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1.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 164-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820727

RESUMO

Background: Quality of life (QOL) is a vital outcome measure in people living with epilepsy. The aim of this study is to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that predict poor QOL in patients with epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that was carried out at the outpatient psychiatric clinic of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria, for 6 months. Seventy-four patients with epilepsy who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to participate in the study. The mental health of these patients and their QOL were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the short form of the World Health Organization QOL instrument, respectively. Data were analyzed using epi-info version 6.04d, and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors that predict poor QOL. Results: Psychiatric disorder was found in 33 (44.6%) of the respondents. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was predictive of poor score on the overall QOL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.382; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.145-0.983; P = 0.0046), physical (OR = 0.269; 95% CI = 0.100-1.722; P = 0.009), and psychological health domain (OR = 0.269; 95% CI = 0.102-0.709; P = 0.008). Longer duration of epilepsy was predictive of a poor score on the health satisfaction item (OR = 0.202; 95% CI = 0.06-0.679; P = 0.010) while being single was predictive of poor score on the social relationship domain (OR = 0.177; 95% CI = 0.065-0.482; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of psychiatric disorder, long duration of epilepsy, and being single were predictive of poor QOL. The importance of social relation, prompt seizure control, and efficient collaboration between psychiatrist and other medical professionals in the care of patients with epilepsy cannot be overemphasized.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Epileptic Disord ; 22(4): 439-442, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759092

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic shook European healthcare systems, with unavoidable gaps in the management of patients with chronic diseases. We describe the impact of the pandemic on epilepsy care in three tertiary epilepsy centres from Spain and Italy, the most affected European countries. The three epilepsy centres, members of the European EpiCARE network, manage more than 5,700 people with epilepsy. In Bologna and Barcelona, the hospitals housing the epilepsy centres were fully converted into COVID-19 units. We describe the reorganization of the clinics and report on the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 in people with epilepsy as well as the frequency of seizures in patients admitted to the COVID units. Finally, we elaborate on critical issues regarding the second phase of the pandemic. The activities related to epilepsy care were reduced to less than 10% and were deprioritized. Discharges were expedited and elective epilepsy surgeries, including vagal nerve stimulator implantations, cancelled. Hospitalizations and EEG examinations were limited to emergencies. The outpatient visits for new patients were postponed, and follow-up visits mostly managed by telehealth. Antiseizure medication weaning plans and changes in vagal nerve stimulator settings were halted. Among the 5,700 people with epilepsy managed in our centres, only 14 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, without obvious impact on their epilepsy. None of the 2,122 patients admitted to COVID units experienced seizures among the early symptoms. Epilepsy care was negatively impacted by the pandemic, irrespective of COVID-19 epidemiology or conversion of the hospital into a COVID-19 centre. The pandemic did not silence the needs of people with epilepsy, and this must be considered in the planning of the second phase.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Epilepsia/terapia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Europa (Continente) , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Espanha , Telemedicina
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3961-3965, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Seizures represent a common manifestation of gliomas. This study evaluated the prevalence of pre-radiotherapy seizures, potential risk factors and associations with survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight factors were analyzed in 222 patients for associations with seizures including number, size and location of glioma, World Health Organization (WHO) grade, performance score, gender, age and upfront resection. These factors plus pre-radiotherapy symptoms and seizures were assessed for survival. RESULTS: Prevalence of pre-radiotherapy seizures was 29.3%. A significant correlation was found for grade II (p=0.002), trends for age ≤59 years (p=0.123) and lack of upfront resection (p=0.113). Unifocal gliomas (p<0.001), grade II (p=0.045) and upfront resection (p<0.001) showed significant associations with survival (univariate analyses). A trend was found for seizures (p=0.075) and age ≤59 years (p=0.091). In the multivariate analysis, grade II (p=0.002) and upfront resection (p=0.004) maintained significance; unifocal gliomas showed a trend (p=0.062). CONCLUSION: Pre-radiotherapy seizures appeared to be correlated with WHO grade, age and lack of upfront resection, and with better survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/radioterapia , Convulsões/mortalidade , Feminino , Glioma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/epidemiologia
4.
Neurology ; 95(7): e867-e877, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine time trends and distinguishing autopsy findings of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in the United States. METHODS: We identified decedents where epilepsy/seizure was listed as cause/contributor to death or comorbid condition on the death certificate among all decedents who underwent medico-legal investigation at 3 medical examiner (ME) offices across the country: New York City (2009-2016), San Diego County (2008-2016), and Maryland (2000-2016). After reviewing all available reports, deaths classified as definite/probable/near SUDEP or SUDEP plus were included for analysis. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to analyze temporal trends in SUDEP rate for 2009-2016. Definite SUDEPs were compared to sex- and age ±2 years-matched non-SUDEP deaths with a history of epilepsy regarding autopsy findings, circumstances, and comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 1,086 SUDEP cases were identified. There was a decreasing trend in ME-investigated SUDEP incidence between 2009 and 2016 (z = -2.2, S = -42, p = 0.028) among 3 regions. There was a 28% reduction in ME-investigated SUDEP incidence from 2009 to 2012 to 2013-2016 (confidence interval, 17%-38%, p < 0.0001). We found no correlation between SUDEP rates and the month of year or day of week. There was no difference between SUDEP and non-SUDEP deaths regarding neurodevelopmental abnormalities, pulmonary congestion/edema, and myocardial fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decreasing monotonic trend in ME-investigated SUDEP incidence over 8 years, with a 28% reduction in incidence from 2009-2012 to 2013-2016. Unlike SIDS and sudden cardiac death, we found no correlation between SUDEP and the season of year or day of week. No autopsy findings distinguished SUDEP from non-SUDEP deaths.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Inesperada na Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3429-3434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Seizures are a serious condition for patients with brain metastases. Prevalence, risk factors and a potential association of seizures with survival prior to whole-brain irradiation (WBI) for cerebral metastases were retrospectively investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 1,934 patients, the prevalence of pre-treatment seizures (pre-WBI) was determined. Seven pre-treatment characteristics were evaluated for associations with seizures. Ten characteristics including pre-treatment symptoms (none vs. seizures only vs. seizures+others vs. others only) and seizures (yes vs. no) were analyzed for survival. RESULTS: In 251 patients (13.0%), pre-treatment seizures were documented. The occurrence of seizures was significantly associated with 1-3 brain metastases and lack of extra-cerebral spread. On multivariate analysis, age, gender, performance score, number of metastases and extra-cerebral spread were significantly associated with survival; pre-treatment symptoms and seizures showed associations on univariate but not on multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Few brain metastases and lack of extra-cerebral spread were independent risk factors for pre-treatment seizures. Seizures appeared positively associated with survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Convulsões/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Irradiação Craniana , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 279-283, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Schizencephaly is one of the rare congenital defects of the central nervous system (CNS), known as neuronal migration disorders. The etiology of schizencecephaly is unequivocal. Established etiologies include in-utero infections (cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus, HSV type I), toxic abuse (cocaine, alcohol), as well as drug use (warfarin). OBJECTIVES: he aim of the study was to analyze the clinical presentation of schizencephaly with particular consideration of the course of epilepsy in paediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 38 children with schizencephaly (20 of them had seizure) and was retrospectively assessed. Data were analyzed using SAS version 9.4. U Mann-Whitney and χ 2 tests and logistic regression analysis were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Epilepsy was the most frequent in bilateral type II schizencephaly (p=0.033). In logistic regression analysis, the presence of bilateral open schizencephaly significantly increased the risk of seizures (OR=11.67; 95%CI 2.44-55.83; p=0.002). Drug-resistant epilepsy was observed in 9 children (45% of the children with epilepsy). Prevalence of both epilepsy and drug-resistant epilepsy in schizencephaly did not significantly depend on gender, stage of development, type or localization of schizencephaly, and other coexisting CNS defects or clinical presentation of schizencephaly at follow-up in the study group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The bilateral type of schizencephaly was identified as an independent risk factor for epilepsy in the analyzed children.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Esquizencefalia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizencefalia/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia
7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 111: 107238, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593874

RESUMO

The purpose of this descriptive study was to, from the perspective of adult people with epilepsy (PWE) and caregivers of PWE, explore the effects of the current pandemic and resulting societal changes on epilepsy self-management. Ninety-four respondents completed a mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative survey focused on their epilepsy self-management experiences during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Respondents noted significant disruption in epilepsy self-management. Lack of ability to obtain medications or see epilepsy providers, as well as increased stress, social isolation, and changes in routine were all reported as troublesome, and more than one-third of the sample reported an increase in seizure frequency since the onset of the pandemic. Suggestions are given regarding how to support PWE during future COVID-19 outbreaks and to better prepare PWE and their caregivers for any life-altering events, such as a pandemic, with robust self-management skills that will allow them to maintain the highest level of function possible.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epilepsia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Convulsões , Autogestão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neurology ; 95(2): e213-e223, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To incorporate standardized documentation into an epilepsy clinic and to use these standardized data to compare patients' perception of epilepsy diagnosis to provider documentation. METHODS: Using quality improvement methodology, we implemented interventions to increase documentation of epilepsy diagnosis, seizure frequency, and type from 49.8% to 70% of adult nonemployee patients seen by 6 providers over 5 months of routine clinical care. The main intervention consisted of an interactive SmartPhrase that mirrored a documentation template developed by the Epilepsy Learning Healthcare System. We assessed the weekly proportion of complete SmartPhrases among eligible patient encounters with a statistical process control chart. We used a subset of patients with established epilepsy care linked to existing patient-reported survey data to examine the proportion of patient-to-provider agreement on epilepsy diagnosis (yes vs no/unsure). We also examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients who disagreed vs agreed with provider's documentation of epilepsy diagnosis. RESULTS: The median SmartPhrase weekly completion rate was 78%. Established patients disagreed with providers with respect to epilepsy diagnosis in 18.5% of encounters (κ = 0.13), indicating that they did not have or were unsure if they had epilepsy despite having a provider-documented epilepsy diagnosis. Patients who disagreed with providers were similar to those who agreed with respect to age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, seizure frequency, type, and other quality-of-life measures. CONCLUSION: This project supports the feasibility of implementing standardized documentation of data relevant to epilepsy care in a tertiary epilepsy clinic and highlights an opportunity for improvement in patient-provider communication.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Epilepsia/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Adulto , Comunicação , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade de Vida , Convulsões/classificação , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Neurology ; 95(5): e576-e590, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of first seizures, epilepsy, and seizure mimics in a geographically defined area using the updated 2014 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition, which allows an epilepsy diagnosis after a single seizure when the risk of further seizures over the next 10 years is ≈60% or greater. This replaced the 1993 definition by which epilepsy was diagnosed when a person had ≥2 seizures separated by 24 hours. METHODS: Using multiple overlapping methods of case ascertainment followed by individual case classification by an epileptologist, we identified all first seizures, new diagnosis of epilepsy, and seizure mimics occurring in a defined geographic area (population 542,868) from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. Incidence was age standardized to the Standard European Population. We compared incidence rates using the 2014 and 1993 ILAE definitions. RESULTS: When the 2014 ILAE definition of epilepsy was applied, the incidence of new diagnosis of epilepsy was 62 per 100,000 (age standardized 74) compared to 41 per 100,000 (age standardized 48) when the 1993 definition was applied, and the difference was more pronounced at older ages. The incidence of all first seizures and of seizure mimics was 102 per 100,000 (age standardized 123) and 94 per 100,000 (age standardized 111), respectively. The most frequently encountered seizure mimic was syncope. CONCLUSION: Application of the 2014 ILAE definition of epilepsy resulted in a higher incidence of new diagnosis of epilepsy compared to the 1993 definition. The incidence of seizure mimics almost equals that of all first seizures. Seizures, epilepsy, and seizure mimics represent a significant burden to health care systems.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(6): 435-443, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of seizures. Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate are the most commonly prescribed treatment for ADHD, but the association between their therapeutic use and the risk of seizures is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between methylphenidate treatment and the risk of seizure. METHODS: For this population-based observational study, we used the electronic medical record database of the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis And Reporting System to identify individuals aged 6-25 years who received at least one methylphenidate prescription during the study period. Individuals with records of seizure or epilepsy before the study period were excluded. Individuals treated with methylphenidate who had seizures during the study period were included in the subsequent analyses, and a self-controlled case-series design was used to control for time-invariant individual characteristics. We did additional analyses using skin infection as a negative control outcome. We compared relative incidence of seizure during periods when individuals were exposed to methylphenidate with that during non-exposed periods. FINDINGS: Of 29 604 individuals prescribed methylphenidate between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2017, 269 (199 males and 70 females) had incident seizures. The mean age at baseline was 6·66 years (SD 2·01) and the median age at the incident seizure was 9·69 years (IQR 7·62-12·99). The overall incidence of seizure during methylphenidate treatment was 4·4 per 10 000 patient-years. We detected an increased risk of seizure during the first 30 days of methylphenidate treatment compared with that during non-exposed periods, with an incidence rate ratio of 4·01 (95% CI 2·09-7·68). No increase in risk was identified during the following 31-180 days of treatment (1·13, 0·56-2·25) or during subsequent treatment (1·38, 0·92-2·07). We did not identify an increased risk in any risk window for the negative control outcome analysis. No individuals died because of a seizure during the study period. INTERPRETATION: The incidence of seizures was higher in the period immediately after the start of methylphenidate treatment than in the non-exposed period. No increased risk was observed during continuation of methylphenidate treatment. The association between methylphenidate treatment and seizures immediately after initiation of medication can be seen as a potential safety signal. Monitoring of neurological outcomes in individuals with ADHD is recommended when they first start methylphenidate treatment. FUNDING: Hong Kong Research Grants Council.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Fisiológica , Distribuição de Poisson , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232842, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The risk of complications of nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism in Asia is unclear. We estimated the prevalence and risk of complications in patients with nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide claims database from 2005 to 2016. Among the entire Korean population, we identified 897 patients diagnosed with nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism during 2005-2015. We selected 210 patients with nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism during 2005-2008 who had no complications at baseline and followed them to 2016. Control subjects (n = 2075) were matched using propensity scores based on age, sex, and comorbid disease with a 1:10 ratio and monitored until 2016. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism was 0.2 cases per 100,000 persons in 2005. During a mean follow-up period of 9.5 years, patients with nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, especially arrhythmia (hazard ratio [HR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.70) and heart failure (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.22-4.83). The risk of vertebral fracture was higher in patients than in controls (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09-4.72). Patients had a significantly increased risk of renal disease (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.56-4.21), seizure (HR, 5.74; 95% CI, 3.34-9.86), depression and bipolar disease (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.30-2.56), and cataract (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.30-2.79) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism was very low in Korea but was associated with a higher risk of incident cardiovascular disease and vertebral fracture as well as known complications including renal disease, seizure, and cataract.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catarata/epidemiologia , Catarata/etiologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Espontâneas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Espontâneas/etiologia , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Pontuação de Propensão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Cálculos Urinários/epidemiologia , Cálculos Urinários/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): e49-e53, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72292

RESUMO

Our aim was to clarify the incidence and risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multicenter retrospective study enrolled people with COVID-19 from January 18 to February 18, 2020 at 42 government-designated hospitals in Hubei province, the epicenter of the epidemic in China; Sichuan province; and Chongqing municipality. Data were collected from medical records by 11 neurologists using a standard case report form. A total of 304 people were enrolled, of whom 108 had a severe condition. None in this cohort had a known history of epilepsy. Neither acute symptomatic seizures nor status epilepticus was observed. Two people had seizurelike symptoms during hospitalization due to acute stress reaction and hypocalcemia, and 84 (27%) had brain insults or metabolic imbalances during the disease course known to increase the risk of seizures. There was no evidence suggesting an additional risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with COVID-19. Neither the virus nor potential risk factors for seizures seem to be significant risks for the occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 411-417, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic surgery is a popular surgery to treat lumbar spinal disorders. However, seizure after percutaneous endoscopic surgery is an unpredictable complication. The only prodromal sign for seizure currently known is neck pain. We reviewed the incidence of, and risk factors for, seizure during percutaneous endoscopic surgery and present the cases of 3 patients with seizure and our management. CASE DESCRIPTION: From October 2006 to March 2019, 3 of 816 patients (0.34%) with thoracic lumbar disorders who had undergone percutaneous endoscopic surgery experienced a seizure episode. The cases of those 3 patients were carefully reviewed. Studies of the risk factors for seizure after spinal procedures reported before June 13, 2019 were identified through a PubMed search. We found that infusion fluid containing cefazolin, the infusion rate, a prolonged operative time, the occurrence of a dural tear, and sevoflurane anesthesia might be associated with seizure, both described in the reported data and found in our experience. Three patients who experienced a seizure episode had had general anesthesia with sevoflurane, and the surgical approach used was interlaminar for a herniated disc in L5-S1. We noted a "red flag sign," namely an uncontrollable hypertension episode combined with a decreasing pulse rate, in all 3 patients who had experienced a seizure, which was not observed in the other patients. All 3 patients had received antihypertensive medication (labetalol) ≥3 times without response. CONCLUSION: Seizure after percutaneous endoscopic surgery is rare, but lethal. Although its cause remains unknown, all risk factors for seizure should be checked and corrected immediately when a red flag sign, uncontrolled hypertension, appears.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/etiologia , Idoso , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(12): 1525-1535, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251606

RESUMO

Rationale: Large decreases in PaCO2 that occur when initiating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with respiratory failure may cause cerebral vasoconstriction and compromise brain tissue perfusion.Objectives: To determine if the magnitude of PaCO2 correction upon ECMO initiation is associated with an increased incidence of neurological complications in patients with respiratory failure.Methods: We conducted a multicenter, international, retrospective cohort study using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry, including adults with respiratory failure receiving ECMO via any mode between 2012 and 2017. The relative change in PaCO2 in the first 24 hours was calculated as (24-h post-ECMO PaCO2 - pre-ECMO PaCO2)/pre-ECMO PaCO2. The primary outcome was the occurrence of neurological complications, defined as seizures, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain death.Measurements and Main Results: We included 11,972 patients, 88% of whom were supported with venovenous ECMO. The median relative change in PaCO2 was -31% (interquartile range, -46% to -12%). Neurological complications were uncommon overall (6.9%), with a low incidence of seizures (1.1%), ischemic stroke (1.9%), intracranial hemorrhage (3.5%), and brain death (1.6%). Patients with a large relative decrease in PaCO2 (>50%) had an increased incidence of neurological complications compared with those with a smaller decrease (9.8% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.001). A large relative decrease in PaCO2 was independently associated with neurological complications after controlling for previously described risk factors (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.3; P < 0.001).Conclusions: In patients receiving ECMO for respiratory failure, a large relative decrease in PaCO2 in the first 24 hours after ECMO initiation is independently associated with an increased incidence of neurological complications.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Hipercapnia/terapia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Morte Encefálica , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hipercapnia/etiologia , Hipercapnia/metabolismo , Incidência , Pressão Parcial , Sistema de Registros , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstrição
15.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 1): S117-S125, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a higher prevalence of epilepsy compared with general populations. In this pilot study, we prospectively identified baseline risk factors for the development of seizures in individuals with ASD and also identified characteristics sensitive to seizure onset up to 6 years after enrollment in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network. METHODS: Children with ASD and no history of seizures at baseline who either experienced onset of seizures after enrollment in the Autism Treatment Network or remained seizure free were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Among 472 qualifying children, 22 (4.7%) experienced onset of seizures after enrollment. Individuals who developed seizures after enrollment exhibited lower scores at baseline on all domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, greater hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (25.4 ± 11.8 vs 19.2 ± 11.1; P = .018), and lower physical quality of life scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (60.1 ± 24.2 vs 76.0 ± 18.2; P < .001). Comparing change in scores from entry to call-back, adjusting for age, sex, length of follow-up, and baseline Vineland II composite score, individuals who developed seizures experienced declines in daily living skills (-8.38; 95% confidence interval -14.50 to -2.50; P = .005). Adjusting for baseline age, sex, and length of follow-up, baseline Vineland II composite score was predictive of seizure development (risk ratio = 0.95 per unit Vineland II composite score, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.99; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with ASD at risk for seizures exhibited changes in adaptive functioning and behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Convulsões/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/epidemiologia
16.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 200-207, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awake craniotomy with brain mapping aims to maximize resection of gliomas located within eloquent regions while minimizing the risk of postoperative deficits. This technique is common practice in the developed world but has yet to be implemented in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We assessed the feasibility, safety, and efficiency of functional-based glioma resection using minimal facilities in a limited-resource institution. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients harboring gliomas within eloquent regions who underwent awake craniotomy and tumor resection guided by cortico-subcortical mapping at a tertiary hospital of an LMIC. Patient characteristics, surgical results, and functional outcomes were studied. RESULTS: Twenty consecutive patients with a mean age of 37 years were enrolled in the study. Seizure, present in 70% of patients, was the major presenting symptom. Eighteen patients had diffuse low-grade gliomas and 2 patients had high-grade gliomas. Intraoperative events were dominated by seizures, occurring in 5 patients (25%). The average extent of tumor removal was 89.5% and the rate of total and subtotal removal was 85%. New postoperative deficits were observed in 5 patients (25%), and permanent deficits were found in 1 patient (5%). The main hurdles encountered were the difficulties in investigating patients and human resource availability. CONCLUSIONS: Awake craniotomy with brain mapping for functional-based resection of gliomas can be safely achieved in a limited-resource institution with good functional and oncologic results.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Craniotomia/métodos , Glioma/cirurgia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasia Residual , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Vigília , Adulto Jovem
17.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): e49-e53, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304092

RESUMO

Our aim was to clarify the incidence and risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multicenter retrospective study enrolled people with COVID-19 from January 18 to February 18, 2020 at 42 government-designated hospitals in Hubei province, the epicenter of the epidemic in China; Sichuan province; and Chongqing municipality. Data were collected from medical records by 11 neurologists using a standard case report form. A total of 304 people were enrolled, of whom 108 had a severe condition. None in this cohort had a known history of epilepsy. Neither acute symptomatic seizures nor status epilepticus was observed. Two people had seizurelike symptoms during hospitalization due to acute stress reaction and hypocalcemia, and 84 (27%) had brain insults or metabolic imbalances during the disease course known to increase the risk of seizures. There was no evidence suggesting an additional risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with COVID-19. Neither the virus nor potential risk factors for seizures seem to be significant risks for the occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168507

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder characterized by sudden and recurrent seizures, which are caused by various factors, including genetic abnormalities. Several animal models of epilepsy mimic the different symptoms of this disorder. In particular, the genetic audiogenic seizure hamster from Salamanca (GASH/Sal) animals exhibit sound-induced seizures similar to the generalized tonic seizures observed in epileptic patients. However, the genetic alterations underlying the audiogenic seizure susceptibility of the GASH/Sal model remain unknown. In addition, gene variations in the GASH/Sal might have a close resemblance with those described in humans with epilepsy, which is a prerequisite for any new preclinical studies that target genetic abnormalities. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in GASH/Sal animals and their corresponding controls to identify and characterize the mutational landscape of the GASH/Sal strain. After filtering the results, moderate- and high-impact variants were validated by Sanger sequencing, assessing the possible impact of the mutations by "in silico" reconstruction of the encoded proteins and analyzing their corresponding biological pathways. Lastly, we quantified gene expression levels by RT-qPCR. In the GASH/Sal model, WES showed the presence of 342 variations, in which 21 were classified as high-impact mutations. After a full bioinformatics analysis to highlight the high quality and reliable variants, the presence of 3 high-impact and 15 moderate-impact variants were identified. Gene expression analysis of the high-impact variants of Asb14 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS Box Containing 14), Msh3 (MutS Homolog 3) and Arhgef38 (Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 38) genes showed a higher expression in the GASH/Sal than in control hamsters. In silico analysis of the functional consequences indicated that those mutations in the three encoded proteins would have severe functional alterations. By functional analysis of the variants, we detected 44 significantly enriched pathways, including the glutamatergic synapse pathway. The data show three high-impact mutations with a major impact on the function of the proteins encoded by these genes, although no mutation in these three genes has been associated with some type of epilepsy until now. Furthermore, GASH/Sal animals also showed gene variants associated with different types of epilepsy that has been extensively documented, as well as mutations in other genes that encode proteins with functions related to neuronal excitability, which could be implied in the phenotype of the GASH/Sal. Our findings provide valuable genetic and biological pathway data associated to the genetic burden of the audiogenic seizure susceptibility and reinforce the need to validate the role of each key mutation in the phenotype of the GASH/Sal model.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Epilepsia Reflexa/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Epilepsia Reflexa/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Reflexa/genética , Epilepsia Reflexa/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína 3 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação/genética , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(6): 853-858, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of psychiatric disease in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is not fully characterized. We aimed to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disease and centrally acting medication use in a cohort of children and adults with EoE and evaluated whether psychiatric disease affects the EoE clinical presentation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of newly diagnosed cases with EoE at the University of North Carolina from 2002 to 2018. Psychiatric comorbidities and relevant treatments were extracted from the medical records. The demographic and clinical features of patients with EoE with and without psychiatric diagnoses, and those with and without psychiatric medication use, were compared. RESULTS: Of 883 patients (mean age 26.6 years, 68% men, 79% white), 241 (28%) had a psychiatric comorbidity. The most common diagnosis was anxiety (23%) followed by depression (17%); 28% of patients were treated pharmacologically. There were 45 patients (5%) treated pharmacologically without a psychiatric diagnosis for chronic pain syndromes, insomnia, and/or epilepsy. Cases with EoE with a psychiatric diagnosis were more likely to be women, white, and 18 years or older and to have a longer symptom duration before diagnosis. DICUSSION: Psychiatric comorbidities were common in EoE, seen in a third of adults and more than 1 in 7 children, and with similar proportions receiving a prescription medication. These illnesses affected the EoE presentation because psychiatric comorbidities were more likely in older, female, and white patients with a longer duration of symptoms preceding diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Dor no Peito/fisiopatologia , Criança , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Azia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Distribuição por Sexo , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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