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1.
Urology ; 136: 95-99, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patient values impact on compliance and outcome for physiotherapy treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction. Although studies have related "health values" to behaviors in the laboratory, or to behaviors such as exercise, there have been no studies of the impact of patient values on actual medical treatments. METHODS: A prospective observational study of the impact of patient values on compliance and outcomes for physiotherapy treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic in the urogynaecological outpatients unit of a hospital. Two hundred eighteen patients were approached and agreed to participate. Prior to treatment, pelvic floor functioning was assessed using the Oxford Grading System, and Queensland Pelvic Floor Questionnaire, and values were assessed using the Personal Values Questionnaire (PVQ-II). Following a 6-month physiotherapy treatment programme, pelvic floor function was reassessed. RESULTS: The strength of patient health-related values measured by the PVQ-II significantly predicted compliance with the intervention, but the nature of health value (intrinsically-valued, as opposed to externally-controlled) predicted objective outcome. CONCLUSION: Patient values impact on physiotherapy adherence and outcomes, and could be considered as part of future assessment/screening procedures.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/psicologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Behav Sleep Med ; 18(1): 68-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477340

RESUMO

Background: Coping strategies are predictive of 1 week CPAP use. Coping strategies may predict longer-term CPAP use among adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Objectives: To investigate the influence of two coping styles (active and passive) and individual coping processes on CPAP use at 1 week and 1 month; and explore the association between self-efficacy and coping on CPAP use. Participants: CPAP-naïve adults (52.3% male, 90.9% White) newly diagnosed with OSA (AHI ≥ 5 events/hr) from two U.S. clinical sleep centers (n = 66). Methods: A post-hoc analysis from a prospective, longitudinal study that examined influential factors on CPAP use among CPAP-naïve patients with newly diagnosed OSA. The Ways of Coping Questionnaire and the Self-Efficacy Measure for Sleep Apnea were completed immediately after CPAP titration polysomnography. Objective 1 week and 1 month CPAP use (mean hr/night) were the primary outcomes. Descriptive analyses and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses modeling for CPAP use (mean hr/night). Results: Active coping was significantly associated with greater CPAP use (mean hr/night) at 1 week, but not at 1 month (p = 0.0397; p = 0.0556, respectively). Higher Planful Problem Solving was significantly associated with greater average CPAP use at 1 week and 1 month (p = 0.0117, p = 0.0378, respectively). Self-efficacy was significantly associated with greater average CPAP use at 1 week (p = 0.0056) and 1 month (p = 0.0056). Conclusions: Self-efficacy and Planful Problem Solving coping are promising behavioral intervention targets to promote CPAP use in newly diagnosed OSA.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(10): 1377-1383, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poland is considered among the European countries with an average incidence of cervical cancer (CC; about 3,000-3,500/year) and at the same time with high mortality (5-year survival rate - 55.2%). For this reason, in 2006 Poland introduced a Population-Based Cervical Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Program addressed to women aged 25-59 years, in which a cytological test is carried out every 3 years. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the changes in the curability of CC patients brought by the introduction of the Screening Program in the Lower Silesian voivodeship and to identify the subpopulation of women for whom activities aimed at increasing adherence rates must be intensified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 5-year relative survival in 3,586 CC patients from 2000-2010 registered in the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry was analyzed. RESULTS: In the Lower Silesian voivodeship, a 55.1% 5-year survival rate was recorded in 2000-2004 and 70.5% in 2010. The highest increase in 5-year relative survival rates was found in rural communities (from 53.1% in 2000-2004 to 77.7% in 2010) and in Wroclaw (56.8% and 74.2%, respectively). In the study group, the number of patients with invasive CC (C53) detected in the local stage of the disease increased systematically from 61.5% in 2000-2004 to 74.3% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the population-based screening program improved the curability rate in CC patients in the Lower Silesian voivodeship. In order to maintain the recent positive trends, further education should be continued, and activities aimed at increasing adherence to screening tests should be intensified, especially in urban-rural communities.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
5.
Orv Hetil ; 160(43): 1687-1697, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630554

RESUMO

Long-term successful weight control poses a huge challenge to people who are overweight and treat them in the obesogenic environment. After reaching a clinically significant (5-10%) weight loss, the goal is to maintain the weight loss achieved. However, this requires virtually constant resistance to temptations and requires sustained effort in terms of dietary restriction and physical activity, which requires a strong motivational base. From the point of view of behavior, motivation is the probability that the patient starts, pursues, or persistently follows a strategy that triggers change, that is, in the case of obesity, is committed to health-related behaviors that support weight management and abandons health risk behaviors that hinders weight control efforts. The present study describes the transtheoretical model of behavioral change and provides examples of practical ways to increase motivation and adherence at all stages of behavioral change. All this can contribute to the work of primary care and outpatient care professionals in supporting weight loss patients with excess weight. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(43): 1687-1697.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/métodos , Exercício , Motivação , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 789, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improved policies to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis (NVP) is low in South Africa. We describe ART adherence amongst a cohort of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed but uninfected infants from 6 weeks until 18 months post-delivery and identify risk factors for nonadherence. METHODS: Data were collected in 2012-2014 through a nationally representative survey of PMTCT effectiveness. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled during the infant's first immunization visit at 6 weeks. Mothers and HIV-exposed infants (2811 pairs) were followed to 18 months at 3-month intervals. Mothers who self-reported being on ART at 6 weeks postpartum (N = 1572 (55.9%)) and infants on NVP at 6 weeks (N = 2370 (84.3%)) were eligible for this analysis and information about their adherence was captured at each interview they attended thereafter. We defined nonadherence within each 3-month interval as self-report of missing > 5% of daily ART/NVP doses, estimated adherence using a Cox survival curve with Andersen & Gill setup for recurring events, and identified risk factors for nonadherence with an extended Cox regression model (separately for mothers and infants) in Stata 13. Results are not nationally representative as this is a subgroup analysis of the follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Amongst mothers on ART at 6 weeks postpartum, cumulative adherence to maternal ART until 18 months was 63.4%. Among infants on NPV at 6 weeks postpartum, adherence to NVP was 74.5%.. Risk factors for nonadherence to maternal ART, controlling for other factors, included mother's age (16-24 years vs. ≥34 years, adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), nondisclosure of HIV status to anyone (nondisclosure vs. disclosure: aHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), and timing of ART initiation (initiated ART after delivery vs. initiated ART before delivery: aHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0). Provincial variation was seen in nonadherence to infant NVP, controlling for other factors. CONCLUSION: Maintaining ART adherence until 18 months postpartum remains a crucial challenge, with maternal ART adherence among the six week maternal ART cohort below 65% and infant NVP adherence among breastfeeding infants in this cohort below 75%.This is gravely concerning, given the global policy shift to lifelong ART amongst pregnant and lactating women, and the need for extended infant prophylaxis amongst mothers who are not virally suppressed. Our findings suggest that young mothers and mothers who do not disclose their status should be targeted with messages to improve adherence, and that late maternal ART initiation (after delivery) increases the risk of maternal nonadherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/imunologia , Lactente , Mães , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lactação , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480383

RESUMO

Noncompliance is widespread in adults with PKU and is associated with adverse metabolic, nutritional and cognitive abnormalities. Returning to the PKU diet is important for this at-risk population, yet for many this is challenging to achieve. Strategies that ease the return to the PKU diet, while offering nutritional and cognitive advantages, are needed. Twelve PKU adults (33.7 ± 2.6 years), who had been noncompliant for 4.5 years (range: 1 to 11 years), took 33 g of a low-volume, nutrient-enriched, protein substitute daily for 28 days. Outcomes of eating behaviour, nutrient intake and mood were assessed at entry (baseline, days 1-3) and after the intervention period (days 29-31). At baseline, intakes of natural protein and estimated phenylalanine were high (66.4 g and 3318.5 mg, respectively) and intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin D were below country-specific recommendations. With use of the experimental protein substitute, natural protein and estimated phenylalanine intake declined (p = 0.043 for both). Fat and saturated fat intakes also decreased (p = 0.019 and p = 0.041, respectively), while energy and carbohydrate intake remained unchanged. Micronutrient intake increased (p ≤ 0.05 for all aforementioned) to levels well within reference nutrient intake recommendations. Blood vitamin B12 and vitamin D increased by 19.8% and 10.4%, respectively. Reductions in anxiety and confusion were also observed during the course of the study yet should be handled as preliminary data. This study demonstrates that reintroducing a low-volume, nutrient-enriched protein substitute delivers favourable nutritional and possible mood benefits in noncompliant PKU patients, yet longer-term studies are needed to further confirm this. This preliminary knowledge should be used in the design of new strategies to better facilitate patients' return to the PKU diet, with the approach described here as a foundation.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/psicologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Adulto , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 543-548, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The attitudes of schizophrenic patients toward medications directly impact the treatment compliance. Although noncompliance represents a serious concern in long-term schizophrenia treatment, a detailed information on the factors that impair compliance is still limited. The present study aims to assess the factors related to noncompliance with antipsychotics agents, in long-term treated chronic paranoid schizophrenia patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two groups of such patients (total number n=162) were analyzed and compared: 1). patients with symptomatic remission on haloperidol (n=32), clozapine (n=40) or olanzapine (n=45), and 2). drug resistant patients (n=45). The mean duration of the disease was 19.3 years. RESULTS: Altogether, in our patient sample, a better drug attitude was found in the olanzapine and clozapine groups. Our findings have also revealed that worse attitude toward antipsychotics correlated with an earlier onset of schizophrenia, younger patient age, shorter duration of the disease, higher burden of symptoms, treatment with a typical antipsychotics, and higher severity of akathisia. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that detecting factors that influence the patient's attitude toward medications might be helpful for designing targeted educational strategies in chronic schizophrenia patients (particularly those with the high risk of noncompliance), and further trials are warranted to explore this topic.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Clozapina/administração & dosagem , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Haloperidol/administração & dosagem , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Olanzapina/administração & dosagem , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 549, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications, especially diabetic retinopathy (DR), is the key to reducing their burden. This study aimed to assess both the awareness of diabetic outpatients and their action towards periodic eye exam, and to determine the causes of non-compliance amongst patients who were aware. Because the Syrian Crisis affected all aspects of Syrians' life, the study aimed to determine the crisis' effects on patients' care-seeking behavior. Our study was the first step in paving the way of prevention strategies. METHODS: This observational cross-section study was conducted on 260 patients with DM who were visiting the four main hospitals in the Syrian capital, Damascus between August and November 2017. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of participants was 54.3(±12.8) years. Females were more than half (56.2%). The majority were from areas outside Damascus (72.3%). The mean (±SD) DM duration was 10.6 (±7.1) years. Almost all patients (93.8%) thought that DM could affect the eye. 67.3% believed that it could cause blindness. 86.9% of the patients conceived that DM patients should visit an ophthalmologist regularly. 37% did not visit any ophthalmologists at all, while 63% reported they had visited their ophthalmologists. Only 21.5% had a regular eye exam. Gender, educational level, economic status, province, and family history of DM had statistically an insignificant relation with an ophthalmologist visit. The preponderance of the patients who haven't visited regularly did not appreciate the necessity of regular eye exam. Diabetic neuropathy was the most common complication of DM that patients were aware of (92%) and suffered from (56.5%). Meanwhile, regarding the effects of the Syrian Crisis: 41.2% of diabetic patients had stopped their medications for at least one month, mainly because the drugs were unavailable (74.7% of them), as some drug companies had been destroyed. Half of the patients had struggled to reach a medical care center. Half of the patients had been displaced, two-third of them were from outside Damascus. CONCLUSION: A screening program for DR should be initiated. Also, awareness about DM and its complications, especially DR, should be raised through doctors and media.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Conflitos Armados , Conscientização , Cegueira/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/psicologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Síria/epidemiologia
10.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 29(4): 447-452, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447517

RESUMO

Background: In this tudy, our aim was to measure information and behaviors of our patients about their diseases, and to determine the level of compliance with their treatment and to investigate the causes of nonconformities. Methods: A total of 111 patients who applied to outpatient clinics between May-December 2017 were included in this prospective cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, clinical data, diabetes, medical nutrition therapy and physical activity questionnaires were administered face to face by the researchers. Results: About 68.5% of the 111 patients were females. While 64.9% were primary school graduates, 58.6% were housewives and 82.9% were low income level. Body Mass Index (BMI) was found to be significantly higher in women (p=0.041). It has been found that the awareness of the patients about themselves and their illnesses are 37.8% for HbA1c, 64.8% for fasting blood sugar level, 78.3% for their height and body weight. While males had a higher score than females in the diabetes survey, females scored higher than males in the medical nutrition therapy and physical activity questionnaires. On the other hand, 46.8% of patients showed additional health problems as a cause of non-compliance to physical activity. Conclusions: Level of knowledge and compliance with treatment were also found to be inadequate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220632, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess triage compliance and the effect of the time from screening to triage on follow-up among HPV-positive women. METHODS: We recruited 1232 women in a screening campaign in Madagascar from February to October 2015. In the first period (February-May), HPV tests were performed remotely using the cobas test. In the second period (May-October), testing was performed on-site using the Xpert HPV assay. HPV-positive women were invited for triage with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI). Systematic biopsy and endocervical brushing were performed on all HPV-positive women for quality control. Three groups were defined according to time from HPV testing to triage invitation for HPV-positive women-Group I: delayed (> 3 months), Group II: prompt (24-48 hours), and Group III: immediate (< 24 hours). RESULTS: A total 1232 self-sampled HPV tests were performed in the study period (496 in Group I, 512 in Group II, and 224 in Group III). Participants' mean age was 43.2 ± 9.3 years. Mean time from screening to VIA/VILI testing was 103.5 ± 43.6 days. Overall HPV prevalence was 28.0%. HPV prevalence was 27.2% in Group I (cobas test), 29.2% in Group 2 (Xpert test), and 26,7% in Group III (Xpert test). The VIA/VILI compliance rate was 77.8% for Group I, 82.7% for Group II, and 95.0% for Group III. Of women undergoing VIA/VILI, 56.3% in Group I and 43.5% in Groups II/III had positive results. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse among HPV-positive women was 9.8% for Group I and 6.8% for Groups II/III. Non-adherence was higher among rural women, uneducated women, and women in Group I. CONCLUSION: HPV-positive women with immediate VIA/VILI triage invitation had the best triage compliance. A single-day test and triage strategy is preferred for low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Triagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277328

RESUMO

Background and objective: Often micronutrient deficiencies cannot be detected when patient is already following a long-term gluten-free diet with good compliance (LTGFDWGC). The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate the most recent literature that considers blood micronutrient deficiencies in LTGFDWGC subjects, in order to prepare dietary supplementation advice (DSA). Materials and methods: A research strategy was planned on PubMed by defining the following keywords: celiac disease, vitamin B12, iron, folic acid, and vitamin D. Results: This review included 73 studies. The few studies on micronutrient circulating levels in long-term gluten-free diet (LTGFD) patients over 2 years with good compliance demonstrated that deficiency was detected in up to: 30% of subjects for vitamin B12 (DSA: 1000 mcg/day until level is normal, then 500 mcg), 40% for iron (325 mg/day), 20% for folic acid (1 mg/day for 3 months, followed by 400-800 mcg/day), 25% for vitamin D (1000 UI/day or more-based serum level or 50,000 UI/week if level is <20 ng/mL), 40% for zinc (25-40 mg/day), 3.6% of children for calcium (1000-1500 mg/day), 20% for magnesium (200-300 mg/day); no data is available in adults for magnesium. Conclusions: If integration with diet is not enough, starting with supplements may be the correct way, after evaluating the initial blood level to determine the right dosage of supplementation.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/sangue , Doença Celíaca/sangue , Doença Celíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Dieta Livre de Glúten/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/análise , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Vitamina B 12/análise , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina D/análise , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/análise , Zinco/sangue
13.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 198-204, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has become increasingly popular around the world, and has been accepted by people not only in China and Southeast Asia, but also in Western countries. Despite its historic role in the Chinese society, there has been limited research on exploring the nature of TCM practitioner-patient interactions in the Chinese context. As indicated by a major study regarding the Hong Kong context1, there is a need to investigate the role of TCM practitioner and promote interdisciplinary research to ensure safety and synergy of TCM and Western medicine in primary care. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the nature of TCM consultations and their communication patterns in Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on 10 h of conversations (in Cantonese) between TCM practitioners and their patients in the diagnostic interviews, the study explored how the doctor-patient relationship was negotiated in the course of the consultation, while both the TCM practitioners and the patients were constantly trying to manage and maintain common ground. Particular attention had been paid to the identification of specific linguistic and discourse strategies that TCM practitioners had employed to establish doctor-patient rapport, so that a better understanding of patient-centred care in the TCM context could be obtained. The participants were recruited from a local university operated clinic which shared the characteristic of TCM practitioners in Hong Kong. RESULTS: A range of linguistic strategies that TCM practitioners used to deliver patient-centred care have been identified. These strategies are also helpful in shaping a joint decision-making process that will lead to better patient understanding and compliance with the doctors' treatments. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates empirically how TCM practitioners utilize a range of linguistic resources and communication strategies to shape the ongoing discourse so that their patients can have a better understanding of their illnesses. For an example, it is found that TCM practitioners and their patients were constantly trying to manage and maintain common ground by using a range of grammatical markers, including sentence-final particles (SFPs) and discourse markers (DMs), to negotiate the epistemic commitment so that the patient would have good compliance with the practitioner's suggested treatment. It is also observed that various types of interrogatives have been used by the TCM practitioners to elicit information from the patients as well as to encourage them to talk and make a response. Furthermore, it is found that TCM practitioners would deliberately enquire about the patients' everyday experiences because what they eat, do, and encounter all have an important impact on their body conditions. By exploring into the patients' daily routines in the social talk, the practitioner can help maintain and promote the overall balance of the patient's body, and help them monitor and enhance their health conditions by modifying their daily habits and behaviours. With the adoption of these linguistic and communication strategies, the TCM practitioners are shown to have placed the patients' needs as their top priority. Previous studies in the field have already proved that co-construction of the treatment plan between the doctor and the patient is extremely important, and that a patient-centred approach can largely reduce adverse events leading to avoidable patient harm. The specific strategies identified in the current study can enhance the TCM practitioners' communication with patients, creating an environment that will surely optimise safety for both patients and clinicians.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , China , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(7)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352377

RESUMO

Diabetes insipidus is a syndrome characterised by the inability to conserve water or concentrate urine, leading to excessive excretion of urine. In congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI), common presentations include failure to thrive, polydipsia, polyuria and dehydration. The long trajectory of the disease, coupled with psycho-behavioural changes as a child grows, can precipitate a period of non-adherence despite initial optimal control, especially in the adolescent age group. Social inconvenience of repeated voiding and nocturnal disturbances can lead to adapted urine holding behaviour, also known as non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (Hinman syndrome). Anatomical changes in the urinary system, such as bladder trabeculation and hydroureteronephrosis, can subsequently give rise to functional renal impairment. We present a case of CNDI with concomitant Hinman syndrome, resulting in acute renal impairment and hypertensive emergency. We aim to raise awareness of the association between these two entities.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Criança , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/psicologia , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/fisiopatologia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 905, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) and nonadherence compromise the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV (PLWH), raise the cost of care and increase risk of transmission to sexual partners. To date, interventions to improve adherence to ART have had limited success, perhaps because they have failed to systematically elicit and address both perceptual and practical barriers to adherence. The primary aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of the Supporting UPtake and Adherence (SUPA) intervention. METHODS: This study comprises 2 phases. Phase 1 is an observational cohort study, in which PLWH who are ART naïve and recommended to take ART by their clinician complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs about ART over 12 months. Phase 2 is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) nested within the observational cohort study to investigate the effectiveness of the SUPA intervention on adherence to ART. PLWH at risk of nonadherence (based on their beliefs about ART) will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to the intervention (SUPA intervention + usual care) and control (usual care) arms. The SUPA intervention involves 4 tailored treatment support sessions delivered by a Research Nurse utilising a collaborative Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Motivational Interviewing (MI) approach. Sessions are tailored to individual needs and preferences based on the individual patient's perceptions and practical barriers to ART. An animation series and intervention manual have been developed to communicate a rationale for the personal necessity for ART and illustrate concerns and potential solutions. The primary outcome is adherence to ART measured using Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Three hundred seventy-two patients will be sufficient to detect a 15% difference in adherence with 80% power and an alpha of 0.05. Costs will be compared between intervention and control groups. Costs will be combined with the primary outcome in cost-effectiveness analyses. Quality adjusted life-years (QALYs) will also be estimated over the follow-up period and used in the analyses. DISCUSSION: The findings will enable patients, healthcare providers and policy makers to make informed decisions about the value of the SUPA intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered 21/02/2014, ISRCTN35514212 .


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Entrevista Motivacional/economia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 337, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to estimate the population prevalence and distribution of plantar heel pain in mid-to-older age groups, examine associations with selected health status and lifestyle factors, and report the frequency of healthcare use. METHODS: Adults aged ≥50 years registered with four general practices were mailed a health survey (n = 5109 responders). Plantar heel pain in the last month was defined by self-reported shading on a foot manikin, and was defined as disabling if at least one of the function items of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index were also reported. Population prevalence estimates and associations between plantar heel pain and demographic characteristics, health status measures and lifestyle factors were estimated using multiple imputation and weighted logistic regression. Healthcare professional consultation was summarised as the 12-month period prevalence of foot pain-related consultation. RESULTS: The population prevalence of plantar heel pain was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.8, 10.5) and 7.9% (7.1, 8.7) for disabling plantar heel pain. Occurrence was slightly higher in females, comparable across age-groups, and significantly higher in those with intermediate/routine and manual occupations. Plantar heel pain was associated with physical and mental impairment, more anxiety and depression, being overweight, a low previous use of high-heeled footwear, and lower levels of physical activity and participation. The 12-month period prevalence of foot pain-related consultation with a general practitioner, physiotherapist or podiatrist/chiropodist was 43.0, 15.1 and 32.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Plantar heel pain is a common, disabling symptom among adults aged 50 years and over. Observed patterns of association indicate that in addition to focused foot-specific management, primary care interventions should also target more general physical and psychological factors that could potentially act as barriers to treatment adherence and recovery.


Assuntos
Calcanhar , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 55, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patient management (TPM) is crucial to improve patient compliance to treatment. The coverage of TPM delivered by TB dispensaries or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was not high under the previous CDC model of TB control in China. In the integrated TB control model in China, TB patient management (TPM) was mainly delivered by lay health workers (LHWs) in primary health care (PHC) sectors. This study aims to investigate TPM delivery in resource-limited western China and to identify factors affecting TPM delivery by LHWs under the integrated TB control model. METHODS: A stratified random sampling was used to select study sites. Pulmonary TB (PTB) patients ≥15 years old from selected counties/districts in Guizhou Province were surveyed from August 2015 to May 2016. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. A χ2 test and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with self-administered treatment (non-TPM). RESULTS: In total, 638 PTB patients were included in the final analysis. Close to 30% of patients were ethnic minorities. More than 30% of patients were from counties with high TB burden, and 24.9% of patients had poor compliance to treatment. Only 37.1% of patients received TPM delivered by LHWs under the integrated TB control model throughout the treatment period. The main reasons for unwillingness to manage reported by patients included social stigma and no perceived need. Being ethnic minorities (OR = 3.35) was a main factor associated with lower likelihood of receiving TPM, while living in areas with middle or high TB burden may increase the likelihood of receiving TPM (OR = 0.17 and 0.25, respectively). Among current management approaches, more than 85% of patients chose phone reminder as their preferred TPM by LHWs. CONCLUSIONS: TPM under the integrated model in West China is still low and need further improvement, and the impeding factors of TPM need to be addressed. Strengthening patient-centered and community-based TPM and developing more feasible approaches of TPM delivery should be explored in future research in this region.


Assuntos
Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0213882, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy is one of the contributors to low vaccination coverage in both developed and developing countries. Sudan is one of the countries that suffers from low measles vaccine coverage and from measles outbreaks. In order to facilitate the future development of interventions, this study aimed at exploring the opinions of Expanded Program on Immunization officers at ministries of health, WHO, UNICEF and vaccine care providers at Khartoum-based primary healthcare centers. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews during the period January-March 2018. Data (i.e. quotes) were matched to the categories and the sub-categories of a framework that was developed by the WHO-SAGE Working Group called ''Determinants of Vaccine Hesitancy Matrix''. FINDINGS: The interviews were conducted with 14 participants. The majority of participants confirmed the existence of measles vaccine hesitancy in Khartoum state. They further identified various determinants that were grouped into three domains including contextual, groups and vaccination influences. The main contextual determinant as reported is the presence of people who can be qualified as "anti-vaccination". They mostly belong to particular religious and ethnic groups. Parents' beliefs about prevention and treatment from measles are the main determinants of the group influences. Attitude of the vaccine providers, measles vaccine schedule and its mode of delivery were the main vaccine related determinants. CONCLUSION: Measles vaccine hesitancy in Sudan appears complex and highly specific to local circumstances. To better understand the magnitude and the context-specific causes of measles vaccine hesitancy and to develop adapted strategies to address them, there is clearly a further need to investigate measles vaccine hesitancy among parents.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Religião , Sudão , Cobertura Vacinal
20.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 2806341, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178940

RESUMO

Background: Medication adherence and belief are crucial to achieving the desired goal of therapy in epileptic patients. However, there is a lack of study regarding medication adherence and belief in our setting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate medication adherence and belief and associated factors among ambulatory patients with epilepsy. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected epileptic patients at the neurologic clinic of Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Medication adherence and belief were assessed using self-reported questionnaires which were developed based on the review of different literatures. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Result: We included a total of 292 patients. Almost two-thirds (65.4%) of the patients were nonadherent to their medications. The most common cause of nonadherence was forgetfulness (48.7%) followed by inability to get medicine (28.8) and safety concern (23.5%). The majority (78.4%) of the patients had high medication necessity belief while 44.1% had high concern belief about the potential adverse effect of their medications. Overall, 39.4% of the patients had a negative belief toward their medications. Comorbidity (AOR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.20-10.31), seizure encounter within the last 3 months (AOR: 5.45, 95% CI: 2.48-12.00), low medication necessity belief (AOR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.14-10.00), high medication concern belief (AOR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.07-8.63), and negative medication belief (AOR: 4.17, 95% CI: 1.74-10.02) were predictors of medication nonadherence. Conclusion: Majority of the epileptic patients were nonadherent to their medications, and more than one-third of the patients had a negative medication belief. Low medication necessity belief, high medication concern belief, negative medication belief, comorbidity, and seizure encounter were predictors of medication nonadherence. Therefore, healthcare providers should design educational programs to enhance the patients' believe about their medication in order to improve medication adherence and overall treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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