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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(2): 294-303, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692337

RESUMO

We conducted 3 prospective cohort studies (2016-2018), enrolling persons from 2 communities in South Africa. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected twice a week from participants. Factors associated with Bordetella pertussis incidence, episode duration, and household transmission were determined by using Poisson regression, Weibull accelerated time-failure, and logistic regression hierarchical models, respectively. Among 1,684 participants, 118 episodes of infection were detected in 107 participants (incidence 0.21, 95% CI 0.17-0.25 infections/100 person-weeks). Children <5 years of age who had incomplete vaccination were more likely to have pertussis infection. Episode duration was longer for participants who had higher bacterial loads. Transmission was more likely to occur from male index case-patients and persons who had >7 days infection duration. In both communities, there was high incidence of B. pertussis infection and most cases were colonized.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Bordetella pertussis , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Incidência
2.
Vaccine ; 41(3): 812-820, 2023 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine recommendations for healthcare workers (HCW) aim to protect them and reduce transmission to susceptible patients. We conducted a national randomised survey in 2019 whose main objectives were to estimate national vaccination coverage (VC) for measles, pertussis, varicella, and influenza in HCW working in healthcare facilities (HCF) in France, and to identify determinants associated with higher VC. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of physicians, nurses, midwives and nursing assistants in HCF using a random stratified three-stage sampling design. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using a tablet computer and complemented with information from the individual HCW vaccination records. We investigated possible determinants of higher VC using univariate and multivariate Poisson regressions and estimated the prevalence ratio (PR). RESULTS: We included 8594 HCW working in 167 HCF. Self-declared VC was 73.3% (CI95%: 71.0-75.5) for measles in HCW with no history of measles (at least one dose), 53.5% (49.9-57.0) for pertussis (booster dose during adulthood), 26.4% (23.0-30.2) for varicella in HCW with no history of varicella (at least one dose) and 34.8% (32.8-37.4) for influenza. Taking into account the history of each disease and related VC, 14.6% and 10.1 % of HCW were susceptible to measles and varicella. VC varied by profession, age group, ward and sex. Higher influenza VC was observed in HCW working in wards where i) there was a staff vaccination contact person (PRa: 1.2, CI95% 1.1-1.4), ii) staff vaccination was organized in the ward (1.4: 1.2-1.6), iii) information on influenza vaccines was provided (1.2: 1.1-1.4), and iv) the ward manager supported the HCW vaccination campaign (1.3: 1.1-1.6). DISCUSSION: Over a 10-year period, VC for HCW working in HCF improved in France. However, vaccination objectives were not achieved for measles (95%) or influenza (80%). Vaccination efforts should be continued, especially in wards with at-risk patients.


Assuntos
Varicela , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Sarampo , Coqueluche , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , França/epidemiologia
3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(3): 362-370, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Poland in 2020, including pertussis cases, was significantly influenced by the limitation of interpersonal contacts introduced to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. There was a reduction by more than half in the number of recorded pertussis cases, from 1,629 in 2019 to 753 in 2020. Pertussis is most dangerous for young children, however, it can get sick at any age, and the disease does not leave permanent immunity. Severe pertussis can also develop in the elderly, which may increase the risk of mortality. Adults usually have pertussis is mildly symptomatic and constitute an important reservoir of B. pertussis. The most effective strategy for the prevention of pertussis is still immunization of children in accordance with the Protective Vaccination Program, and in the case of adults, vaccination with the pertussis component in acellular form, repeated regularly every 10 years. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2020 compared to the situation in previous years, with particular emphasis on the assessment of the vaccination status of children against pertussis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland was performed on the basis of the results of the analysis of unit reports of pertussis registered in the NIPH NIH - NRI in the EpiBaza system and data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020" and the bulletin "Vaccinations in Poland in 2020". RESULTS: In 2020, 753 cases of pertussis were registered. The incidence was 1.96 per 100,000 population and was lower compared to the incidence in 2019 (4.24). The highest incidence of pertussis occurred in the age group 0-4 years (9.9), and high in children and adolescents aged 5-9 years (5.1) and 10-14 years (6.0 per 100,000 population). About half of the cases concerned people over 15 years of age. In general, a higher incidence of women was observed than that of men, as well as a greater number of cases in cities than in rural areas. In 2020, among people suffering from pertussis, 206 people (i.e. 27%) required hospitalization. In 2020, one fatal case of the disease was reported to the epidemiological surveillance system. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: In Poland, in 2020, there was a decrease in the number of pertussis cases by more than a half compared to the previous year. Despite the decline in disease rates, pertussis remains a public health problem as immunization-induced immunity is not sustained throughout life. Increasing the number of people susceptible to pertussis may lead to compensatory epidemics in the future, therefore the highest possible level of vaccination of the population, >92-94%, should be maintained to prevent new cases of pertussis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Coqueluche , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Idoso , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , População Rural , Distribuição por Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Incidência , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1054617, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530663

RESUMO

Introduction: The dramatic decrease in the number of reported cases of pertussis during COVID-19 pandemic has been underestimated. The objective was to compare the estimated incidence rate of pertussis in populations pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic by analyzing the anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutininant (anti-FHA) IgG antibodies in healthy Chinese population from 2018 to 2021. Methods: All serum samples (N = 1,000) were collected from healthy population (aged ≥ 15 years) who attended an annual monitoring project of antibody levels in Jiangsu province in 2018-2021 were measured by ELISA. Results: The positive rates of anti-PT IgG and anti-FHA IgG antibodies were 11.4% (114/1,000) and 20.2% (202/1,000) (≥40 IU/ml), the GMC were 17.25 (95% CI: 15.49-19.03) IU/mL and 24.94 (95% CI: 22.73-27.16) IU/mL in the study population, respectively. The percentage of participants with anti-PT IgG antibodies higher than 40 IU/mL was 5.20% (11/212) in 2018, 5.5% (19/348) in 2019, 21.2% (46/217) in 2020 and 17.0% (38/223) in 2021, respectively. The non-detectable rate (<5 IU/mL) of anti-PT IgG antibodies was 16.9, 17.7, 28.1, and 37.3% in 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. We assumed that the infection occurred within 58.6 days, and based on the overall proportion (2.9%) of individuals with anti-PT IgG antibody ≥100 IU/ml, the incidence rate (/100) was estimated by the formula to be 18.08 (95% CI: 12.40-26.11). In addition, the estimated incidence of Post-COVID-19 was higher than that of Pre-COVID-19 (36.33/100 vs. 12.84/100), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest a high rate of under-reporting of pertussis in Jiangsu Province both pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic, and there are a large number of adults of childbearing age who are susceptible to pertussis. It seems imperative that vaccination of adolescents and adults should be considered for inclusion in vaccination programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coqueluche , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Pandemias , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina G , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Toxina Pertussis , China/epidemiologia
5.
Vaccine ; 40(49): 7122-7129, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404430

RESUMO

An increasing number of countries have been introducing acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy for the prevention of neonatal pertussis. In response to the fact that infantile pertussis cases of 0-5 months age groups remained unchanged despite the universal vaccination program, prenatal pertussis vaccination has been a rising issue in Japan. Hence, we investigated the seroprevalence of pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus antibodies in Japanese pregnant women and neonates, and evaluated the necessity of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination during the preconception or prenatal period. Maternal PT-IgG (EIA) and FHA-IgG (EIA) for the first trimester, within 1 week after delivery, and cord blood were collected, along with colostrum pertussis-IgA (ELISA), diphtheria-IgG (EIA), tetanus-IgG (EIA), and blood samples from the first trimester. The maternal seroprevalence of PT-IgG and FHA-IgG was 69 % and 75 %, respectively. All tested participants were positive for diphtheria-IgG and tetanus-IgG (100 %). First trimester PT-IgG/FHA-IgG antibody titers were significantly associated with cord blood PT-IgG/FHA-IgG titers (P < 0.001). We found that pertussis seroprevalence among pregnant Japanese women was approximately 70 %. The antibody seropositivity rate of pertussis was lower than that of diphtheria and tetanus. Fetal acquired passive immunity against pertussis is higher when the level of maternal antibody in the first trimester is sufficient. At least 30 % of study population did not reach to the threshold value to provide sufficient pertussis immunity for the neonates and themselves. The acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) approved in Japan lacks safety information for pregnancy, hence, a solution for prompt administration of prenatal acellular pertussis vaccination might be introducing DTaP in the preconception period.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular , Difteria , Tétano , Coqueluche , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Japão/epidemiologia , Difteria/epidemiologia , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Gestantes , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Dados Preliminares , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Vacinação , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina A Secretora , Corynebacterium
7.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(3): 580-586, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis infection remains an important health problem in adults due to the increasing prevalence in recent years. Pertussis in adults can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. We aimed to determine the prevalence of pertussis in adult patients with acute cough and the clinical features of the pertussis cases. METHODS: Internal Medicine and Pulmonology inpatient wards and outpatient clinics were screened between March 2017 and June 2018. Patients with cough duration between 1 week and 1 month were enrolled. Those who were on antibiotics for more than 5 days were excluded. A total of 115 patients were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were done. RESULTS: According to the pertussis case definition, 47.8% of the patients were diagnosed with probable pertussis. We found the prevalence of pertussis as 3.5% in our cohort. All of the patients with pertussis had a history of paroxysmal cough with a mean duration of 20 days. DISCUSSION: These results show that pertussis continues to be a health problem for adults and may present with acute cough. The growing number of adult pertussis cases suggest that vaccination of children is inadequate to prevent pertussis and the concept of 'lifelong vaccination' should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Coqueluche/complicações , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Bordetella pertussis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6939-6946, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined healthcare resource use (HCRU) for selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in secondary care in England. METHODS: The hospital episode statistics (HES) dataset covering all secondary care interactions within the English National Health Service (NHS) from 2015 to 2021 was used to identify and track HCRU for patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis for pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), or a primary diagnosis only for hepatitis B, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, or tetanus. The first documented diagnosis during the study period (01/04/2015-31/03/2021) was the index event. RESULTS: 7,274 patients with a total of 5,554,343 patient-days (mean follow up 1,491 days) were included. The total number of hospital admissions was 27,092 and total inpatient cost was £4,987,770, with hepatitis B making up ∼80 % of this. Mean outpatient hospital appointments per patient were highest for tetanus (4.00), but total outpatient A&E cost burden was highest for Hib (£643,343 [mean per attendance £144.57]). For patients 0-9 years of age (n = 1,917), pertussis (n = 1,547) and Hib (n = 313) were by far the most commonly coded diseases. Hepatitis B was the most common disease in adults of working age and Hib was most prevalent in adults of retirement age. Surprisingly, poliomyelitis was observed in the database potentially due to historic diagnoses and/or coding inaccuracy. Other discrepancies with surveillance data were noted. CONCLUSIONS: VPDs impose a large burden on the NHS, but there is potential to reduce this and improve public health by optimising vaccination schedules, improving access and ensuring high coverage rates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b , Hepatite B , Poliomielite , Tétano , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , Coqueluche , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Vacinas Combinadas , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Medicina Estatal , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche
10.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 71(3): 139-147, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated what risk factors affect hospitalisation for confirmed pertussis cases among infants (child up to 1 year) in the Czech Republic based on data from the questionnaire-based enhanced surveillance system (ESS) in years 2015, 2017 and 2019. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted in which we assessed demographic, clinical data, vaccination status and risk/protective factors. Vaccination status was extracted from the electronic nationwide notification system (NNS). We performed descriptive, univariable and multivariable analysis using risk ratio (RR) and logistic regression with odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: A total of 104 confirmed cases (27, 13, 64) were reported in the ESS during 2015, 2017 and 2019. Most cases were in age group 1 month (24), more males (57). Fifteen cases were vaccinated and 89 unvaccinated. Of 88 hospitalised cases, 31 cases reported stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The median length of hospitalisation was 8 days. Although the variable vaccinated in infants was statistically significant in a univariable analysis for outcome hospitalisation, RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.53-1.10), it was not in multivariable. Hospitalisation was strongly associated with the younger age group of 0-3 months adjusted by a smoking family member in a household (OR = 9.72; 95% CI: 2.97-31.81). Stay in ICU was strongly correlated with the younger age group of 0-3 months (OR = 5.07; 95% CI: 1.44-17.87) and with a contact with confirmed or probable pertussis (OR = 7.05; 95% CI: 1.36-36.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated younger age and contact with other pertussis case as risk factors for hospitalisation of infants with pertussis. It is necessary to consider adolescent and adult boosters, including vaccination during pregnancy. We suggest integrating the variables from the enhanced surveillance system into the nationwide notification system, in order to simplify the data reporting and evaluation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ESS and to monitor the vaccination of pregnant women against pertussis.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Coqueluche , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
11.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6956-6962, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the resurgence of pertussis has posed a public health challenge in many countries. This study aimed to evaluate the immunity levels against pertussis among populations of different ages in China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional serological survey in Zhejiang Province, China in 2020. Serum IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (anti-PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (anti-FHA), and pertactin (anti-PRN) were quantitatively measured. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) of three antibodies was calculated. An anti-PT level < 5 IU/mL was considered undetectable, ≥20 IU/mL as seropositive and ≥80 IU/mL as an indicator of recent infection. Mathematical models were fitted for anti-PT concentrations over time in children after four doses of the pertussis vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 4459 participants aged 0-59 years were included in the analyses. The overall positivity rate of anti-PT was 29.80% with the highest (81.44%) rate in the 1-2 years old and the lowest (4.72%) in 10-14 years old. The GMCs of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN for the whole participants were 9.67 (95%CI: 9.25-10.10),18.93 (18.24-19.67), and 8.99 (8.61-9.38) IU/mL, respectively. Over 50% of subjects aged ≥ 7 years had undetectable anti-PT IgG antibodies (<5IU/mL). The proportions of the populations with anti-PT IgG ≥ 80 IU/mL were approximately 0.9%, 0.3% and 1.1% among the 10-14, 15-29, and 40-59 years old groups, respectively. The power regression equation of the attenuation model after last dose of pertussis vaccine was y = 41.088x-1.238 (R2 = 0.935, p < 0.001). The fitted anti-PT concentrations was only 5.60 IU/mL at 5 years following the last vaccination dose. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pertussis decreased during the study period in the COVID-19 pandemic; however, there was still a certain proportion of adolescents and adults with evidence of recent infection. The decline in antibody levels after pertussis vaccination was observed, and booster doses are in urgent need in China.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coqueluche , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , China/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Imunoglobulina G , Pandemias , Toxina Pertussis , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Vaccine ; 40(44): 6374-6382, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PERTINENT is an active hospital-based surveillance system for pertussis in infants. In 2019, four of the six participating European countries recommended pertussis vaccination in pregnancy. Among infants aged <2 months, we measured the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in pregnancy; among infants aged 2-11 months, VE of vaccination in pregnancy and of primary vaccination (PV). METHODS: From December 2015 to 2019, we included all infants aged <1 year presenting with pertussis-like symptoms. Using a test-negative-design, cases were infants testing positive for Bordetella pertussis by PCR or culture. Controls were those testing negative for all Bordetella species. Vaccinated mothers were those who received vaccine in pregnancy. Vaccinated infants were those who received ≥1 dose of PV > 14 days before symptom onset. We excluded infants with unknown maternal or PV status or with mothers vaccinated ≤14 days before delivery. We calculated pooled VE as 100 * (1-odds ratio of vaccination) adjusted for study site, onset date in quarters and infants' age group. RESULTS: Of 829 infants presenting with pertussis-like symptoms, 336 (41%) were too young for PV. For the VE in pregnancy analysis, we included 75 cases and 201 controls. Vaccination in pregnancy was recorded for 9 cases (12%) and 92 controls (46%), adjusted VE was between 75% [95%CI: 35-91%] and 88% [95%CI: 57-96%]. Of 493 infants eligible for PV, we included 123 cases and 253 controls. Thirty-one cases and 98 controls recorded both PV with ≥ 1 dose and vaccination in pregnancy, adjusted VE was between 74% [95%CI: 33-90] and 95% [95%CI: 69-99]; 27 cases and 53 controls recorded PV only, adjusted VE was between 68% [95%CI: 27-86] and 94% [95%CI: 59-99]. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that vaccination in pregnancy reduces pertussis incidence in infants too young for PV. In infants aged 2-11 months, PV only and both PV and vaccination in pregnancy provide significant protection against severe pertussis.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Mães , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Vacinação , Hospitalização
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16860, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36258023

RESUMO

Infection is the most common cause of mortality early in life, yet the broad potential of immunization is not fully realized in this vulnerable population. Most vaccines are administered during infancy and childhood, but in some cases the full benefit of vaccination is not realized in-part. New adjuvants are cardinal to further optimize current immunization approaches for early life. However, only a few classes of adjuvants are presently incorporated in vaccines approved for human use. Recent advances in the discovery and delivery of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist adjuvants have provided a new toolbox for vaccinologists. Prominent among these candidate adjuvants are synthetic small molecule TLR7/8 agonists. The development of an effective infant Bordetella pertussis vaccine is urgently required because of the resurgence of pertussis in many countries, contemporaneous to the switch from whole cell to acellular vaccines. In this context, TLR7/8 adjuvant based vaccine formulation strategies may be a promising tool to enhance and accelerate early life immunity by acellular B. pertussis vaccines. In the present study, we optimized (a) the formulation delivery system, (b) structure, and (c) immunologic activity of novel small molecule imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 adjuvants towards human infant leukocytes, including dendritic cells. Upon immunization of neonatal mice, this TLR7/8 adjuvant overcame neonatal hyporesponsiveness to acellular pertussis vaccination by driving a T helper (Th)1/Th17 biased T cell- and IgG2c-skewed humoral response to a licensed acellular vaccine (DTaP). This potent immunization strategy may represent a new paradigm for effective immunization against pertussis and other pathogens in early life.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Camundongos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/agonistas , Vacinação , Vacinas Acelulares , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
15.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 955-959, 2022.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111710

RESUMO

Infantile pertussis is clear evidence for the persistent transmission of pertussis in communities. Infants are the most vulnerable population for pertussis infection and are also important nodes in pertussis transmission networks in communities, and therefore, the prevention of infantile pertussis is the core of prevention and control measures against pertussis including vaccine immunization. Although the cases of pertussis reported in China are mainly infants with pertussis, the actual number of infants with pertussis might be higher than the reported number. It is necessary in clinical practice to improve the awareness of this disease and promote related laboratory tests. On the basis of emphasizing the identification of pertussis in infants, timely diagnosis and treatment, follow-up visits, and standard management of the close contacts of infants with pertussis should be performed to reduce and block the community transmission of pertussis.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Coqueluche , China , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
16.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275105, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156084

RESUMO

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, infection from pertussis, influenza and COVID-19 increases the likelihood of adverse consequences to the mother and developing baby such as stillbirth, ICU admission, and pre-term caesarean birth. Increased rates of transmission and risk of adverse consequences from infection justifies the provision of national maternal vaccination programmes. Additionally, maternal vaccination helps protect the infant until they are able to receive their own vaccinations; a time when they are most at risk of mortality from influenza and pertussis. Vaccination during pregnancy has been repeatedly demonstrated as safe and effective in reducing harm, although rates of uptake remain low compared to the general population. The current protocol describes the methodology for an umbrella review aiming to explore the barriers and facilitators of vaccination during pregnancy for pertussis, influenza, and COVID-19. Systematic reviews that investigate the barriers and facilitators of at least one of either pertussis, influenza, or COVID-19 will be included in this review. Multiple databases will be searched, and included reviews assessed for quality (using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality assessment for systematic reviews) and degree of overlap of included primary studies. Included reviews will be analysed according to the WHO SAGE model of determinants of vaccine hesitancy and separated by whether these explore influenza and pertussis, or COVID-19. The outcomes of this review will help inform the development of interventions to increase uptake of vaccination during pregnancy, and on whether interventions need to be tailored depending on the infectious disease. The key findings will identify the specific barriers and facilitators of vaccination hesitancy by considering contextual influences (e.g. sociodemographic variables), individual/social group influences (e.g. trust in the institutions), and vaccine-specific issues (e.g. safety and recommendations).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Coqueluche , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/induzido quimicamente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Vacinação , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011545

RESUMO

The incidence of scarlet fever and pertussis has increased significantly in China in recent years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, stringent non-pharmaceutical intervention measures were widely adopted to contain the spread of the virus, which may also have essential collateral impacts on other infectious diseases, such as scarlet fever and pertussis. We compared the incidence data of scarlet fever and pertussis in Mainland China and Hong Kong from 2004 to 2021 before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that the incidence of both diseases decreased significantly in 2020-2021 compared to the after-re-emergence stage in these two locations. Specifically, in 2020, scarlet fever decreased by 73.13% and pertussis by 76.63% in Mainland China, and 83.70% and 76.10%, respectively, in Hong Kong. In the absence of COVID-19, the predicted incidence of both diseases was much higher than the actual incidence in Mainland China and Hong Kong in 2020-2021. This study demonstrates that non-pharmaceutical measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic can partially reduce scarlet fever and pertussis re-emergence in Mainland China and Hong Kong.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Escarlatina , Coqueluche , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/prevenção & controle , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
18.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 97(4): 262-269, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pertussis is a respiratory infection caused by bacteria of the genus Bordetella, mainly pertussis and parapertussis species. Despite the high vaccination coverage in developed countries, it is considered a re-emerging disease that is also underreported and underdiagnosed, especially in patients who do not require hospital referral. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, prospective and multicentre study of pertussis diagnosis and contact investigation in 17 primary care paediatric clinics through collection of samples for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing over a period of 4 years and after the implementation of routine vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy. RESULTS: Pertussis was diagnosed in a total of 50 patients; the estimated incidence in these years was higher compared to previous rates in the paediatric age group. Fourteen percent of the cases occurred in children aged less than 1 year. The mean age was 6.7 years. Cough was present in 100% of cases, followed in frequency by vomiting and rhinorrhoea. Only 1 patient required hospital admission, and none died or developed complications. B. pertussis was the predominant causative agent. Only 40% knew the source of infection. In 26% of the cases, pertussis was confirmed in contacts of the patient by PCR, and in 46% it was suspected based on the clinical presentation but without microbiological confirmation. CONCLUSIONS: Access to diagnostic tests (PCR) for pertussis in primary care allows us to optimise its diagnosis and treatment, to break the chain of transmission, to know the real incidence rates and to assess the impact of routine vaccination of pregnant women on this disease.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Bordetella pertussis/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(11): 3016-3025, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of macrolide resistance in Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of pertussis, due to mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been recently recognized. However, resistance mechanisms to macrolides in Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella holmesii remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated genomic changes induced by in vitro exposure to erythromycin in these three main pathogens responsible for pertussis-like disease. METHODS: A set of 10 clinical and reference strains of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. holmesii was exposed to erythromycin for 15 weeks or 30 subculture passages. Antibiotic pressure was achieved by growth on the selective media with erythromycin Etest strips or impregnated discs. Genome polymorphisms and transcriptomic profiles were examined by short- and long-read sequencing of passaged isolates. RESULTS: B. parapertussis and B. holmesii isolates developed significant in vitro resistance to erythromycin (MIC >256 mg/L) within 2 to 7 weeks and at 5 to 12 weeks, respectively. B. pertussis remained phenotypically susceptible to the antibiotic following 15 weeks of exposure, with the MIC between 0.032 to 0.38 mg/L. Genomic analysis revealed that B. holmesii developed resistance due to mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. The resistance mechanism in B. parapertussis was hypothesized as being due to upregulation of an efflux pump mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that both B. holmesii and B. parapertussis can be more prone to induced resistance following exposure to treatment with erythromycin than B. pertussis. The surveillance of macrolide resistance in Bordetella isolates recovered from patients with pertussis, especially persistent disease, is warranted.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Humanos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Bordetella pertussis/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Genômica
20.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 79(3): 152-160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882025

RESUMO

Pertussis is a highly contagious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which may be preventable by vaccination. There are two types of vaccines: whole-cell vaccines and acellular vaccines. Since pertussis control worldwide is heterogeneous, re-emergence of whooping cough has been observed in some countries. This re-emergence has been related to several factors: increased susceptibility to infection, better detection of disease, problems in obtaining adequate vaccination coverage, increase in susceptible subjects (mainly under 6 months of age), loss of immunity in adolescents and young adults, and likely genetic and adaptive B. pertussis changes. This paper discusses whole-cell and acellular vaccines' characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages. International recommendations are presented, and the participants' position is offered regarding the influence of the use of acellular vaccines and the potential disadvantages of reintroducing whole-cell vaccines, mainly due to their reactogenicity. Finally, strategies to achieve better control of pertussis in Mexico are discussed.


La tos ferina es una enfermedad causada por Bordetella pertussis. Aunque es altamente contagiosa, puede ser prevenible por vacunación. Existen dos tipos de vacunas: las de células enteras y las acelulares. La tos ferina ha resurgido en algunos países debido a que su control a escala mundial es heterogéneo. Esta reemergencia se ha relacionado con diversos factores: mayor sensibilidad hacia la infección, mejor detección de la enfermedad, problemas para obtener adecuadas coberturas de vacunación, incremento en los sujetos susceptibles (especialmente menores de 6 meses), pérdida de la inmunidad en los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, y probables cambios genéticos y adaptativos de B. pertussis. En este documento se analizan las características, las ventajas y las desventajas de las vacunas de células enteras y de las vacunas acelulares. Se presentan las recomendaciones internacionales y se ofrece el posicionamiento de los participantes con respecto a la influencia del uso de vacunas acelulares y las desventajas potenciales de volver a utilizar vacunas de células enteras, en especial por su reactogenicidad. Por último, se analizan las estrategias para lograr un mejor control de la tos ferina en México.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Adolescente , Bordetella pertussis , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Vacinas Acelulares , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
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