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Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 133-148, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191350


El presente artículo ambiciona defender la necesidad y la virtualidad de emprender una acción colectiva, primero, paneuropea y luego, internacional para hacer frente con la mayor celeridad, eficiencia y eficacia posibles a la emergencia sanitaria suscitada por la COVID-19, abordando, específicamente, la problemática ética y legal de la compartición internacional de datos personales. Todo ello con la firme pretensión de lograr una mayor y mejor cooperación internacional en materia de investigación médico-científica con datos de carácter personal

This article aims to defend the need of taking a pan-European and international collective action to tackle as rapidly, efficiently and effectively as possible the public health emergency caused by the COVID-19, addressing, specifically, the ethical and legal issues of the international sharing of personal data. On the whole, intending to improve international cooperation in medical and scientific research with personal data

El present article ambiciona defensar la necessitat I la virtualitat d'emprendre una acció col·lectiva, primer, paneuropea I després, internacional per fer front amb la major celeritat, eficiència I eficàcia possibles a l'emergència sanitària suscitada per la COVID-19, abordant, específicament, la problemàtica ètica I legal de la compartició internacional de dades personals. Tot això amb la ferma pretensió d'aconseguir una major I millor cooperació internacional en matèria d'investigació medico-científica amb dades de caràcter personal

Humanos , Registros de Saúde Pessoal/ética , Cooperação Internacional , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193597


En 2006 nace una ONG en Boulembou (A 500 km de Dakar), fundada por cooperantes e inmigrantes del pueblo en nuestro país, donde se hicieron estudios para definir el entorno y asambleas y comités para priorizar intervenciones. OBJETIVOS: conocer el funcionamiento de un proyecto comunitario y formar parte de una ONG de codesarrollo, así como obtener y valorar los resultados de sus acciones a medio y largo plazo sobre la población. MÉTODOS: codesarrollo (las personas inmigrantes ayudan en realizar intervenciones en sus países de origen) y salud comunitaria (acciones para mejorar la salud de una comunidad más allá de la individual). RESULTADOS: el pueblo tiene agua potable, huertos, centro de salud (enfermero, comadrona y agentes de salud) y mejoras en la escuela. DISCUSIÓN: el enfoque y las líneas de trabajo realizadas desde un punto de vista comunitario y de codesarrollo han permitido que los proyectos se autogestionen y autofinancien para poder seguir evolucionando y progresando

An NGO was founded in 2006 in Boulembou (located 500 km from Dakar). It was founded by aid workers and immigrants from this town to our country. Studies were performed there to define the setting and to start meetings and committees to prioritize interventions. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the operation of a community project and be part of a co-development NGO in addition to obtaining and evaluating the impact of its actions on the population in the medium and long term. METHODS: Co-development (immigrants assist with development in countries of origin) and community health (actions targeted at improving community health). RESULTS: The town now has drinking water from fountains, orchards and a healthcare centre (with a nurse, midwife and healthcare agents) in addition to school improvements. DISCUSSION: Projects were implemented from a community and co-development point of view and have facilitated self-management and self-financing to continue evolving and progressing by themselves

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Participação da Comunidade , Organizações , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Cooperação Internacional , Senegal , Saúde Pública , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020069


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.

Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumologia/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(3S): S3-S14, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023729


The idea of a global orthodontic organization, the World Federation of Orthodontists (WFO), made up of national and regional orthodontic organizations, was realized in 1995 in San Francisco at the 4th International Orthodontic Congress that was held in conjunction with the 95th annual American Association of Orthodontists meeting. This umbrella organization strives to promote quality orthodontic care, practiced and delivered by orthodontic specialists in all parts of the world. In addition, it supports its member organizations with governing principles that promote appropriate membership criteria, qualified individual leadership participation, and long-term stability of the organization over time. In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, the WFO has responded proactively and plans to augment its digital resources even further in the near future. This article describes the formation of the organization, the idea that germinated through the first three international orthodontic congresses, its workflow and membership criteria, the accountability and commitment it has toward its affiliates and individual members, and its plans for future years to come.

Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ortodontia/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Odontológicas/história , Betacoronavirus , Congressos como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional/história , Objetivos Organizacionais , Pandemias
Global Health ; 16(1): 94, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032616


INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has rapidly and radically changed the face of human health and social interaction. As was the case with COVID-19, the world is similarly unprepared to respond to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the challenges it will produce. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to examine how the international community might better respond to the growing AMR threat. MAIN BODY: The impacts of COVID-19 have manifested in health system, economic, social, and global political implications. Increasing AMR will also present challenges in these domains. As seen with COVID-19, increasing healthcare usage and resource scarcity may lead to ethical dilemmas about prioritization of care; unemployment and economic downturn may disproportionately impact people in industries reliant on human interaction (especially women); and international cooperation may be compromised as nations strive to minimize outbreaks within their own borders. CONCLUSION: AMR represents a slow-moving disaster that offers a unique opportunity to proactively develop interventions to mitigate its impact. The world's attention is currently rightfully focused on responding to COVID-19, but there is a moral imperative to take stock of lessons learned and opportunities to prepare for the next global health emergency.

Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Previsões , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901


SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Guiana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Quênia/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-16.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52852


To the Member States: In accordance with the Constitution of the Pan American Health Organization, I have the honor to present the 2020 annual report on the work of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization. This report highlights the technical cooperation undertaken by the Bureau during the period July 2019 through June 2020, within the framework of the 2014–2019 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined by its Governing Bodies and amended by the Pan American Sanitary Conference in 2017, and the 2020–2025 Strategic Plan of the Pan American Health Organization, defined and approved by the Governing Bodies. This report is complemented by the Financial Report of the Director and the Report of the External Auditor for the year 2019. Carissa F. Etienne - Director, Pan American Health Organization.

Cooperação Técnica , Cooperação Internacional , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Transmissíveis , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Emergências , Serviços de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Política Informada por Evidências , Uso da Informação Científica na Tomada de Decisões em Saúde , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , América
J Wound Care ; 29(Sup9): S6-S7, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924805


The uncertainty due to COVID-19 surrounding live events has remained present and persistent. Therefore, this year, the American Vein & Lymphatic Society (AVLS) Annual Congress will be a virtual-only event that will take place on 15 October 2020. It will include a live-streamed session will complement the fundamental knowledge of providing wound care for patients. On-demand content will allow attendees to participate at their own pace, watching as much or as little as they want each day, potentially earning AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM.

Betacoronavirus , Congressos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Triagem/organização & administração , Doenças Vasculares/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Estados Unidos , Doenças Vasculares/complicações
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1295-e1304, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971052


BACKGROUND: Each year, billions of US$ are spent globally on infectious disease research and development. However, there is little systematic tracking of global research and development. We present research on investments into infectious diseases research from funders in the G20 countries across an 18-year time period spanning 2000-17, comparing amounts invested for different conditions and considering the global burden of disease to identify potential areas of relative underfunding. METHODS: The study examined research awards made between 2000 and 2017 for infectious disease research from G20-based public and philanthropic funders. We searched research databases using a range of keywords, and open access data were extracted from funder websites. Awards were categorised by type of science, specialty, and disease or pathogen. Data collected included study title, abstract, award amount, funder, and year. We used descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation coefficient to investigate the association between research investment and disease burden, using Global Burden of Disease 2017 study data. FINDINGS: The final 2000-17 dataset included 94 074 awards for infectious disease research, with a sum investment of $104·9 billion (annual range 4·1 billion to 8·4 billion) and a median award size of $257 176 (IQR 62 562-770 661). Pre-clinical research received $61·1 billion (58·2%) across 70 337 (74·8%) awards and public health research received $29·5 billion (28·1%) from 19 197 (20·4%) awards. HIV/AIDS received $42·1 billion (40·1%), tuberculosis received $7·0 billion (6·7%), malaria received $5·6 billion (5·3%), and pneumonia received $3·5 billion (3·3%). Funding for Ebola virus ($1·2 billion), Zika virus ($0·3 billion), influenza ($4·4 billion), and coronavirus ($0·5 billion) was typically highest soon after a high-profile outbreak. There was a general increase in year-on-year investment in infectious disease research between 2000 and 2006, with a decline between 2007 and 2017. Funders based in the USA provided $81·6 billion (77·8%). Based on funding per 2017 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), HIV/AIDS received the greatest relative investment ($772 per DALY), compared with tuberculosis ($156 per DALY), malaria ($125 per DALY), and pneumonia ($33 per DALY). Syphilis and scabies received the least relative investment (both $9 per DALY). We observed weak positive correlation (r=0·30) between investment and 2017 disease burden. INTERPRETATION: HIV research received the highest amount of investment relative to DALY burden. Scabies and syphilis received the lowest relative funding. Investments for high-threat pathogens (eg, Ebola virus and coronavirus) were often reactive and followed outbreaks. We found little evidence that funding is proactively guided by global burden or pandemic risk. Our findings show how research investments are allocated and how this relates to disease burden and diseases with pandemic potential. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 594-602, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913283


The COVID-19 pandemic is shining a spotlight on the field of immunology like never before. To appreciate the diverse ways in which immunologists have contributed, Nature Reviews Immunology invited the president of the International Union of Immunological Societies and the presidents of 15 other national immunology societies to discuss how they and their members responded following the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Distância Social , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520938943, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865095


BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 and continues to spread worldwide. Rapid and accurate identification of suspected cases is critical in slowing spread of the virus that causes the disease. We aimed to highlight discrepancies in the various criteria used by international agencies and highly impacted individual countries around the world. METHODS: We reviewed the criteria for identifying a suspected case of COVID-19 used by two international public health agencies and 10 countries across Asia, Europe, and North America. The criteria included information on the clinical causes of illness and epidemiological risk factors. Non-English language guidelines were translated into English by a co-author who is fluent in that particular language. RESULTS: Although most criteria are modifications of World Health Organization recommendations, the specific clinical features and epidemiological risks for triggering evaluation of patients with suspected COVID-19 differed widely among countries. The rationale for these differences may be related to each country's resources, politics, experience with previous outbreaks or pandemics, health insurance system, COVID-19 outbreak severity, and other undetermined factors. CONCLUSION: We found no consensus regarding the best diagnostic criteria for identifying a suspected case of COVID-19.

Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Ásia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Organização Mundial da Saúde