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PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347448


BACKGROUND: There are few data on the on the care experiences of pregnant women with rifampicin-resistant TB. OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment journeys of pregnant women with RR-TB-including how their care experiences shape their identities-and identify areas in which tailored interventions are needed. METHODS: In this qualitative study in-depth interviews were conducted among a convenience sample from a population of pregnant women receiving treatment for RR-TB. This paper follows COREQ guidelines. A thematic network analysis using an inductive approach was performed to analyze the interview transcripts and notes. The analysis was iterative and a coding system developed which focused on the care experiences of the women and how these experiences affected their perceptions of themselves, their children, and the health care system in which treatment was received. RESULTS: Seventeen women were interviewed. The women described multiple challenges in their treatment journeys which required them to demonstrate sustained resilience (i.e. to "be brave"). Care experiences required them to negotiate seemingly contradictory identities as both new mothers-"givers of life"-and RR-TB patients facing a complicated and potentially deadly disease. In terms of their "pregnancy identity" and "RR-TB patient identity" that emerged as part of their care experiences, four key themes were identified that appeared to have elements that were contradictory to one another (contradictory areas). These included: 1) the experience of physical symptoms or changes; 2) the experience of the "mothering" and "patient" roles; 3) the experience of the care they received for their pregnancy and their RR-TB; and 4) the experience of community engagement. There were also three areas that overlapped with both roles and during which identity was negotiated/reinforced and they included: 1) faith; 2) socioeconomic issues; and 3) long-term concerns over the child's health. At times, the health care system exacerbated these challenges as the women were not given the support they needed by health care providers who were ill-informed or angry and treated the women in a discriminatory fashion. Left to negotiate this confusing time period, the women turned to faith, their own mothers, and the fathers of their unborn children. CONCLUSION: The care experiences of the women who participated in this study highlight several gaps in the current health care system that must be better addressed in both TB and perinatal services in order to improve the therapeutic journeys for pregnant women with RR-TB and their children. Suggestions for optimizing care include the provision of integrated services, including specialized counseling as well as training for health care providers; engagement of peer support networks; provision of socioeconomic support; long-term medical care/follow-up for children born to women who were treated for RR-TB; and inclusion of faith-based services in the provision of care.

Mães/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/psicologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/psicologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coragem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Identificação Social , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(5): 675-679, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648522


The world as we once knew it has been drastically altered secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The impact of these changes, particularly for those practicing in the medical profession, extends beyond the physical to the psychological, emotional, and spiritual. We discuss the factors that contribute to these stresses, way to manage them, and how we as leaders of our teams can inspire resilience and help our colleagues endure these most difficult times.

Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coragem , Liderança , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635576


While courage is widely attributed to athletic pursuits, it has received little scientific attention from both researchers and applied practitioners. A reliable measurement is required to examine courage in sports and competitive activities. Therefore, this research aimed to adapt the original Turkish Sports Courage Scale-31 into American English (SCS-AE). The SCS-31 measure was translated from Turkish into the American English language by the Brislin forward and backward translation technique and language validity. Then, the translated SCS-AE was administered to 548 American university college students (Mean age = 19.02, SD = 1.21). All participants played a sport (e.g., football, soccer, basketball, gymnastics). Based on confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), 31 items of SCS-AE were reduced to 24 items with four factors (i.e., assertiveness, determination, mastery, and venturesome). The fit indices were satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.97, SRMR = 0.06, NFI = 0.96 and NNFI = 0.97). The internal consistency measured by Cronbach alpha, ranging from 0.73 to 0.78, were considered acceptable. The convergent validity and discriminant validity of SCS-AE were also achieved. Our findings indicate strong support for research using the four-factor model of the SCS-AE and adequate support for the five-factor model with sufficient caution regarding the internal consistency of the self-sacrifice factor. While cultural differences in courage perception might exist between these countries, the findings showed more similarities than differences in courage. Results indicated that the SCS-AE is usable for research purposes in the suggested format. Future directions are discussed using the SCS-31 and SCS-AE for research.

Atletas/psicologia , Coragem , Esportes/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Humanos , Idioma , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos , Universidades
Rev Infirm ; 69(260-261): 31-32, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600593


Originating in China in November 2019, the wave of infection caused by the new coronavirus Sars-CoV-2 is sweeping across the planet through human contact and fast, global, mass travel. Health professionals on every level are fighting relentlessly against Covid-19, this deadly, invisible yet real enemy. The public, increasingly worried, expect them to protect it against the disease and death. Perceived by most people as a line of defence against the pandemic, health professionals are supported and treated as heroes. Some people howeverfear tthat they may be possible contamination agents.

Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coragem , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
Nurs Outlook ; 68(4): 391-392, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593463


Communicating is essential. The communication chain within units and facilities must be kept strong. Good communication will help staff take responsibility for one another; knowing your work family is looking out for you can offer strength. Respecting each other encourages speaking up to create a platform for shared decision-making and problem-solving. Such shared responsibility will yield the best solutions because the whole is stronger together than individuals alone. Speaking up also is a way to offer immediate feedback if mistakes are observed so that errors are corrected. And when, not if, mistakes are made, staff need to be able to communicate these without fear of retribution.

Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Poder Psicológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coragem , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 510-513, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546658


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the media have repeatedly praised healthcare workers for their 'heroic' work. Although this gratitude is undoubtedly appreciated by many, we must be cautious about overuse of the term 'hero' in such discussions. The challenges currently faced by healthcare workers are substantially greater than those encountered in their normal work, and it is understandable that the language of heroism has been evoked to praise them for their actions. Yet such language can have potentially negative consequences. Here, I examine what heroism is and why it is being applied to the healthcare workers currently, before outlining some of the problems associated with the heroism narrative currently being employed by the media. Healthcare workers have a clear and limited duty to treat during the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be grounded in a broad social contract and is strongly associated with certain reciprocal duties that society has towards healthcare workers. I argue that the heroism narrative can be damaging, as it stifles meaningful discussion about what the limits of this duty to treat are. It fails to acknowledge the importance of reciprocity, and through its implication that all healthcare workers have to be heroic, it can have negative psychological effects on workers themselves. I conclude that rather than invoking the language of heroism to praise healthcare workers, we should examine, as a society, what duties healthcare workers have to work in this pandemic, and how we can support them in fulfilling these.

Infecções por Coronavirus , Coragem , Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Opinião Pública , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Responsabilidade Social
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427999


BACKGROUND: We developed, and pilot tested a family focused intervention Sammanit Jeevan "Living with Dignity" to reduce gender-based violence by husbands, change harmful social and gender norms and improve the economic conditions of women through young married women-led income generating activities (IGAs). METHODS: We conducted a modified interrupted time series study and qualitative research to evaluate the intervention in two migrant communities in Baglung district, Nepal. We enrolled young married women, their husbands and in-laws from 100 families. 200 women and 157 men completed questionnaires before the programme, and 6, 12 and 18 months afterwards. 18 in-depth interviews were conducted before the programme and 6 and 12 months later. We analysed the data for trends. RESULTS: The intervention positively impacted young married women's economic conditions, exposure to violence and changed inequitable gender attitudes. Some positive outcomes were observed among older women and men. Young women's past month earnings (35.0% - 81.3%, ß = 0.11, p-value<0.001) and savings (29.0% - 80.2%, ß = 0.14, p-value<0.001) more than doubled over time. Young women experienced much less past year physical IPV over time (10% - 4.4%, ß = -0.08, p-value = 0.077). They also perceived that their mothers-in-law were less cruel (mean 9.0-8.6, ß = -0.03, p-value = 0.035). Improvements were observed in young women's individual (mean 44.4-43.3, ß = -0.04, p-value = 0.297) and perceived community gender attitudes (mean 54.4-51.4, ß = -0.19, p-value<0.001) and they reported that their husbands were less controlling (mean 17.5-16.1, ß = -007, p-value<0.001). These changes were supported by qualitative findings. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst caution is needed in attributing the effect due to lack of control arm, the results suggest that with adequate time and seed funding, Sammanit Jeevan enabled considerable income generation, a strengthened the position of young women in the households and it reduced their exposure to violence in this community. It warrants further research to optimise its impact.

Coragem , Família , Renda , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/economia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Projetos Piloto , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 15(1): 1-12, jan.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1098433


Enredos com super-heróis das histórias em quadrinhos são geralmente focados no poder, força, coragem e resiliência, temas inspiradores para áreas das Ciências Sociais. A fase intitulada pré-capa/pré-máscara da vida dos super-heróis é tema cuja literatura científica é escassa. Entretanto, estudos recentes indicam que a maioria dos personagens fictícios viveu situações de risco antes da fase de superempoderamento e reforçam o potencial da fase pré-capa como ferramenta em intervenções psicoeducacionais positivas. O foco deste artigo foi investigar intervenções que utilizam super-heróis em suas concepções. Para tanto, foi realizado um mapeamento exploratório de ações nacionais e internacionais, sendo selecionadas para análise apenas as divulgadas em website ou fanpage. Resultados indicaram que a maioria das intervenções (70%) é da área da saúde e ocorre eventual ou esporadicamente. A totalidade usa o super-herói em fase de pós-empoderamento. Conclui-se que os recursos do estágio pré-capa/pré-máscara são subutilizados tanto por profissionais de ambientes clínicos como pedagógicos.

Superhero comic book histories are generally focused on power, strength, courage and resilience, inspiring themes for Social Science´s investigations. The pre-cloak/ pre-mask phase of the superheroes´ lives is a theme whose scientific literature is scarce. However, recent studies indicate that most of these fictional characters lived in adverse situations prior to being super empowered and reinforce the potential of the pre-cloak superhero as a tool for positive psychoeducational interventions. The focus of this article was to investigate interventions that use superheroes in their conceptions. For that, an exploratory mapping of national and international actions was carried out, being selected for analysis only the ones exposed by websites or fanpages. Results indicated that most interventions (70%) are in the Health area and occur eventually or sporadically. All of them use the superhero in their super empowered phase. In conclusion, this research shows that pre-cloak/pre-mask superhero life is underestimated by both clinical and educational professionals.

Enredados con súper-héroes de los cómics, generalmente se enfocan en el poder, fuerza, el coraje y la resiliencia, temas inspiradores para las áreas de las Ciencias Sociales. La fase titulada pre-capa/pre-máscara de la vida de los súper-héroes es tema cuya literatura científica es escasa. Sin embargo, estudios recientes indican que la mayoría de los personajes ficticios han vivido situaciones de riesgo antes de la fase de súper-empoderamiento y refuerzan el potencial de la fase pre-empoderada como herramienta en intervenciones psicoeducativas positivas. El foco de este artículo fue investigar intervenciones que utilizan súper-héroes en sus concepciones. Para ello, se realizó un mapeamiento exploratorio de acciones nacionales e internacionales, siendo seleccionadas para análisis sólo las divulgadas en sitio web o fanpage. Los resultados indicaron que la mayoría de las intervenciones (70%) son del área de la salud y ocurre eventual o esporádicamente. La totalidad utiliza al súper-héroe en fase de pos-empoderamiento. Se concluye que los recursos de la etapa pre-capa/pre-máscara son infrautilizados tanto por profesionales de ambientes clínicos como pedagógicos.

Poder Psicológico , Psicologia Educacional , Criança , Educação , Emoções , Resiliência Psicológica , Coragem , História em Quadrinhos , Empoderamento
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155904


Sports courage is one of the most important attributes to help competitive athletes overcome anxiety, nervousness, and other psychological obstacles, but this field of study is still being overlooked by most athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study is to validate the Malay language version of the Sports Courage Scale (SCS-M) for Silat athletes using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data were collected during 9th UPSI International Pencak Silat Championship in Malaysia. A total of 258 competitors (male = 66.7%, female = 33.3%), with a mean age of 18 years (SD = 2.6), volunteered to participate in this study. The original SCS with 50 items underwent forward and backward translations into the Malay language and was pre-tested with ten martial arts athletes. Then, Silat athletes were asked to complete the translated SCS-M questionnaire. There were five factors in the SCS-M (i.e., mastery, determination, assertiveness, venturesome, and self-sacrificial behaviour). The first hypothesised model with 50 items did not result in a good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.93, NFI = 0.87, NNFI = 0.93, RMR = 0.14, SRMR = 0.09). A total of 17 problematic items were identified and were removed iteratively. The final measurement model with 33 items fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.89, NNFI = 0.94, RMR = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07). The reliability of each subscale based on Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.76. The convergent and discriminant validities were achieved for the final measurement model. The revised version of SCS-M with 33 items was considered valid and reliable for measuring the sports courage in Silat athletes in Malaysia.

Atletas , Coragem , Esportes , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Malásia , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários