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4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46961

RESUMO

O lançamento do hub da Fiocruz na plataforma The Global Health Network (TGHN) aconteceu durante o Seminário Internacional do Programa Institucional de Internacionalização (PrInt). O hub é fruto de uma parceria firmada com a Universidade de Oxford, responsável pela rede, e tem como proposta unir pesquisadores, ampliar a colaboração nas pesquisas e promover o e-learning e o compartilhamento de conhecimento na área da saúde. O primeiro curso que estará disponível na plataforma será o de febre amarela.


Assuntos
Redes de Informação de Ciência e Tecnologia , Cooperação Internacional , Políticas e Cooperação em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação
8.
BJOG ; 127(3): 416-423, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a sepsis care bundle for the initial management of maternal sepsis in low resource settings. DESIGN: Modified Delphi process. SETTING: Participants from 34 countries. POPULATION: Healthcare practitioners working in low resource settings (n = 143; 34 countries), members of an expert panel (n = 11) and consultation with the World Health Organization Global Maternal and Neonatal Sepsis Initiative technical working group. METHODS: We reviewed the literature to identify all potential interventions and practices around the initial management of sepsis that could be bundled together. A modified Delphi process, using an online questionnaire and in-person meetings, was then undertaken to gain consensus on bundle items. Participants ranked potential bundle items in terms of perceived importance and feasibility, considering their use in both hospitals and health centres. Findings from the healthcare practitioners were then triangulated with those of the experts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Consensus on bundle items. RESULTS: Consensus was reached after three consultation rounds, with the same items deemed most important and feasible by both the healthcare practitioners and expert panel. Final bundle items selected were: (1) Fluids, (2) Antibiotics, (3) Source identification and control, (4) Transfer (to appropriate higher-level care) and (5) Monitoring (of both mother and neonate as appropriate). The bundle was given the acronym 'FAST-M'. CONCLUSION: A clinically relevant maternal sepsis bundle for low resource settings has been developed by international consensus. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: A maternal sepsis bundle for low resource settings has been developed by international consensus.


Assuntos
Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614120

RESUMO

As the only specialized institution for research and control of parasitic diseases at the national level in China for almost 70 years, the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) has been instrumental in supporting the remarkable progress from high prevalence to transmission interruption or low endemicity of several diseases, lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis in particular. This has taken place through technical guidance, emergency response and scientific research as well as providing technical service, education, training, health promotion and international cooperation. With China's increasing involvement in international cooperation and the increased risk for (re)emerging tropical diseases in mind, the Chinese Government designated in 2017 a new Chinese Center for Tropical Disease Research to NIPD. Responding to the expanded responsibilities, the institute is scaling up its activities in several ways: from parasitic diseases to the wider area of tropical diseases; from disease control to disease elimination; from biological research to policy evidences accumulation; and from public health to global health. Based on this new vision and China's previous accomplishments in the areas mentioned, the institute is in a position to move forward with respect to global health and equitable development according to the central principles of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
/organização & administração , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/normas , Cooperação Internacional , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/normas , Medicina Tropical/normas , Academias e Institutos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Estados Unidos
10.
Lancet ; 394(10216): 2271-2281, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) are the standard treatment for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In the FLYER trial, we assessed whether four cycles of CHOP plus six applications of rituximab are non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP in a population of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with favourable prognosis. METHODS: This two-arm, open-label, international, multicentre, prospective, randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial was done at 138 clinical sites in Denmark, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Germany. We enrolled patients aged 18-60 years, with stage I-II disease, normal serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration, ECOG performance status 0-1, and without bulky disease (maximal tumour diameter <7·5 cm). Randomisation was computer-based and done centrally in a 1:1 ratio using the Pocock minimisation algorithm after stratification for centres, stage (I vs II), and extralymphatic sites (no vs yes). Patients were assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. CHOP comprised cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and vincristine (1·4 mg/m2, with a maximum total dose of 2 mg), all administered intravenously on day 1, plus oral prednisone or prednisolone at the discretion of the investigator (100 mg) administered on days 1-5. Rituximab was given at a dose of 375 mg/m2 of body surface area. Cycles were repeated every 21 days. No radiotherapy was planned except for testicular lymphoma treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival after 3 years. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of assigned treatment. A non-inferiority margin of -5·5% was chosen. The trial, which is completed, was prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00278421. FINDINGS: Between Dec 2, 2005, and Oct 7, 2016, 592 patients were enrolled, of whom 295 patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of R-CHOP and 297 were assigned to receive four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. Four patients in the four-cycles group withdrew informed consent before the start of treatment, so 588 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After a median follow-up of 66 months (IQR 42-100), 3-year progression-free survival of patients who had four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab was 96% (95% CI 94-99), which was 3% better (lower limit of the one-sided 95% CI for the difference was 0%) than six cycles of R-CHOP, demonstrating the non-inferiority of the four-cycles regimen. 294 haematological and 1036 non-haematological adverse events were documented in the four-cycles group compared with 426 haematological and 1280 non-haematological adverse events in the six-cycles group. Two patients, both in the six-cycles group, died during study therapy. INTERPRETATION: In young patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and favourable prognosis, four cycles of R-CHOP is non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP, with relevant reduction of toxic effects. Thus, chemotherapy can be reduced without compromising outcomes in this population. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dinamarca , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Israel , Itália , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Noruega , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet ; 394(10214): 2119-2124, 2019 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785827

RESUMO

Corruption is embedded in health systems. Throughout my life-as a researcher, public health worker, and a Minister of Health-I have been able to see entrenched dishonesty and fraud. But despite being one of the most important barriers to implementing universal health coverage around the world, corruption is rarely openly discussed. In this Lecture, I outline the magnitude of the problem of corruption, how it started, and what is happening now. I also outline people's fears around the topic, what is needed to address corruption, and the responsibilities of the academic and research communities in all countries, irrespective of their level of economic development. Policy makers, researchers, and funders need to think about corruption as an important area of research in the same way we think about diseases. If we are really aiming to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and ensure healthy lives for all, corruption in global health must no longer be an open secret.


Assuntos
Fraude , Saúde Global , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Má Conduta Profissional , Pesquisa Biomédica , Crime , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Responsabilidade Social
15.
Global Health ; 15(1): 79, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sweden is a long-standing and significant contributor to overseas development aid. This commitment to global health and development is part of Sverigebilden, or the view of Sweden in the world that is formally promoted by the Swedish government. Sweden is seen by many in the global health community as leader on human rights and health and has traditionally been one of the most engaged countries in multilateral affairs more broadly. RESULTS: This article places Sweden's engagement in global health within the wider context of domestic changes, as well as transitions within the broader global health landscape in the post-World War Two (WWII)- era. In doing so, it reviews the globalization of health from a Swedish perspective. It also addresses broader questions about what it means for a country to be 'active' or 'engaged' in global health and responds to recent suggestions that Swedish influence in health has waned. The article finds that in Sweden there is wide political consensus that international development and global health engagement are important, and both are part of the maintenance of Sverigebilen. While there is a not one single Swedish approach to global health, there are norms and values that underpin global health engagement such as human rights, solidarity, equity and gender equality. A sustained focus on key issues, such as sexual and reproductive rights and health (SRHR), creates a tradition which feeds back into Sverigebilden. CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish experience demonstrates the linkages between foreign and domestic policies with regard to international health and development, and to the globalization of public health practice and diplomacy. In global health Sverigebilden is tied to credibility. Sweden is able to exercise influence because of a successful welfare model and strong research traditions; conversely, long-standing and new threats to this credibility and to Sverigebilden pose challenges to Sweden's future engagement in global health.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/história , Cooperação Internacional/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Suécia
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(47): 1089-1095, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774743

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case-based surveillance (CBS) systematically and continuously collects available demographic and health event data (sentinel events*) about persons with HIV infection from diagnosis and, if available, throughout routine clinical care until death, to characterize HIV epidemics and guide program improvement (1,2). Surveillance signals such as high viral load, mortality, or recent HIV infection can be used for rapid public health action. To date, few standardized assessments have been conducted to describe HIV CBS systems globally (3,4). For this assessment, a survey was disseminated during May-July 2019 to all U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)-supported countries with CDC presence† (46) to describe CBS implementation and identify facilitators and barriers. Among the 39 (85%) countries that responded,§ 20 (51%) have implemented CBS, 15 (38%) were planning implementation, and four (10%)¶ had no plans for implementation. All countries with CBS reported capturing information at the point of diagnosis, and 85% captured sentinel event data. The most common characteristic (75% of implementation countries) that facilitated implementation was using a health information system for CBS. Barriers to CBS implementation included lack of country policies/guidance on mandated reporting of HIV and on CBS, lack of unique identifiers to match and deduplicate patient-level data, and lack of data security standards. Although most surveyed countries reported implementing or planning for implementation of CBS, these barriers need to be addressed to implement effective HIV CBS that can inform the national response to the HIV epidemic.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Estados Unidos
17.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 78, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trade and investment agreements negotiated after the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) have included increasingly elevated protection of intellectual property rights along with an expanding array of rules impacting many aspects of pharmaceutical policy. Despite the large body of literature on intellectual property and access to affordable medicines, the ways in which other provisions in trade agreements can affect pharmaceutical policy and, in turn, access to medicines have been little studied. There is a need for an analytical framework covering the full range of provisions, pathways, and potential impacts, on which to base future health and human rights impact assessment and research. A framework exploring the ways in which trade and investment agreements may affect pharmaceutical policy was developed, based on an analysis of four recently negotiated regional trade agreements. First a set of core pharmaceutical policy objectives based on international consensus was identified. A systematic comparative analysis of the publicly available legal texts of the four agreements was undertaken, and the potential impacts of the provisions in these agreements on the core pharmaceutical policy objectives were traced through an analysis of possible pathways. RESULTS: An analytical framework is presented, linking ten types of provisions in the four trade agreements to potential impacts on four core pharmaceutical policy objectives (access and affordability; safety, efficacy, and quality; rational use of medicines; and local production capacity and health security) via various pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical framework highlights provisions in trade and investment agreements that need to be examined, pathways that should be explored, and potential impacts that should be taken into consideration with respect to pharmaceutical policy. This may serve as a useful checklist or template for health and human rights impact assessments and research on the implications of trade agreements for pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Investimentos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Política Pública , Canadá , Custos e Análise de Custo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , México , Estados Unidos
18.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 0, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775785

RESUMO

In many African countries, hundreds of health-related NGOs are fed by a chaotic tangle of donor funding streams. The case of Mozambique illustrates how this NGO model impedes Universal Health Coverage. In the 1990s, NGOs multiplied across post-war Mozambique: the country's structural adjustment program constrained public and foreign aid expenditures on the public health system, while donors favored private contractors and NGOs. In the 2000s, funding for HIV/AIDS and other vertical aid from many donors increased dramatically. In 2004, the United States introduced PEPFAR in Mozambique at nearly 500 million USD per year, roughly equivalent to the entire budget of the Ministry of Health. To be sure, PEPFAR funding has helped thousands access antiretroviral treatment, but over 90% of resources flow "off-budget" to NGO "implementing partners," with little left for the public health system. After a decade of this major donor funding to NGOs, public sector health system coverage had barely changed. In 2014, the workforce/ population ratio was still among the five worst in the world at 71/10000; the health facility/per capita ratio worsened since 2009 to only 1 per 16,795. Achieving UHC will require rejection of austerity constraints on public sector health systems, and rechanneling of aid to public systems building rather than to NGOs.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Organizações/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Humanos , Moçambique , Setor Público/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
19.
Global Health ; 15(1): 66, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the Australian Government, through a Senate-led Parliamentary Inquiry, sought the views of diverse stakeholders on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) implementation both domestically and as part of Australia's Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) program. One hundred and sixty-four written submissions were received. The submissions offered perspective and guidance from a rich cross-section of those involved, and with keen interest in, Australia's ODA-SDG commitment. This article identifies and explores the submissions to that Inquiry which placed impetus on Australia's ODA-SDG and health and development nexus. It then compares how the synthesized views, concerns and priorities of selected Inquiry stakeholders align with and reflect the Australian Government's treatment of SDG 3 in its SDG Voluntary National Review (VNR), as well as with the final Inquiry report summarizing submission content. RESULTS: Four key themes were synthesized and drawn from the thirty-one stakeholder submissions included in our analysis. Disconnect was then found to exist between the selected stakeholder views and the Australian Government's SDG-VNR's treatment of SDG 3, as well as with the content of the Parliamentary Inquiry's final report with respect to the ODA-SDG and health and development nexus. CONCLUSIONS: We situate the findings of our analysis within the wider strategic context of the Australian Government's policy commitment to "step up" in the Pacific region. This research provides an insight into both multi-stakeholder and Federal Government views on ODA in the Indo-Pacific region, especially at a time when Australia's Pacific engagement has come to the forefront of both foreign and security policy. We conclude that the SDG agenda, including the SDG health and development agenda, could offer a unique vehicle for enabling a paradigm shift in the Australian Government's development approach toward the Pacific region and its diverse peoples. This potential is strongly reflected in stakeholder perspectives included in our analysis. However, study findings remind that the political determinants of health, and overlapping political determinants of SDG achievement, will be instrumental in the coming decade, and that stakeholders from different sectors need to be genuinely engaged in SDG-ODA policy-related decision-making and planning by governments in both developed and developing countries alike.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/economia , Cooperação Internacional , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Austrália , Governo , Humanos , Participação dos Interessados
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