the international framework. We assume that, precisely because such rights are not established in international law, actions and reactions in the debate about 'LGBT rights' occur in the fissures of this framework. In this article, we highlight these fissures and discuss how they have been explored by political actors. The analyzed data was collected through document and bibliographic research.


Resumen En este artículo, pretendemos seguir el curso de la idea de 'derechos LGBT' en la ONU, tomados como derechos humanos relacionados con orientación sexual e identidad de género. Nuestro argumento consiste en que esos derechos son accionados por los actores políticos como 'derechos morales' y la ONU ha dado una contribución importante para hacerlos derechos puestos. Suponemos que, justamente por tales derechos no estén consagrados en el derecho internacional, acciones y reacciones en el debate acerca de 'derechos LGBT' se dan en las fisuras del ordenamiento. En este artículo, señalamos cuáles son esas fisuras y abordamos cómo los actores políticos las han explorado. Los datos analizados aquí fueron recolectados mediante investigación documental y bibliográfica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Religião , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Nações Unidas/tendências , Direitos Civis/tendências , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Civis , Identidade de Gênero
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4691, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886162

RESUMO

Social conformity refers to the tendency to align one's own behaviors, beliefs and values to those of others. Little is known about social influence coming from a minority group. To test whether social pressure from sexual minorities triggers avoidance-motivated behaviors, we explored how being influenced by the preferences of gay peers modifies the behavioral and neural reactivity of individuals defined as in- vs. out- groups on the basis of sexual orientation. To this aim, we combined fMRI with a social conformity paradigm in which heterosexual and gay/bisexual (hereafter non-exclusively heterosexual, NEH) individuals provided with male body attractiveness ratings by a fictitious group of gay students may or may not alter their previous rating and may or may not conform to the mean. Behaviorally, conformity to the minority preference was found in in-group NEH more than in out-group heterosexuals. Analysis of BOLD signal showed that social pressure brought about increased brain activity in frontal and parietal regions associated with the detection of social conflict. These results show that members of a sexual majority group display a smaller level of conformity when a sexual minority group exerts social influence. However, the neural correlates of this modulation are yet to be clarified.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Conformidade Social , Adulto , Bissexualidade , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Feminina , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Community Psychol ; 63(1-2): 168-178, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801733

RESUMO

Collective efficacy is a widely studied theoretical framework. Originally operationalized as the combination of social cohesion and informal social control, collective efficacy theory is a predictor of multiple positive outcomes. Conceptual and empirical critiques of collective efficacy theory suggest that social cohesion and informal social control should be modeled as unique constructs. Further, the current model of collective efficacy theory does not include an explicit measure of efficacy. Mutual efficacy, defined as community members' beliefs that collective action will be successful at attaining group goals, will be developed in this manuscript. The purpose of mutual efficacy was to make efficacy an explicit component within collective efficacy theory. Three models of collective efficacy theory are compared in this study: (a) a one-factor model of collective efficacy that combines social cohesion and informal social control, (b) a two-factor model of collective efficacy that models social cohesion as a predictor of informal social control, and (c) a mutual efficacy model where the relationship between social cohesion and informal social control is mediated by mutual efficacy. Results suggest that the two-factor model and the mutual efficacy model both fit the data better than the current model of collective efficacy.


Assuntos
Teoria Psicológica , Comportamento Social , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Meio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Autoeficácia , Washington
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 34(13): 2723-2748, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27495114

RESUMO

Prior research has examined the effects of neighborhood context on intimate partner violence (IPV) with mixed results. While most studies find that neighborhood disadvantage is positively associated with risk of IPV, the effects are less consistent for characteristics such as social ties and informal social control. One possible explanation for these mixed findings draws from theoretical and empirical literature arguing that a high level of collective efficacy can aid in the control of criminal behavior, but it can also deter residents from acting against crime committed by neighbors. This suggests the possibility of a nonlinear effect of collective efficacy where the risk of IPV may be high in areas with very low levels of collective efficacy because of the inability of neighborhoods to collectively control residents, but it may also be high in areas with very high levels of collective efficacy where residents are less willing to report on the criminal behavior of fellow residents. We test this possibility using survey data for female victims of IPV in Chicago merged with neighborhood characteristics. Findings suggest that the risk of repeat victimization is highest in areas with either very high or very low levels of informal social control.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adulto , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Chicago , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Health Psychol ; 24(10): 1425-1435, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854820

RESUMO

This study investigated whether positive and negative romantic partner social control attempts (persuasion and pressure, respectively) were related to approach-avoidance motives and exercise among young adults (N = 98), using daily reports. Daily persuasion was linked to higher daily approach motives. At the person level, persuasion was associated with higher approach and avoidance motives in addition to more frequent, longer exercise. Pressure was associated with higher daily relationship stress, which was associated with higher daily avoidance motives. At the person level, pressure was related to less frequent, shorter exercise. Thus, romantic partners' social control use correlates with exercise motives and behavior.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Bioethics ; 33(4): 495-501, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480821

RESUMO

Collaborations in global health research are on the rise because they enhance productivity, facilitate capacity building, accelerate output and make tackling big, multifactorial research questions possible. In this paper, I examine the concepts of trust and reliance in scientific collaborations in general, but also in the particular context of collaborations in global health research between high-income countries and low-and-middle income countries (LMIC). I propose and defend the argument that given the particular characteristics of collaborations and demands of trust relationships, reliance is a better relational mode for successful collaborations. Although reliance can be difficult to establish in situations where asymmetry of power exists, trust should not be the only relational mode available to LMIC researchers because of the type of vulnerability it introduces to the relationship. I conclude that the promotion of good collaborations requires addressing the power imbalances between partners, and establishing an even playing field in global health research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Confiança , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Pesquisadores , Controles Informais da Sociedade
20.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(1): 103-108, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between informal leaders, i.e., highly competent individuals who have influence over peers without holding formal leadership positions, and organisational outcomes has not been adequately assessed in health care. AIMS: We evaluated the relationships between informal leaders and experience, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction, among hospital nurses. METHODS: Floor nurses in non-leadership positions participated in an online survey and rated colleagues' leadership behaviours. Nurses identified as informal leaders took an additional survey to determine their leadership styles via the Multifactor Leadership QuestionnaireTM . Six months of patient satisfaction data were linked to the nursing units. RESULTS: A total of 3,456 (91%) nurses received peer ratings and 628 (18%) were identified as informal leaders. Informal leaders had more experience (13.2 ± 10.9 vs. 8.4 ± 9.7 years, p < 0.001) and higher job satisfaction than their counterparts (4.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 1.1, p = 0.007). Neither the proportion of informal leaders on a unit nor leadership style was associated with patient satisfaction (p = 0.53, 0.46, respectively). CONCLUSION: While significant relationships were not detected between patient satisfaction and styles/proportion of informal leaders, we found that informal leaders had more years of experience and higher job satisfaction. More work is needed to understand the informal leaders' roles in achieving organisational outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse informal leaders are unique resources and health care organisations should utilise them for optimal outcomes.


Assuntos
Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...