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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219320, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253013

RESUMO

Aim: This study analyzed the effect of whitening mouth rinses on water sorption (WS), solubility (SL), color change, and surface roughness of a nanofilled composite. Whitening perceptibility and acceptability (WID) were also studied. Methods: Forty specimens of Filtek Z350XT, shade EA2 were produced and randomly distributed (n=8) to AS ­ artificial saliva (control); LWE ­ Listerine Whitening Extreme; CLW ­ Colgate Luminous White; LCM ­ Listerine Cool Mint; and CP ­ Colgate Plax. They were immersed in the mouth rinses 2x/day, for one minute, during 28 days. The color was assessed using an Easyshade spectrophotometer (CIE-L*a*b* system). Surface roughness (Ra-µm) was measured with three parallel measures, using an RP-200 roughness meter. The WS and SL (µg/mm-3) were analyzed based on the ISO 4049 recommendations. The data were analyzed using one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results: Surface roughness significantly increased after immersion in AS and LCM, with no significant differences between the groups either before or after immersion. The ΔE* was not significantly different between the groups. All substances produced a ΔWID higher than the 50%:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. The WS and SL were not significantly affected by the mouth rinses. Conclusion: Whitening mouth rinses did not affect WS, SL, surface roughness, and color stability of a nanofilled composite, regardless of the presence of ethanol in the composition


Assuntos
Cor , Resinas Compostas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Clareadores Dentários , Antissépticos Bucais
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211076, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253739

RESUMO

Aim: to evaluate the intra and inter-device reliability of two intraoral spectrophotometers in measuring the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color coordinates and to compare the color difference (ΔE) between both devices. Methods: the central region of the labial surface of the maxillary central incisor of 31 participants was measured twice by each of the devices (VITA EasyShade and Degudent Shadepilot) by one examiner. CIE L*a*b* color coordinates were obtained for all teeth and ΔE was measured and compared. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Mann-whitney U test were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: inter-device reliability ICCs in measuring CIE L*a*b* color coordinates ranged between 0.08-0.49 with significant difference between devices only concerning the b coordinate (p<0.05). While intra device reliability ICCs ranged between 0.86-0.89 for VITA EasyShade and 0.81-0.86 for Degudent Shadepilot. The mean ΔE for CIE L*a*b* color coordinates of VITA EasyShade was 3.61 (±1.93) compared to 3.60 (± 1.45) for Degudent Shadepilot with insignificant difference between both devices (p>0.05). Conclusions: high intra device reliability in measuring CIE L*a*b* color coordinates was achieved particularly of Vita EasyShade, and both devices had clinically acceptable color difference (ΔE <3.7) however, inter device reliability was low to moderate. Consequently, the same spectrophotometer should be used throughout the steps of performing any tooth- colored restoration


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Espectrofotometria , Cor , Confiabilidade dos Dados
3.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 18-23, maio-ago. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1252902

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi realizar uma revisão narrativa da literatura para comparar os métodos visual e instrumental de seleção da cor dentária, correlacionando-os com o fator experiência e a educação continuada. Utilizou-se como base de dados a MEDLINE na qual foram aplicados os descritores "visualshade match", "color measurement", "spectrophotometer" e "tooth color determination". Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos publicados entre 2010 e 2020que abordassem uma análise comparativa entre as duas modalidades de seleção da cor dentária. Se enquadraram nos critérios de exclusão estudos que não contemplavam a temática abordada e aqueles publicados nos anos anteriores a 2010, além das revisões de literatura. No total, onze artigos foram selecionados para compor essa revisão. Os estudos demonstraram que o método instrumental apresentou maior confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade quando comparado ao método visual, isso se deve ao fato de a escolha de cor através de instrumentos eletrônicos proporcionar melhor precisão e atenuação da subjetividade. No que concerne a experiência como fator influenciador da seleção de cor, os estudos são controversos. Mesmo evidenciando melhor precisão, a estimativa instrumental apresenta limitações devido à dificuldade de aferição em função da convexidade da anatomia dentária. Desse modo, foi descrito que a associação de métodos é capaz de elevar a confiabilidade da escolha de cor, melhorando o resultado estético. Não houve consenso entre os estudos com relação à influência da experiência, no entanto, a educação continuada foi sugerida na literatura como alternativa para formar profissionais mais confiantes no processo de seleção de tonalidades(AU)


The goal of this study was to carry out a narrative review of the literature to compare the visual and instrumental methods of tooth color selection, correlating them with the experience factor and continuing education. MEDLINE was used as a database in which the descriptions such as "visual shade match", "color measurement", "spectrophotometer" and "tooth color determination" were applied. The inclusion criteria were articles published between 2010 and 2020 that addressed a comparative analysis between the two types of tooth color selection. The exclusion criteria included studies that did not contemplate the theme addressed and those published in the years prior to 2010, in addition to literature reviews. In total, eleven articles were selected to compose this review. Studies have shown that the instrumental method showed greater reliability and reproducibility when compared to the visual method, this is due to the fact that the color's choice through electronic instruments provides better precision and lessened subjectivity. Regarding experience as na influencing factor in color selection, studies are controversial. Even with better precision, the instrumental estimation has limitations due to the difficulty of measuring it due to the convexity of the dental anatomy. Thus, it was described that the association of the methods is able to increase the reliability of the color's choice, improving the aesthetic result. There was no consensus among the studies in regard to the experiment's influence, however, continuing education was suggested in the literature as an alternative in order to form more confident professionals when it comes to the shade selection process(AU)


Assuntos
Cor , Estética Dentária , Espectrofotometria
4.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20200467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camphorquinone is the most conventionally used photoinitiator in Dentistry. Although different alternative photoinitiators have been proposed, no photoinitiator was capable of completely substituting camphorquinone. The combination of photoinitiators has been considered the best alternative. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of combining Norrish type I and II photoinitiators on the cure efficiency of dental resin-based composites. METHODOLOGY: Experimental composites were produced containing different photoinitiator systems: Norrish type I-only, mono-alkyl phosphine oxide (TPO); Norrish type II-only, camphorquinone (CQ); or its combination, CQ and TPO, in a 1: 1 molar ratio. UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry was performed to assess the consumption of each photoinitiator after curing (n=3). A multi-wave LED (Bluephase® G2, Ivoclar Vivadent) was pre-characterized and used with a radiant exposure of 24 J/cm2. The degree of conversion was evaluated by Raman spectrometry, and the elution of the monomers by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (n=3). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05; ß=0.2). RESULTS: The combination of CQ and TPO increased the consumption of the photoinitiator system compared to CQ-only (p=0.001), but presented similar consumption compared to TPO-only (p=0.52). There was no significant difference in the degree of conversion between the composites regardless of the photoinitiator system (p=0.81). However, the elution of the monomers was reduced when both photoinitiators were combined. TPO-based material presented the highest elution of monomers. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the photoinitiator systems seems to be beneficial for the cure efficiency of dental resin-based composites.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Fotoiniciadores Dentários , Cor , Teste de Materiais , Espectrofotometria
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208715

RESUMO

Vegetable processing pomace contains valuable substances such as natural colors that can be reused as functional ingredients. Due to a large amount of water, they are an unstable material. The aim of our research was to assess how the pretreatment method (thermal or nonthermal) affects the properties of powders obtained from beet juice and pomace after the freeze-drying process. The raw material was steamed or sonicated for 10 or 15 min, and then squeezed into juice and pomace. Both squeezed products were freeze-dried. The content of dry substance; L*, a*, and b* color parameters; and the content of betalain pigments were analyzed. Pretreatments increased the proportion of red and yellow in the juices. Steam and ultrasound caused a significant reduction in parameter b* in the dried pomace. A significant increase in betanin in lyophilizates was observed after pretreatment with ultrasound and steam for 15 min. As a result of all experiments, dried juices and pomaces can also be used as a colorant source. However, there is higher potential with pomaces due to their additional internal substances as well as better storage properties. After a few hours, juice was sticky and not ready to use.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Betalaínas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Betacianinas/química , Betalaínas/química , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206669

RESUMO

The history of colour is fascinating from a social and artistic viewpoint because it shows the way; use; and importance acquired. The use of colours date back to the Stone Age (the first news of cave paintings); colour has contributed to the social and symbolic development of civilizations. Colour has been associated with hierarchy; power and leadership in some of them. The advent of synthetic dyes has revolutionized the colour industry; and due to their low cost; their use has spread to different industrial sectors. Although the percentage of coloured wastewater discharged by the textile; food; pharmaceutical; cosmetic; and paper industries; among other productive areas; are unknown; the toxic effect and ecological implications of this discharged into water bodies are harmful. This review briefly shows the social and artistic history surrounding the discovery and use of natural and synthetic dyes. We summarise the environmental impact caused by the discharge of untreated or poorly treated coloured wastewater to water bodies; which has led to physical; chemical and biological treatments to reduce the colour units so as important physicochemical parameters. We also focus on laccase utility (EC 1.10.3.2), for discolouration enzymatic treatment of coloured wastewater, before its discharge into water bodies. Laccases (p-diphenol: oxidoreductase dioxide) are multicopper oxidoreductase enzymes widely distributed in plants, insects, bacteria, and fungi. Fungal laccases have employed for wastewater colour removal due to their high redox potential. This review includes an analysis of the stability of laccases, the factors that influence production at high scales to achieve discolouration of high volumes of contaminated wastewater, the biotechnological impact of laccases, and the degradation routes that some dyes may follow when using the laccase for colour removal.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Lacase/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cor
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198486

RESUMO

Digital cameras obtain color information of the scene using a chromatic filter, usually a Bayer filter, overlaid on a pixelated detector. However, the periodic arrangement of both the filter array and the detector array introduces frequency aliasing in sampling and color misregistration during demosaicking process which causes degradation of image quality. Inspired by the biological structure of the avian retinas, we developed a chromatic LED array which has a geometric arrangement of multi-hyperuniformity, which exhibits an irregularity on small-length scales but a quasi-uniformity on large scales, to suppress frequency aliasing and color misregistration in full color image retrieval. Experiments were performed with a single-pixel imaging system using the multi-hyperuniform chromatic LED array to provide structured illumination, and 208 fps frame rate was achieved at 32 × 32 pixel resolution. By comparing the experimental results with the images captured with a conventional digital camera, it has been demonstrated that the proposed imaging system forms images with less chromatic moiré patterns and color misregistration artifacts. The concept proposed verified here could provide insights for the design and the manufacturing of future bionic imaging sensors.


Assuntos
Aumento da Imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Algoritmos , Biônica , Cor , Colorimetria
8.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(5): 479-483, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318764

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration on the bleaching efficacy and penetration through the tooth structure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred enamel/dentin specimens with cylindrical shape were obtained from bovine incisors. The surfaces were polished and the size standardized. They were divided into five groups (n = 20), following the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching gels: 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40% (w/w). The specimens were placed over artificial pulpal chambers containing acetate buffer solution and bleached for 30 minutes (three applications of 10 minutes each). Aliquots of the acetate solution were collected, and the peroxide concentration was measured by an analytic spectrophotometer. The color of the samples was analyzed using a colorimetric spectrophotometer at the baseline and 7 days after the bleaching procedure. The color difference was calculated using the ∆Eab formula. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p <0.05). RESULTS: The peroxide concentrations of 20-30% showed smaller bleaching effect than the higher concentrations (p = 0.001). The peroxide penetration was significantly higher (p = 0.001) for the more concentrated gels (35 and 40%). CONCLUSION: The higher peroxide concentrations enhance the bleaching efficacy, but also increased the peroxide penetration through the tooth structure. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In-office bleaching gels with higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (35 and 40%) present superior whitening efficacy. Nevertheless, they might also intensify the negative biological effects on the pulpal tissue, since they exhibit increased penetration potential. How to cite this article: Torres CRG, Zanatta RF, Godoy MMM, et al. Influence of Bleaching Gel Peroxide Concentration on Color and Penetration through the Tooth Structure. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021;22(5):479-483.


Assuntos
Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Esmalte Dentário , Géis , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peróxidos
9.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(5): 557-561, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318777

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the refractive index of four commercially available enamel resin composites, using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and their relationship with the atomic composition of the composite resin fillers utilizing an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four different enamel composites, namely Enamel HRi color UE3, Enamel HFO color GE3, Vit-l-escence color Pearl Frost, and Amelogen Plus color Enamel White were tested. For each composite, disks with different thicknesses were fabricated and then light-cured according to the manufacturer's instructions. The disks were then stored in deionized water under 36.5 °C for at least 7 days. Each of the samples from the four different groups was measured in five distinctive points to analyze the optical and physical length using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Elemental analysis of all four different enamel shades of the composite was done using an EDX. RESULTS: The filler contents showed interesting differences in elemental composition and concentration; however, Si seemed to be a common filler component. The HRi composite presented a distinctive composition compared to other materials and was the only composite that showed a smaller percentage of SiO2, and also was the only composite that contained compounds, such as P2O5, ZnO, CaO, La2O3, and V2O5. The optical coherence tomography analysis showed the refractive index values of all tested enamel composites. Among the four different enamel composite resins tested, the enamel HRi composite demonstrated the most ideal refractive index to mimic natural enamel. CONCLUSION: The enamel HRi composite demonstrated a distinctive filler composition and this could be the main reason behind its higher refractive index. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how much of an impact this feature has in the final esthetic outcome of anterior composite restorations, where many other optical phenomena are also important. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The clinical success of any esthetic restorative procedure depends on diagnosing the proper treatment plan and also on executing this treatment with the right materials. On direct esthetic restorations, knowing the optical properties of such materials is fundamental, as they should be able to replicate both natural enamel and dentin. How to cite this article: Beolchi RS, Mehta D, Pelissier B, et al. Influence of Filler Composition on the Refractive Index of Four Different Enamel Shades of Composite Resins. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021;22(5):557-561.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários , Refratometria , Cor , Resinas Compostas , Esmalte Dentário , Estética Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Dióxido de Silício
10.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(2): 111-116, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257167

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the color change of three flowable composites after exposure to staining solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 240 oval samples were constructed of conventional flowable resin composite, self-adhesive flowable resin composite, and nanohybrid flowable ormocer (n = 80). Each set was further subcategorized into three subsets as regards staining solution. The baseline color parameters were recorded using spectrophotometer after the immersion of the specimens in artificial saliva for 24 hours. Then, the measurements were taken again after exposure to staining solutions where the color change was measured as ΔE* = V (ΔL*2 + Δa*2 + Δb*2). RESULTS: Conventional flowable resin composite had the best color stability in all staining solutions. The coffee was concluded to be the most staining solution. Compared to beverages, mouthwashes had a greater discoloration effect on nanohybrid flowable ormocer than on selfadhesive flowable composite. CONCLUSION: Conventional flowable composite had the highest color stability among the tested materials, followed by flowable nanohybrid ormocer, and the least was self-adhering flowable composite. Coffee had the greatest discoloration effect, followed by a sports drink and then the energy drink. However, mouthwashes did not have a significant discoloration effect. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Selection of flowable composite materials that are resistant to staining by coffee, beverages, or mouthwashes is an important factor that may influence the sustainability of the esthetic quality of the restoration.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Materiais Dentários , Café , Cor , Teste de Materiais , Cerâmicas Modificadas Organicamente , Espectrofotometria , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066449

RESUMO

The scope of this work is the study of a combined process including a dipping step into an oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) infusion (OV) followed by osmotic treatment of chicken fillets at 15 °C. Chicken fillets were immersed in an osmotic solution consisting of 40% glycerol and 5% NaCl with (OV/OD) and without (OD) prior antioxidant enrichment in a hypotonic oregano solution. A comparative shelf life study of all the samples (untreated, OD and OV/OD treated) was then conducted at 4 °C in order to assess the impact of this process on the quality and shelf life of chilled chicken fillets. Microbial growth, lipid oxidation and color/texture changes were measured throughout the chilled storage period. Rates of microbial growth of pretreated fillets were significantly reduced, mainly as a result of water activity decrease (OD step). Rancidity development closely related to off odors and sensory rejection was greatly inhibited in treated fillets owing to both inhibitory factors (OD and OV), with water-soluble phenols (OV step) exhibiting the main antioxidant effect. Shelf life of treated chicken fillets exhibited a more than three-fold increase as compared to the untreated samples based on both chemical and microbial spoilage indices, maintaining a positive and pleasant sensory profile throughout the storage period examined.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Origanum/química , Animais , Galinhas , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Cinética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Odorantes , Osmose , Fenóis/química , Temperatura
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 301, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mustard (Brassica juncea) is an important economic vegetable, and some cultivars have purple leaves and accumulate more anthocyanins than the green. The genetic and evolution of purple trait in mustard has not been well studied. RESULT: In this study, free-hand sections and metabolomics showed that the purple leaves of mustard accumulated more anthocyanins than green ones. The gene controlling purple leaves in mustard, Mustard Purple Leaves (MPL), was genetically mapped and a MYB113-like homolog was identified as the candidate gene. We identified three alleles of the MYB113-like gene, BjMYB113a from a purple cultivar, BjMYB113b and BjMYB113c from green cultivars. A total of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8 InDels were found between the promoter sequences of the purple allele BjMYB113a and the green allele BjMYB113b. On the other hand, the only sequence variation between the purple allele BjMYB113a and the green allele BjMYB113c is an insertion of 1,033-bp fragment in the 3'region of BjMYB113c. Transgenic assay and promoter activity studies showed that the polymorphism in the promoter region was responsible for the up-regulation of the purple allele BjMYB113a and high accumulation of anthocyanin in the purple cultivar. The up-regulation of BjMYB113a increased the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway including BjCHS, BjF3H, BjF3'H, BjDFR, BjANS and BjUGFT, and consequently led to high accumulation of anthocyanin. However, the up-regulation of BjMYB113 was compromised by the insertion of 1,033-bp in 3'region of the allele BjMYB113c. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to a better understanding of the genetics and evolution of the BjMYB113 gene controlling purple leaves and provide useful information for further breeding programs of mustard.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Mostardeira/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Clonagem Molecular , Cor , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Mostardeira/anatomia & histologia , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072026

RESUMO

Pineapple is consumed on a large scale around the world due to its appreciated sensorial characteristics. The industry of minimally processed pineapple produces enormous quantities of by-products (30-50%) which are generally undervalued. The end-of-life of pineapple by-products (PBP) can be replaced by reuse and renewal flows in an integrated process to promote economic growth by reducing consumption of natural resources and diminishing food waste. In our study, pineapple shell (PS) and pineapple core (PC), vacuum-packed separately, were subjected to moderate hydrostatic pressure (225 MPa, 8.5 min) (MHP) as abiotic stress to increase bromelain activity and antioxidant capacity. Pressurized and raw PBP were lyophilized to produce a stable powder. The dehydrated samples were characterized by the following methodologies: chemical and physical characterization, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity, bromelain activity, microbiology, and mycotoxins. Results demonstrated that PBP are naturally rich in carbohydrates (66-88%), insoluble (16-28%) and soluble (2-4%) fiber, and minerals (4-5%). MHP was demonstrated to be beneficial in improving TPC (2-4%), antioxidant activity (2-6%), and bromelain activity (6-32%) without affecting the nutritional value. Furthermore, microbial and mycotoxical analysis demonstrated that powdered PC is a safe by-product. PS application is possible but requires previous decontamination to reduce the microbiological load.


Assuntos
Ananas/química , Ananas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Bromelaínas/análise , Carboidratos/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Cor , Fibras na Dieta , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Micotoxinas/química , Valor Nutritivo , Fenol/química , Picratos/química , Pós , Pressão , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Água/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072122

RESUMO

At present, little information is available in the scientific literature related to the durability (weathering resistance) of fire-retarded wood and natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastics. In this work, thermoplastic profiles for façade applications based on high-density polyethylene, wheat straw particles, and fire-retardants were extruded and their reaction-to-fire performance before and after artificial weathering evaluated. Profile geometries were either solid or hollow-core profiles, and fire-retardants (FR) were added either in the co-extruded layer or in the bulk. Various FR for inclusion in the co-extruded layer were screened based on UL-94 tests. For profile extrusion, two types of FR were chosen: a coated intumescent combination based on ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an APP coated with melamine and without formaldehyde. Before weathering, the peak heat release rate (pHRR) and the total heat release (THR), which were determined using cone calorimeter measurements, were reduced by up to 64% and 67% due to the FR. However, even before weathering, pHRR of the profiles was relatively high, with best (lowest) values between 230 and 250 kW/m2 under the test conditions. After 28 days of artificial weathering, changes in reaction-to-fire performance and color were evaluated. Use of the APP in the co-extruded layer worsened color change compared to the formulation without APP but the pHRR was not significantly changed. The influence of weathering on the fire behavior was small compared to the difference between fire-retarded and non-fire-retarded materials. Results from the cone calorimeter were analyzed with regard to ETAG 028, which provides requirements related to the durability of fire performance of building products. In many formulations, increase in THR was less than 20% compared to before weathering, which would place some of the profiles in class C or better (EN 13501-1). However, due to the high pHRR, at best, class D was obtained under the conditions of this study. In addition to cone calorimeter measurements, results from the single flame source test, limiting oxygen index determination and thermogravimetric analysis, are shown and discussed. Strength properties, water uptake and swelling of the profiles, thermal conductivity, and energy dispersive X-ray data are also presented.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Fosfatos/química , Polietileno/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/química , Calorimetria/métodos , Celulose/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Cor , Temperatura Alta , Lignina/química , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula , Polifosfatos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/química , Temperatura , Condutividade Térmica , Água
16.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 33(5): 807-814, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the masking ability of bleach-shade resin composites applied by multilayering techniques over colored substrates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from bleach-shade resin composites using different multilayering techniques. Substrates were produced in opaque ceramic discs simulating colored substrates (A2, A3, A3.5, C2, C3, C4) and a bleached tooth (0M1). Color coordinates were obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer. Color difference was calculated by CIEDE2000 using coordinates of 0 M1 ceramic as standard reference. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p ≤ 0.05). Masking ability interpretation was based on perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. RESULTS: All combinations presented ΔE00 above the acceptable threshold (ΔE00 >1.8), ranging from 2.49 to 7.42, regardless of the restorative system, multilayering strategy or substrate color. Multilayering combinations placed over A2, A3 and A3.5 were moderately (1.8<ΔE00 ≤3.6) and clearly unacceptable (3.6<ΔE00 ≤5.4), combinations associated with C2, C3 and C4 were clearly unacceptable and, extremely unacceptable (ΔE00 >5.4). Lower ΔE00 was observed for combinations with 0.5 mm extra white enamel layer (2.49), or 1.0 mm white dentin layer (2.69), over A2 and A3.5 substrates. Lightness difference showed the greatest contribution to ΔE00 . CONCLUSIONS: Bleach-shade resin composite systems applied by the multilayering technique were not able to ensure effective masking ability. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Bleach-shade resin composites applied with different combinations of the multilayering technique were not effective in masking colored substrates. Alternative strategies, techniques and dental materials should be explored to obtain acceptable masking.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Porcelana Dentária , Cerâmica , Cor , Teste de Materiais
17.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 33(5): 815-823, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of charcoal-based dentifrices on the color change (CC) and surface wear (SW) of resin composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five dentifrices, including three toothpastes: Colgate total-12 (C12), Black is the new White (CPX), and Natural (NAT); and two powders: Carvvo (CVV) and Whitemax (WMX), were evaluated. Composite blocks (5x5x2mm- Z350 3 M/ESPE, shade A2) were subjected to 417 and 5004 brushing cycles. The CC (n = 7, CIEDE2000; ΔE00 ) was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. SW (n = 5) was assessed using profilometry. The dentifrice particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: In 417 brushing cycles, resin composite exhibited higher color change upon being exposed to NAT, CVV and WMC than to C12 (p ≤ 0.05). In 5004 brushing cycles, resin composite showed higher color change values when exposed to all dentifrices, except C12 (p ≤ 0.05). The powders promoted higher SW on resin composite than C12 in both evaluation times (p ≤ 0.05). In 417 cycles, WMX caused higher SW on composite than C12, CPX, and NAT (p ≤ 0.05). No significant different SW was found between powders and charcoal-based toothpastes after 5004 brushing cycles (p > 0.05). SEM showed larger particles for powder than for toothpaste dentifrices. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, both null hypotheses have been rejected. Resin composites exposed to charcoal-based dentifrices exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher color change and surface wear than conventional toothpastes. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Color change and surface wear shown by charcoal dentifrices may compromise the longevity of restorations.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Carvão Vegetal , Cor , Resinas Compostas , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Escovação Dentária
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Filtration of osmotic solution affects selective penetration during osmotic dehydration (OD), and after drying is finished, this can influence the chemical composition of the material, which is also modified by OD. METHODS: Osmotic dehydration was carried out in filtrated and non-filtrated concentrated chokeberry juice with the addition of mint infusion. Then, this underwent convective drying, vacuum-microwave drying and combined convective pre-drying, followed by vacuum-microwave finishing drying. Drying kinetics were presented and mathematical models were selected. The specific energy consumption for each drying method was calculated and the energy efficiency was determined. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The study revealed that filtration of osmotic solution did not have significant effect on drying kinetics; however, it affected selective penetration during OD. The highest specific energy consumption was obtained for the samples treated by convective drying (CD) (around 170 kJ·g-1 fresh weight (fw)) and the lowest for the samples treated by vacuum-microwave drying (VMD) (around 30 kJ·g-1 fw), which is due to the differences in the time of drying and when these methods are applied. CONCLUSIONS: Filtration of the osmotic solution can be used to obtain the desired material after drying and the VMD method is the most appropriate considering both phenolic acid content and the energy aspect of drying.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mentha/metabolismo , Osmose , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Físico-Química/métodos , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cinamatos/química , Cor , Depsídeos/química , Metabolismo Energético , Filtração , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Modelos Teóricos , Fenol , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
19.
Food Chem ; 362: 130224, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098439

RESUMO

This study evaluated the feasibility of curcumin based photodynamic sterilization technology (PDT) applied to fresh-cut potato slices. Potato samples with 30 µmol L-1 curcumin solution were exposed to 420 nm light emitting diodes (LED) at a total dose of 0.7 kJ cm-2. Results showed that PDT inactivated 2.43 log CFU mL-1 of Escherichia coli (BL 21) and 3.18 log CFU mL-1 of Staphylococcus aureus and maintained the color, texture, weight as well as total solid content of treated potatoes. Additionally, loss of phenols and flavonoids was significantly prevented, increasing the total antioxidant capacity. This was attributed to changes in enzyme activity that PDT decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) by 59.7% and 47.8% and increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Therefore, curcumin-based PDT has the potential to maintain the commercial quality of producing and achieving microbiological safety.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cor , Escherichia coli , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Peroxidase/química , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus
20.
J Exp Biol ; 224(12)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142139

RESUMO

Carotenoids color many of the red, orange and yellow ornaments of birds and also shape avian vision. The carotenoid-pigmented oil droplets in cone photoreceptors filter incoming light and are predicted to aid in color discrimination. Carotenoid use in both avian coloration and color vision raises an intriguing question: is the evolution of visual signals and signal perception linked through these pigments? Here, we explore the genetic, physiological and functional connections between these traits. Carotenoid color and droplet pigmentation share common mechanisms of metabolic conversion and are both affected by diet and immune system challenges. Yet, the time scale and magnitude of these effects differ greatly between plumage and the visual system. Recent observations suggest a link between retinal carotenoid levels and color discrimination performance, but the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a modeling exercise to ask whether and how changes in droplet carotenoid content could alter the perception of carotenoid-based plumage. This exercise revealed that changing oil droplet carotenoid concentration does not substantially affect the discrimination of carotenoid-based colors, but might change how reliably a receiver can predict the carotenoid content of an ornament. These findings suggest that, if present, a carotenoid link between signal and perception is subtle. Deconstructing this relationship will require a deeper understanding of avian visual perception and the mechanisms of color production. We highlight several areas where we see opportunities to gain new insights, including comparative genomic studies of shared mechanisms of carotenoid processing and alternative approaches to investigating color vision.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Visão de Cores , Animais , Aves , Cor , Plumas , Percepção , Pigmentação
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