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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045018

RESUMO

Violence-free family ties, non-violent peers or attachment to society have been pointed out as protective factors against different types of extremism and violent radicalization by international literature. However, more detail needs to be provided about which specific aspects within these realms (friendship/family/community) are effective in challenging violence and how they operate in practice. Recent research conducted under the framework of the PROTON project (Horizon 2020) has analyzed the social and ethical impacts of counter-terrorism and organized crime policies in six European countries. In this article we discuss some identified common features among practices that, developed by organized actors operating at the local level (e.g.: grassroots-based associations, educational institutions, other type of organized networks for prevention, NGOs), are contributing to preventing youth violent radicalization, a phenomenon of growing concern in Europe and beyond. Standing on a solid rejection to violence, these shared features are the following: a bottom-up approach in setting allies with key stakeholders from the community or/and family members to intervene; the promotion of trustworthy and healthy friendship relationships; debunking the lure surrounding violent subjects ("false heroes") and violence in the different contexts, especially in the socioeducational one.


Assuntos
Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Meio Social , Participação dos Interessados , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013632, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a possible trigger for increases in loneliness and social isolation among older people due to the restrictions on movement that many countries have put in place. Loneliness and social isolation are consistently identified as risk factors for poor mental and physical health in older people. Video calls may help older people stay connected during the current crisis by widening the participant's social circle or by increasing the frequency of contact with existing acquaintances. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this rapid review is to assess the effectiveness of video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older adults. The review also sought to address the effectiveness of video calls on reducing symptoms of depression and improving quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL from 1 January 2004 to 7 April 2020. We also searched the references of relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including cluster designs) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded all other study designs. The samples in included studies needed to have a mean age of at least 65 years. We included studies that included participants whether or not they were experiencing symptoms of loneliness or social isolation at baseline. Any intervention in which a core component involved the use of the internet to facilitate video calls or video conferencing through computers, smartphones or tablets with the intention of reducing loneliness or social isolation, or both, in older adults was eligible for inclusion. We included studies in the review if they reported self-report measures of loneliness, social isolation, symptoms of depression or quality of life.  Two review authors screened 25% of abstracts; a third review author resolved conflicts. A single review author screened the remaining abstracts. The second review author screened all excluded abstracts and we resolved conflicts by consensus or by involving a third review author. We followed the same process for full-text articles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data, which another review author checked. The primary outcomes were loneliness and social isolation and the secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and quality of life. One review author rated the certainty of evidence for the primary outcomes according to the GRADE approach and another review author checked the ratings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for the primary outcome, loneliness, and the secondary outcome, symptoms of depression. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three cluster quasi-randomised trials, which together included 201 participants. The included studies compared video call interventions to usual care in nursing homes. None of these studies were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Each study measured loneliness using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Total scores range from 20 (least lonely) to 80 (most lonely). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale compared to usual care at three months (mean difference (MD) -0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.28 to 2.41; 3 studies; 201 participants), at six months (MD -0.34, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.72; 2 studies; 152 participants) and at 12 months (MD -2.40, 95% CI -7.20 to 2.40; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. None of the included studies reported social isolation as an outcome. Each study measured symptoms of depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Total scores range from 0 (better) to 30 (worse). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale compared to usual care at three months' follow-up (MD 0.41, 95% CI -0.90 to 1.72; 3 studies; 201 participants) or six months' follow-up (MD -0.83, 95% CI -2.43 to 0.76; 2 studies, 152 participants). The evidence suggests that video calls may have a small effect on symptoms of depression at one-year follow-up, though this finding is imprecise (MD -2.04, 95% CI -3.98 to -0.10; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. Only one study, with 62 participants, reported quality of life. The study measured quality of life using a Taiwanese adaptation of the Short-Form 36-question health survey (SF-36), which consists of eight subscales that measure different aspects of quality of life: physical function; physical role; emotional role; social function; pain: vitality; mental health; and physical health. Each subscale is scored from 0 (poor health) to 100 (good health). The evidence is very uncertain and suggests that there may be little to no difference between people allocated to usual care and those allocated to video calls in three-month scores in physical function (MD 2.88, 95% CI -5.01 to 10.77), physical role (MD -7.66, 95% CI -24.08 to 8.76), emotional role (MD -7.18, 95% CI -16.23 to 1.87), social function (MD 2.77, 95% CI -8.87 to 14.41), pain scores (MD -3.25, 95% CI -15.11 to 8.61), vitality scores (MD -3.60, 95% CI -9.01 to 1.81), mental health (MD 9.19, 95% CI 0.36 to 18.02) and physical health (MD 5.16, 95% CI -2.48 to 12.80). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on this review there is currently very uncertain evidence on the effectiveness of video call interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults. The review did not include any studies that reported evidence of the effectiveness of video call interventions to address social isolation in older adults. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of video calls for outcomes of symptoms of depression was very uncertain. Future research in this area needs to use more rigorous methods and more diverse and representative participants. Specifically, future studies should target older adults, who are demonstrably lonely or socially isolated, or both, across a range of settings to determine whether video call interventions are effective in a population in which these outcomes are in need of improvement.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Solidão/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053665

RESUMO

Simple instructions have been shown to robustly influence individual creativity, which is key to solve local problems. Building on social labeling theory, we examine the possibility of nudging individual's creativity using "creative" and "not creative" labels. Study 1 showed that subjects labeled as "creative" or "not creative" performed better in a creative task than unlabeled subjects and established the moderating effect of self-perceived creativity. Among subjects scoring low on self-perceived creativity, those labeled as "creative" performed better than those labeled as "not creative". Conversely, among subjects scoring high on self-perceived creativity, those labeled as "not creative" tend to perform better than those labeled as "creative". Study 2 and Study 3 further explored the psychological mechanisms at play in both cases: specifically, Study 2 showed that applying a "creative" label has the ability to increase creative self-efficacy through self-perceived creativity, whereas Study 3 demonstrated that applying a "not creative" label has the ability to increase individual creativity performance through a higher involvement in the creative task.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Autoeficácia , Identificação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
4.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(1): 103-108, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between informal leaders, i.e., highly competent individuals who have influence over peers without holding formal leadership positions, and organisational outcomes has not been adequately assessed in health care. AIMS: We evaluated the relationships between informal leaders and experience, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction, among hospital nurses. METHODS: Floor nurses in non-leadership positions participated in an online survey and rated colleagues' leadership behaviours. Nurses identified as informal leaders took an additional survey to determine their leadership styles via the Multifactor Leadership QuestionnaireTM . Six months of patient satisfaction data were linked to the nursing units. RESULTS: A total of 3,456 (91%) nurses received peer ratings and 628 (18%) were identified as informal leaders. Informal leaders had more experience (13.2 ± 10.9 vs. 8.4 ± 9.7 years, p < 0.001) and higher job satisfaction than their counterparts (4.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 1.1, p = 0.007). Neither the proportion of informal leaders on a unit nor leadership style was associated with patient satisfaction (p = 0.53, 0.46, respectively). CONCLUSION: While significant relationships were not detected between patient satisfaction and styles/proportion of informal leaders, we found that informal leaders had more years of experience and higher job satisfaction. More work is needed to understand the informal leaders' roles in achieving organisational outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse informal leaders are unique resources and health care organisations should utilise them for optimal outcomes.


Assuntos
Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
5.
Fam Community Health ; 41(4): 214-224, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134336

RESUMO

Despite the knowledge that children in low-income neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to asthma, few studies of child asthma focus on variation among low-income neighborhoods. We examined the relationship between child asthma and features associated with neighborhood poverty including safety, social cohesion, informal social control, collective efficacy, and disorder, across a sample of children from low-income neighborhoods (N = 3010; 2005-2007). Results show that the relationship between asthma and poverty is accounted for by family-level characteristics, but informal social control remains significantly and positively related to asthma after accounting for family-level characteristics. We discuss the importance of neighborhood environmental features for children's asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pobreza
6.
Fam Process ; 57(3): 679-693, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057468

RESUMO

Parental overcontrol (OC), behavior that intrusively or dominantly restricts child autonomy, has been identified as a transdiagnostic risk factor for youth. However, it is as yet unknown whether the association between parental OC and child maladjustment remains even when OC is exerted infrequently or by attuned parents. Rather, the selective use of OC might steer children away from danger. Taking a developmental psychopathology approach, this study focuses on the larger parent-child relationship context, testing whether either the dose at which parents demonstrate OC or the degree to which children perceive their parents as attuned determines whether OC is risky or protective for adolescents' adjustment. Among a community sample of 114 families of children followed from the ages of 12-18, we examine whether OC, behaviorally coded from triadic mother-father-child discussions in middle childhood, is associated with later risky behavior and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Overcontrol exerted by either mothers or fathers had a curvilinear effect on adolescent risky behaviors, and this effect was moderated by children's perceived attunement. Although OC generally was associated with increased risky behaviors, low doses of OC or OC exerted by highly attuned parents protected against engagement in risky behaviors. No main effect of OC was observed on adolescent anxiety; however, mothers' OC interacted with perceived parental attunement, such that OC exerted by less attuned parents predicted greater anxiety. Results underscore that the effect of parenting behaviors depends on the larger parent-child relationship context.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho
7.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(8): 2488-2504, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237308

RESUMO

This article will survey the dramatic change English football had undergone since the end of the last century. The authors will closely explore the implementation of the Taylor Report recommendations, to convince that which power and management techniques were used to decrease violence in public areas that were previously considered dangerous and crime-oriented. It will be argued that disciplinarian techniques were practiced, much like those described in Foucault's Discipline and Punish, while this very power has proven to be positive and revitalizing. It will be therefore concluded that power is at its most effective when operated via techniques of discipline and social inclusion. These arguments correspond with the positive criminology theory whose popularity within the discipline is gradually increasing.


Assuntos
Futebol , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Criminologia , Humanos , Reino Unido
8.
J Am Coll Health ; 66(3): 219-224, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a campus-wide social norms marketing intervention on alcohol-use perceptions, consumption, and blackouts at a large, urban, public university. PARTICIPANTS: 4,172 college students (1,208 freshmen, 1,159 sophomores, 953 juniors, and 852 seniors) who completed surveys in Spring 2015 for the Spit for Science Study, a longitudinal study of students' substance use and emotional health. METHODS: Participants were e-mailed an online survey that queried campaign readership, perception of peer alcohol use, alcohol consumption, frequency of consumption, and frequency of blackouts. Associations between variables were evaluated using path analysis. RESULTS: We found that campaign readership was associated with more accurate perceptions of peer alcohol use, which, in turn, was associated with self-reported lower number of drinks per sitting and experiencing fewer blackouts. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation supports the use of social norms marketing as a population-level intervention to correct alcohol-use misperceptions and reduce blackouts.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Glob Public Health ; 11(4): 437-48, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26564992

RESUMO

The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Autorrelato , Classe Social , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Appetite ; 96: 636-641, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26505288

RESUMO

It has been suggested that the consumption of unhealthy Westernized diet in a context of poverty and resultant food insecurity may have contributed to South-Africa's status of the third fattest country in the World. Considering that a number of South-Africans are reported to have experienced, or are still experiencing food insecurity, procedures which have been shown to reduce the consumption of unhealthy food in higher income countries may be ineffective in South-Africa. We thus tested the robustness of the so called pre-exposure procedure in South-Africa. We also tested the moderating role of childhood poverty in the pre-exposure procedure. With the pre-exposure procedure, a respondent is exposed to a tempting unhealthy food (e.g. candy) in a context that is designed such that eating the food interferes with a task goal. The typical result is that this procedure spills over and reduces consumption of similar tempting food later on. An experimental study conducted in a South-African laboratory showed that the pre-exposure effect is robust even with a sample, where food insecurity prevails. Childhood poverty did not moderate the effect. This study proves that behavioral procedures aimed at reducing the consumption of unhealthy food would be valuable in less rich non-Western countries. Further testing of the robustness of the pre-exposure effect is however recommended in other poorer food insecure countries.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Motivação , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Criança , Dieta Ocidental , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , População Urbana
14.
Behav Res Ther ; 77: 34-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26708331

RESUMO

The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood. The ATT intervention significantly increased (2.64 times) delay of gratification compared to the no-intervention condition. After controlling for age and months in school, the ATT intervention and verbal inhibition task performance were significant independent predictors of delay of gratification. These results provide evidence that ATT can improve children's self-regulatory abilities with the implication that this might reduce psychological vulnerability later in life. The findings highlight the potential contribution that the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model could make to designing techniques to enhance children's self-regulatory processes.


Assuntos
Atenção , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Metacognição , Ensino/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Recompensa , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (12): CD006748, 2015 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26711838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drinking is influenced by youth perceptions of how their peers drink. These perceptions are often incorrect, overestimating peer drinking norms. If inaccurate perceptions can be corrected, young people may drink less. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether social norms interventions reduce alcohol-related negative consequences, alcohol misuse or alcohol consumption when compared with a control (ranging from assessment only/no intervention to other educational or psychosocial interventions) among university and college students. SEARCH METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched up to July 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) only to March 2008. Reference lists of included studies and review articles were manually searched. No restriction based on language or date was applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised controlled trials that compared a social normative intervention versus no intervention, alcohol education leaflet or other 'non-normative feedback' alcohol intervention and reported on alcohol consumption or alcohol-related problems in university or college students. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. Each outcome was analysed by mode of delivery: mailed normative feedback (MF); web/computer normative feedback (WF); individual face-to-face normative feedback (IFF); group face-to-face normative feedback (GFF); and normative marketing campaign (MC). MAIN RESULTS: A total of 70 studies (44,958 participants) were included in the review, and 63 studies (42,784 participants) in the meta-analyses. Overall, the risk of bias assessment showed that these studies provided moderate or low quality evidence.Outcomes at four or more months post-intervention were of particular interest to assess when effects were sustained beyond the immediate short term. We have reported pooled effects across delivery modes only for those analyses for which heterogeneity across delivery modes is not substantial (I(2) < 50%).Alcohol-related problems at four or more months: IFF standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.24 to -0.04 (participants = 2327; studies = 11; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 1.28 points in the 69-point alcohol problems scale score. No effects were found for WF or MF.Binge drinking at four or more months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.02 (participants = 11,292; studies = 16; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to 2.7% fewer binge drinkers if 30-day prevalence is 43.9%.Drinking quantity at four or more months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.04 (participants = 21,169; studies = 32; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a reduction of 0.9 drinks consumed each week, from a baseline of 13.7 drinks per week.Drinking frequency at four or more months: WF SMD -0.11, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.04 (participants = 9929; studies = 10; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.17 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk; IFF SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.10 (participants = 1464; studies = 8; moderate quality evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.32 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk. No effects were found for GFF or MC.Estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at four or more months: peak BAC results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.00 (participants = 7198; studies = 11; low quality evidence), equivalent to a reduction in peak BAC from an average of 0.144% to 0.135%. No effects were found for typical BAC with IFF. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review indicate that no substantive meaningful benefits are associated with social norms interventions for prevention of alcohol misuse among college/university students. Although some significant effects were found, we interpret the effect sizes as too small, given the measurement scales used in the studies included in this review, to be of relevance for policy or practice. Moreover, the significant effects are not consistent for all misuse measures, heterogeneity was a problem in some analyses and bias cannot be discounted as a potential cause of these findings.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Estudantes , Universidades , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebedeira/psicologia , Etanol/sangue , Etanol/envenenamento , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Percepção Social , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Salud Colect ; 11(3): 381-99, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26418094

RESUMO

This article traces a map of the social control of drugs through the politics of space, according to the Foucaultian concept of "heterotopia." Firstly, a brief genealogy of the use of psychotropic substances in different times and cultures is described, up to the introduction of the prohibitionist paradigm. Attention is paid to the way in which power has marked, separated and enclosed certain rituals and uses of pleasure in physical and symbolic sites. The itinerary is focused on the Spanish context to establish a dialogue between the various policies of space that have come into being and have overlapped in the construction and management of a problem which has been rendered an object to the gazes, mechanics and discourses of the medical, legal, and social fields. In this way, the intersections between the liminal spaces of drug use and the harm reduction paradigm are analyzed, including therapeutic strategies with prescribed drugs, from methadone programs to the new heroin programs.


Assuntos
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Política de Saúde , Psicotrópicos , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Normas Sociais , Problemas Sociais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Ritualístico , Características Culturais , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/métodos , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Política , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Problemas Sociais/psicologia , Espanha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
17.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 37(4-5): 360-4, 2015 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26208208

RESUMO

The inclusion of the framework of human rights in maternal health is mentioned more and more frequently as a feasible proposal to improve the care that women receive in obstetric health care services. Despite the fact Mexico has a solid regulatory framework for obstetric care, mechanisms of enforceability are essential to ensure that health-related human rights are upheld. In addition to being in place, enforceability mechanisms should be effective and accessible to people, particularly in obstetric care, where repeated human rights violations occur that endanger women's health and lives. The objective of this article is to specify the regulatory, legal, and extralegal elements that need to be considered in order to include maternal health in a set of enforceable human rights.


Assuntos
Violações dos Direitos Humanos/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Direitos do Paciente , Direitos da Mulher , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Linhas Diretas , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , México , Política Organizacional , Defesa do Paciente , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/normas , Gravidez , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/normas
18.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0121431, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25822364

RESUMO

Resource systems with enforced rules and strong monitoring systems typically have more predictable resource abundance, which can confer economic and social benefits to local communities. Co-management regimes demonstrate better social and ecological outcomes, but require an active role by community members in management activities, such as monitoring and enforcement. Previous work has emphasized understanding what makes fishermen comply with rules. This research takes a different approach to understand what influences an individual to enforce rules, particularly sea tenure. We conducted interviews and used multiple regression and Akaike's Information Criteria model selection to evaluate the effect of social networks, food security, recent catch success, fisherman's age and personal gear investment on individual's enforcement of sea tenure. We found that fishermen's enforcement of sea tenure declined between the two time periods measured and that social networks, age, food security, and changes in gear investment explained enforcement behavior across three different communities on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast, an area undergoing rapid globalization.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesqueiros/métodos , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Apoio Social , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Teóricos , Nicarágua , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Psychol Health ; 30(7): 821-38, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25563570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Implementation intentions (if-then plans) are helpful to health behaviour change. As these plans specify only one goal-directed behaviour for one specific situation, however, their effectiveness may be limited when a planned behaviour is impossible to execute in situ. The present research examines whether and how planning more than one goal-directed response for the same situation ('making a Plan B') affects successful self-regulation of eating behaviour. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In Study 1, participants formulated either one or two plans, after which a lexical decision task was administered to assess association strength between the if-part and the then-part(s). In Study 2, the effect of making one, two or no plan(s) was assessed on actual eating behaviour, after which a Stroop task measured cognitive load as an additional explanatory mechanism. RESULTS: Study 1 revealed that making a Plan B disrupts the creation of strong if-then associations during plan formation. Study 2 showed that making a Plan B yields increased unhealthy food intake compared to making one or no plan, and induces greater cognitive load during plan enactment. CONCLUSION: Making a Plan B interferes with essential cognitive processes during different stages of planning, leading to an increased likelihood of self-regulatory failure.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intenção , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Adolescente , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD006748, 2015 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25622306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drinking is influenced by youth (mis)perceptions of how their peers drink. If misperceptions can be corrected, young people may drink less. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether social norms interventions reduce alcohol-related negative consequences, alcohol misuse or alcohol consumption when compared with a control (ranging from assessment only/no intervention to other educational or psychosocial interventions) among university and college students. SEARCH METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched up to May 2014: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (only to March 2008). Reference lists of included studies and review articles were manually searched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised controlled trials that compared a social normative intervention versus no intervention, alcohol education leaflet or other 'non-normative feedback' alcohol intervention and reported on alcohol consumption or alcohol-related problems in university or college students. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Each outcome was analysed by mode of delivery: mailed normative feedback (MF); Web/computer normative feedback (WF); individual face-to-face normative feedback (IFF); group face-to-face normative feedback (GFF); and normative marketing campaign (MC). MAIN RESULTS: A total of 66 studies (43,125 participants) were included in the review, and 59 studies (40,951 participants) in the meta-analyses. Outcomes at 4+ months post intervention were of particular interest to assess when effects were sustained beyond the immediate short term. We have reported pooled effects across delivery modes only for those analyses for which heterogeneity across delivery modes is not substantial (I(2) < 50%). Alcohol-related problems at 4+ months: IFF standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.31 to -0.01 (participants = 1065; studies = 7; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 1.5 points in the 69-point alcohol problems scale score. No effects were found for WF or MF. Binge drinking at 4+ months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.02 (participants = 11,292; studies = 16; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to 2.7% fewer binge drinkers if 30-day prevalence is 43.9%. Drinking quantity at 4+ months: results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.05 (participants = 20,696; studies = 33; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a reduction of 0.9 drinks consumed each week, from a baseline of 13.7 drinks per week. Drinking frequency at 4+ months: WF SMD -0.12, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.05 (participants = 9456; studies = 9; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.19 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk; IFF SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.10 (participants = 1464; studies = 8; moderate quality of evidence), equivalent to a decrease of 0.32 drinking days/wk, from a baseline of 2.74 days/wk. No effects were found for GFF or MC. Estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at 4+ months: peak BAC results pooled across delivery modes: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.00 (participants = 7198; studies = 13; low quality of evidence), equivalent to a reduction in peak PAC from an average of 0.144% to 0.135%. No effects were found for typical BAC with IFF. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review indicate that no substantive meaningful benefits are associated with social norms interventions for prevention of alcohol misuse among college/university students. Although some significant effects were found, we interpret the effect sizes as too small, given the measurement scales used in the studies included in this review, to be of relevance for policy or practice. Moreover, the statistically significant effects are not consistent for all misuse measures, heterogeneity was a problem in some analyses and bias cannot be discounted as a potential cause of these findings.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Etanol/envenenamento , Grupo Associado , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Estudantes , Universidades , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comportamento Social
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