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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240082, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of nonadherence to antiseizure medications (ASMs) and clinical characteristics on seizure control, we employed a prospective cohort cross-sectional study using self-reports and medical records of patients with epilepsy (PWEs). METHODS: Eight hundred and fifty-five PWEs taking ASMs were enrolled from fourteen collaborative outpatient clinics from January 2018 to March 2019. Questions from the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale were used as adherence self-reports. If a PWE's questionnaire indicated that they had missed doses of their ASMs, outpatient physicians asked them directly about the details of their compliance, including the timing of intentionally or unintentionally missed doses. The association between lack of seizure control and utilization outcomes, such as missed doses, demographics, and clinical characteristics of the PWEs, were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that forgetting to take ASMs was associated with lack of seizure control and the existence of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. Dementia, younger age, use of three or more antiepileptic agents, and living in a one-person household were associated with the risk of forgetting to take ASMs. SIGNIFICANCE: For PWEs with poor drug management or a high incidence of missed doses of ASMs, efforts to improve adherence could facilitate better seizure control and decrease focal to bilateral tonic-clonic propagation.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22052, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899066

RESUMO

Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a clinico-radiological entity that defines a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The clinical and radiological characteristics of RESLES are poorly defined and most RESLES literature is in the form of case reports. We reviewed the clinical and radiological data from 11 RESLES patients in order to more clearly describe the characteristics of this disorder in adults.Patients included in this study were diagnosed with RESLES from May 2012 to March 2018. We collected clinical, imaging, and laboratory data of 11 adult patients from Neurology Department of the Affliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University. After analyzing various clinico-radiological features and laboratory parameters, including serum sodium, pathogen testing, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies, electroencephalography (EEG), and MRI findings, we made a diagnosis of RESLES based on the criteria proposed previously by Garcia-Monco et al.Of the 11 patients, 7 (63.63%) were male and 4 (36.36%) were female, ranging in age from 24 to 62 years with an average age of 31.48 ±â€Š11.47 years. Seven cases occurred in the months of winter and spring (December-March). The primary clinical symptoms were headache, seizure, disturbance of consciousness, mental abnormality, and dizziness. All 11 patients had lesions in the SCC and all the lesions disappeared or significantly improved on follow-up imaging that was done within a month of symptom resolution.We found 5 (45.45%) patients had a CSF opening pressure >180 mmH2O, in addition to elevated protein and(or) leukocytes levels in 3 (27.27%) patients. The serum sodium concentration in 6 (54.55%) patients was low (<137 mmol/L) and EEG showed nonspecific slowing in waves 4 (36.36%) patients.When we encounter clinical manifestations such as headache accompanied with mental symptoms, disturbance of consciousness or epilepsy, and brain MRI finds lesions of the corpus callosum, we should consider whether it is RESLES. In order to find out the possible cause of the disease, we should carefully inquire about the history of the disease, complete etiology examination, and CSF tests. Of course, it is one of the necessary conditions for the diagnosis that the lesions in the corpus callosum are obviously relieved or disappeared.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/terapia , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Músculos Paraespinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encefalopatias/sangue , Encefalopatias/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/citologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/fisiologia , Pressão do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Músculos Paraespinais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Sódio/sangue , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Vertigem/tratamento farmacológico , Vertigem/etiologia
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6339-6353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922005

RESUMO

Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical alterations. Current antiepileptic drugs are associated with various adverse impacts. The main goal of the current study is to investigate the possible anticonvulsant effect of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-mediated epileptic seizures in mice hippocampus. Sodium valproate (VPA) was used as a standard anti-epileptic drug. Methods: Mice were assigned into five groups (n=15): control, SeNPs (5 mg/kg, orally), PTZ (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), SeNPs+PTZ and VPA (200 mg/kg)+PTZ. All groups were treated for 10 days. Results: PTZ injection triggered a state of oxidative stress in the hippocampal tissue as represented by the elevated lipoperoxidation, heat shock protein 70 level, and nitric oxide formation while decreased glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes activity. Additionally, the blotting analysis showed downregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the epileptic mice. A state of neuroinflammation was recorded following the developed seizures represented by the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was recorded following the development of epileptic convulsions. At the neurochemical level, acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamines content were decreased in the epileptic mice, accompanied by high glutamate and low GABA levels in the hippocampal tissue. However, SeNP supplementation was found to delay the onset and decreased the duration of tonic, myoclonic, and generalized seizures following PTZ injection. Moreover, SeNPs were found to provide neuroprotection through preventing the development of oxidative challenge via the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptotic cascade. Additionally, SeNPs reversed the changes in the activity and levels of neuromodulators following the development of epileptic seizures. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that SeNPs could be used as a promising anticonvulsant drug due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuromodulatory activities.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Aminoácidos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pentilenotetrazol , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/farmacologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 574, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and HIV-associated myelopathy (HAM) are not showing significant reduction in there occurrence. The HAM is a progressive myelopathy that often occur synchronously with severe form of the HAND in patients' having advanced immunosuppression. However, co-existence of less severe form of the HAND and HAM in patient with relatively preserved CD4 cells is rarely reported clinical entity in post cART era. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 16-year old male, acquired HIV infection vertically, was on second line regimen because of virological failure since 3 years. His current CD4 lymphocyte count is 835 cells/uL with viral RNA level of 33,008 copies/mL. Currently presented with progressive forgetfulness, gait imbalance, and a frequent staring episodes without loss of postural tone. Neurological examination was pertinent for cognitive dysfunction with score of 6 on International HIV Dementia Scale (motor speed = 3, psychomotor speed = 2, and memory recall = 1). Lower limbs power is 4-/5, increased deep tendon reflexes, and unsteady gait. Brain MRI revealed diffuse both cortical and white matter T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions. Thoracic MRI showed abnormal T2 signal prolongation spanning from mid thoracic cord to conus. Electroencephalography study showed severe generalized slowing with evidence of focal dysrhythmia in bilateral frontotemporal regions. Unremarkable serum vitamin B 12 level (286 ng/mL). Virological failure with the HAND, HAM and seizure was considered. Dolutegravir +3TC + ATV/r regimen and valproate for seizure disorder was started. On 6 months follow up evaluation, he is clinically stable with significant improvement of his symptoms related to seizure disorders and modest improvement of his cognitive dysfunction, as he is now attending his school regularly. However, less improvement was observed reading his gait abnormality. CONCLUSION: This case supports the current understanding regarding the persistent occurrence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and HIV-associated myelopathy even decades after introduction of cART. Therefore, it's important to screen HIV+ patients for the HAND and HAM even if they have relatively preserved immunity. Because patient can be easily shifted to ART drugs with better CNS penetrating potential to achieve acceptable virological suppression level, to observe sound clinical improvement.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência/complicações , Complexo AIDS Demência/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Complexo AIDS Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo AIDS Demência/imunologia , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/sangue , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107335, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic, with over 1.8 million confirmed cases worldwide to date. Preliminary reports suggest that the disease may present in diverse ways, including with neurological symptoms, but few published reports in the literature describe seizures in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to characterize the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of seizures in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series. Cases were identified through a review of admissions and consultations to the neurology and neurocritical care services between April 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020. SETTING: The study setting was in a tertiary care, safety-net hospital in Boston, MA. PARTICIPANTS: Patients presenting with seizures and COVID-19 during the study period were included in the study. RESULTS: Seven patients met inclusion criteria (5 females, 71%). Patients ranged in age from 37 to 88 years (median: 75 years). Three patients had a prior history of well-controlled epilepsy (43%), while 4 patients had new-onset seizures, including 2 patients with prior history of remote stroke. Three patients had no preceding symptoms of COVID-19 prior to presentation (57%), and in all cases, seizures were the symptom that prompted presentation to the emergency department, regardless of prior symptoms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Provoking factors for seizures in patients with COVID-19 may include metabolic factors, systemic illness, and possibly direct effects of the virus. In endemic areas with community spread of COVID-19, clinicians should be vigilant for the infection in patients who present with seizures, which may precede respiratory symptoms or prompt presentation to medical care. Early testing, isolation, and contact tracking of these patients can prevent further transmission of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Boston , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia
7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107375, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858368

RESUMO

During epidemic outbreaks, epilepsy course can be modified by different physical and psychological stressors and, most importantly, by irregular therapy intake. The effect of COVID-19 and quarantine isolation on the course of epilepsy and on incidence of new-onset seizures is still unclear. With the aim of managing epilepsy in quarantined patients, three Italian Epilepsy Centers set up telephone consultations using a semistructured interview, allowing a prospective collection of data on seizure course and other seizure-related problems during pandemic. The collected data on seizure course were compared with the analogous period of 2019. The level of patients' concern relating to the COVID-19 pandemic was also assessed using a numeric rating scale. To address the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on seizure incidence, data collection included the number of consultations for first seizures, relapse seizures, and status epilepticus (SE) in the emergency department of one of the participating centers. Clinical telephone interviews suggest the absence of quarantine effect on epilepsy course in our cohort. No differences in incidence of emergency consultations for seizures over a two-month period were also observed compared with a control period. As demonstrated in other infective outbreaks, good antiepileptic drug (AED) supplying, precise information, and reassurance are the most important factors in chronic conditions to minimize psychological and physical stress, and to avoid unplanned treatment interruptions.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237064, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823271

RESUMO

A major source of epilepsy is Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by Taenia solium infection. Solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG), a sub-group of NCC induced epilepsy, is the most common form of NCC in India. Current diagnostic criteria for SCG epilepsy require brain imaging which may not be available in communities where the disease is endemic. Identification of serum changes and potential biomolecules that could distinguish SCG epilepsy from idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IE), without the initial need for imaging, could assist in disease identification, understanding, and treatment. The objective here was to investigate, using mass spectrometry (MS), sera biomolecule differences between patients with SCG epilepsy or IE to help distinguish these disorders based on physiological differences, to understand underlying phenotypes and mechanisms, and to lay ground work for future therapeutic and biomarker analyses. Sera were obtained from patients with SCG or IE (N = 29 each group). Serum mass peak profiling was performed with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS, and mass peak area means in the two groups were compared using leave one [serum sample] out cross validation (LOOCV). Serum LOOCV analysis identified significant differences between SCG and IE patient groups (p = 10-20), which became non-significant (p = 0.074) when the samples were randomly allocated to the groups and reanalyzed. Tandem MS/MS peptide analysis of serum mass peaks from SCG or IE patients was performed to help identify potential peptide/protein biochemical and phenotypic changes involving these two forms of epilepsy. Bioinformatic analysis of these peptide/protein changes suggested neurological, inflammatory, seizure, blood brain barrier, cognition, ion channel, cell death, and behavior related biochemical systems were being altered in these disease states. This study provides groundwork for aiding in distinguishing SCG and IE patients in minimally invasive, lower-cost manners, for improving understanding of underlying epilepsy mechanisms, and for further identifying discriminatory biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cysticercus/patogenicidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/metabolismo , Feminino , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Neurocisticercose/metabolismo , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
9.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(9): 748-757, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery is a widely accepted treatment option for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. A detailed analysis of longitudinal postoperative seizure outcomes and use of antiepileptic drugs for different brain lesions causing epilepsy is not available. We aimed to analyse the association between histopathology and seizure outcome and drug freedom up to 5 years after epilepsy surgery, to improve presurgical decision making and counselling. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre, longitudinal, cohort study, patients who had epilepsy surgery between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012, at 37 collaborating tertiary referral centres across 18 European countries of the European Epilepsy Brain Bank consortium were assessed. We included patients of all ages with histopathology available after epilepsy surgery. Histopathological diagnoses and a minimal dataset of clinical variables were collected from existing local databases and patient records. The primary outcomes were freedom from disabling seizures (Engel class 1) and drug freedom at 1, 2, and 5 years after surgery. Proportions of individuals who were Engel class 1 and drug-free were reported for the 11 main categories of histopathological diagnosis. We analysed the association between histopathology, duration of epilepsy, and age at surgery, and the primary outcomes using random effects multivariable logistic regression to control for confounding. FINDINGS: 9147 patients were included, of whom seizure outcomes were available for 8191 (89·5%) participants at 2 years, and for 5577 (61·0%) at 5 years. The diagnoses of low-grade epilepsy associated neuroepithelial tumour (LEAT), vascular malformation, and hippocampal sclerosis had the best seizure outcome at 2 years after surgery, with 77·5% (1027 of 1325) of patients free from disabling seizures for LEAT, 74·0% (328 of 443) for vascular malformation, and 71·5% (2108 of 2948) for hippocampal sclerosis. The worst seizure outcomes at 2 years were seen for patients with focal cortical dysplasia type I or mild malformation of cortical development (50·0%, 213 of 426 free from disabling seizures), those with malformation of cortical development-other (52·3%, 212 of 405 free from disabling seizures), and for those with no histopathological lesion (53·5%, 396 of 740 free from disabling seizures). The proportion of patients being both Engel class 1 and drug-free was 0-14% at 1 year and increased to 14-51% at 5 years. Children were more often drug-free; temporal lobe surgeries had the best seizure outcomes; and a longer duration of epilepsy was associated with reduced chance of favourable seizure outcomes and drug freedom. This effect of duration was evident for all lesions, except for hippocampal sclerosis. INTERPRETATION: Histopathological diagnosis, age at surgery, and duration of epilepsy are important prognostic factors for outcomes of epilepsy surgery. In every patient with refractory focal epilepsy presumed to be lesional, evaluation for surgery should be considered. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(9): 627-630, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779601

RESUMO

A 17-year-old woman presented with transient consciousness impairment attack and convulsion after bathing and prolonged standing since age 12. EEG showed WHAM ( wake, high amplitude, anterior, male) type of phantom spikes that usually carry the high risk of epilepsy at age 13. At age 17, EEG wise generalized spike and wave complex was recorded once, and head-up tilt test was positive. She was carefully observed without antiepileptic drugs since convulsive syncope due to neurally mediated syncope was most likely. During the follow-up period, she had eventually unprovoked generalized tonic-clonic seizures (convulsive seizure) twice and thus she was started with antiepileptic drug with success. Although both convulsive syncope and convulsive seizure differ in nature and effects on quality of life, in this patient, the latter occurred later and both occurs together. It is important to distinguish them by means of the degree of convulsion and EEG finding.


Assuntos
Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Síncope/complicações , Síncope/diagnóstico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Síncope/tratamento farmacológico , Teste da Mesa Inclinada , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(7-08): 223-229, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750238

RESUMO

Background - Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose - To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods - Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results - There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology - including genetic background -, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion - Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Tomada de Decisões , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD007302, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2008 and updated in 2013. Epilepsy is a common neurological condition which affects up to 1% of the population. Approximately 30% of people with epilepsy do not respond to treatment with currently available drugs. The majority of these people have focal epilepsy. Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug licensed for use in drug-resistant epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of vigabatrin as an add-on therapy for people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update of this review, we searched the following databases on 1 November 2018: Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), MEDLINE (Ovid 1946 to 31 October 2018), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) are both included in the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web). We checked reference lists of retrieved studies for additional reports of relevant studies and contacted Hoechst Marion Roussel (manufacturers of vigabatrin) in 2000. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fully published trials of vigabatrin in people of any age with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat (ITT). We evaluated: 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, treatment withdrawal, adverse effects, dose-response analysis, cognitive outcomes and quality of life. We presented results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% or 99% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: We identified 11 trials that included 756 participants (age range: 10 to 64 years). The trials tested vigabatrin doses between 1 g/day and 6 g/day. All 11 trials displayed a risk of bias across at least three risk of bias domains. Predominantly, the risk of bias was associated with: allocation concealment (selection bias), blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias) and incomplete outcome data (attrition bias). Participants treated with vigabatrin may be two to three times more likely to obtain a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency compared with those treated with placebo (RR 2.60, 95% CI 1.87 to 3.63; 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). Those treated with vigabatrin may also be three times more likely to have treatment withdrawn although we are uncertain (RR 2.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 6.55; 4 studies; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, participants given vigabatrin were more likely to experience adverse effects: dizziness/light-headedness (RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.87; 9 studies; low-certainty evidence), fatigue (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.51; 9 studies; low-certainty evidence), drowsiness (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.44; 8 studies) and depression (RR 3.28, 95% CI 1.30 to 8.27; 6 studies). Although the incidence rates were higher among participants receiving vigabatrin compared to those receiving placebo, the effect was not significant for the following adverse effects: ataxia (RR 2.76, 95% CI 0.96 to 7.94; 7 studies; very low-certainty evidence), nausea (RR 3.57, 95% CI 0.63 to 20.30; 4 studies), abnormal vision (RR 1.64, 95% CI 0.67 to 4.02; 5 studies; very low-certainty evidence), headache (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.92; 9 studies), diplopia (RR 1.76, 99% CI 0.94 to 3.30) and nystagmus (RR 1.53, 99% CI 0.62 to 3.76; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence). Vigabatrin had little to no effect on cognitive outcomes or quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Vigabatrin may significantly reduce seizure frequency in people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The results largely apply to adults and should not be extrapolated to children under 10 years old. Short-term follow-up of participants showed that some adverse effects were associated with its use. Analysis of longer-term observational studies elsewhere, however, has demonstrated that vigabatrin use can lead to the development of visual field defects.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Vigabatrina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Tontura/induzido quimicamente , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nistagmo Patológico/induzido quimicamente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Vigabatrina/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Visão/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107323, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess if patients with epilepsy (PWE) experienced an increase in seizure frequency and self-reported stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Saudi Arabia in April 2020. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was distributed to PWE via their treating neurologist. The variables included were demographic and baseline clinical characteristics (age, gender, living situation, occupational status, type of epilepsy, duration of epilepsy, number of antiepileptic medications (AEDs), presence of known psychiatric illness, and use of psychiatric medications), their seizure control in the month prior to the pandemic, perceived stress during this period of time, sleep changes, compliance changes, and change in seizure control during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients completed the questionnaire, with 29.5% reporting an increase in seizure frequency. Additionally, 59.4% reported an increase in self-reported stress and 71.2% experienced a significant change in their sleep during this period. Higher baseline seizure frequency, more AEDs, noncompliance, increase in self-reported stress, and sleep changes are the significant factors associated with increase in seizure frequency during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Identifying high-risk patients for seizure recurrence is important in order to provide them with adequate support to reduce such risk.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Autorrelato , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epilepsia ; 61(7): 1491-1502, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This post hoc analysis evaluated long-term efficacy and safety in patients with focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS) or generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) who entered open-label extension (OLEx) studies to receive long-term adjunctive perampanel. METHODS: Patients aged 12 years and older who completed phase II or III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies could enter an OLEx study, each comprising a blinded conversion period followed by an open-label maintenance period (32-424 weeks; maximum perampanel dose = 12 mg/d). Exposure, seizure outcomes, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were analyzed. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were generally balanced between patients with FBTCS (n = 720) and GTCS (n = 138). Mean (standard deviation) cumulative duration of perampanel exposure was 102.3 (70.3) weeks (FBTCS) and 83.9 (38.4) weeks (GTCS). Retention rates were 50.0% for up to 4 years (FBTCS) and 49.2% for up to 2 years (GTCS). Across OLEx treatment durations, median reductions in seizure frequency per 28 days were 66.7% (FBTCS) and 80.6% (GTCS). Fifty percent and 75% responder and seizure-freedom rates were 59.5%, 45.3%, and 18.4%, respectively (FBTCS), and 72.5%, 51.5%, and 16.7%, respectively (GTCS). Efficacy was sustained for up to 4 years (FBTCS) and up to 3 years (GTCS), even when accounting for early dropouts. TEAE incidence was highest during Year 1 (FBTCS, 85.3%; GTCS, 86.2%); most common were dizziness and somnolence. During Year 1, serious TEAEs were reported in 81 (11.3%; FBTCS) and 10 (7.2%; GTCS) patients. TEAEs were consistent with the known safety profile of perampanel; no new safety signals were identified with long-term treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: This post hoc analysis suggests long-term (up to 4 years) adjunctive perampanel (up to 12 mg/d) is efficacious and well tolerated in patients (aged 12 years and older) with FBTCS or GTCS.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tontura/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Sonolência , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Planta Med ; 86(16): 1204-1215, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668477

RESUMO

Tapinanthus globiferus is often referred to as an all-purpose herb for the treatment of stroke and epilepsy. The present study investigates the anticonvulsant effect of methanolic leaf extract, active fractions, and lupeol (isolate) of Tapinanthus globiferus in mice as well as the underlying mechanisms. Following phytochemical studies of T. globiferus, preliminary assays were performed to evaluate MLE-induced toxic effect and behavioral changes. The pentylenetetrazol (70 mg/kg, i. p.)-induced seizure was evaluated in mice that were pretreated orally with vehicle 10 mL/kg, MLE (4, 20, or 100 mg/kg), fractions (F1 to F6), lupeol 10 mg/kg or diazepam (3 mg/kg). Methanolic leaf extract preserved neuron viability as well as the relative organ weight, and hematological and biochemical parameters. The behavioral endpoints, neuromuscular coordination, and sensory response parameters revealed a dose-dependent effect of methanolic leaf extract. This extract, active fractions, lupeol, and diazepam potentiated the hypno-sedative effect of the barbiturate and attenuated PTZ-induced acute seizure. This antiseizure effect was completely reversed by flumazenil 2 mg/kg (benzodiazepine site antagonist). Altogether, the benzodiazepine site-mediated anticonvulsant effects of methanolic leaf extract, active fractions, and lupeol corroborate traditional application of T. globiferus against epilepsy.


Assuntos
Loranthaceae , Pentilenotetrazol , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): 1109-1119, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness and tolerability of perampanel (PER) monotherapy in routine clinical practice for the treatment of focal onset and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted in patients aged ≥12 years treated with PER as primary monotherapy or converted to PER monotherapy by progressive reduction of background antiepileptic drugs. Outcomes included retention, responder, and seizure-free rate after 3, 6, and 12 months and tolerability throughout the follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 98 patients (mean age = 49.6 ± 21.7 years, 51% female) with focal seizures and/or GTCS were treated with PER monotherapy for a median exposure of 14 months (range = 1-57) with a median dose of 4 mg (range = 2-10). The retention rates at 3, 6, and 12 months and last follow-up were 93.8%, 89.3%, 80.9%, and 71.4%, respectively. The retention rates according to the type of monotherapy (primary vs conversion) did not differ (log-rank P value = .57). Among the 98 patients, 61.2% patients had seizures throughout the baseline period, with a median seizure frequency of 0.6 seizures per month (range = 0.3-26). Responder rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 79.6%, 70.1%, and 52.8%, respectively, and seizure freedom rates at the same points were 62.7%, 56.1%, and 41.5%. Regarding the 33 patients who had GTCS in the baseline period, 87.8% were seizure-free at 3 months, 78.1% at 6 months, and 55.1% at 12 months. Over the entire follow-up, PER monotherapy was generally well tolerated, and only 16% of patients discontinued PER due to adverse events (AEs). Female patients were found to be at a higher risk of psychiatric AEs (female vs male odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval = 1-8.33, P = .046). SIGNIFICANCE: PER demonstrated good effectiveness and a good safety profile when used as primary therapy or conversion to monotherapy at relatively low doses, in a clinical setting with patients with focal seizures and GTCS.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(supl.1): S1-S11, jun. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195437

RESUMO

Las fluctuaciones motoras constituyen una importante complicación en los pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson tratados con levodopa. Entre las opciones terapéuticas para el manejo de las fluctuaciones motoras se cuenta con los inhibidores de la catecol-O-metil-transferasa (COMT), incluyendo la opicapona. La opicapona muestra una elevada afinidad por la COMT y consigue un aumento marcado de la biodisponibilidad de la levodopa. Se presenta el consenso de un grupo de expertos españoles en la enfermedad de Parkinson con experiencia en el tratamiento clínico de fluctuaciones motoras y el empleo de opicapona. La experiencia de este grupo de expertos, en consonancia con los ensayos clínicos, confirma que la opicapona es un fármaco eficaz en el control de las fluctuaciones motoras de la enfermedad de Parkinson, con independencia de la dosis de levodopa recibida o de la utilización de otros fármacos antiparkinsonianos. No obstante, a juicio de estos expertos, el paciente ideal para iniciar el tratamiento con opicapona es el que presenta fluctuaciones motoras leves, ya que muestra una mejor relación entre eficacia clínica y efectos adversos. En general, la opicapona es un fármaco de fácil manejo, tanto en pacientes que requieren opicapona como primer inhibidor de la COMT como en los previamente tratados con entacapona, o en los que están en tratamiento concomitante con otros fármacos antiparkinsonianos. En cualquier caso, los efectos secundarios son fácilmente corregibles


Motor fluctuations are frequently seen in Parkinson disease patients on chronic treatment with levodopa. Management of motor fluctuation includes the addition of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors. Opicapone is a recent and selective third-generation COMT inhibitor which achieves marked increase in the bioavailability of levodopa. We present a consensus of a group of Spanish neurologists with extensive experience in the clinical management of motor fluctuations. The clinical experience of this group of experts is in line with clinical trials and confirms that opicapone is an effective drug in the control of motor fluctuations, regardless of the daily levodopa dose, or the use of other antiparkinsonian drugs. However, in the opinion of these experts, the ideal patient with Parkinson’s disease to initiate treatment with opicapone is the one with mild motor fluctuations, since the ratio between clinical efficacy and adverse effects is more favorable. In general, it is an easy-to-use drug both in those first treated with a COMT inhibitor or those already on entacapone. In any case, the secondary side effects are easily managed


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/efeitos adversos , Catecóis/farmacologia
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