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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22147-22158, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115806

RESUMO

Differences in cellular cadmium (Cd) distribution between Cd-tolerant and Cd-sensitive lines of amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) may reveal mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation. We compared the cellular distribution and accumulation of Cd in roots, stems, and leaves between a low-Cd accumulating cultivar (Zibeixian, L-Cd) and a high-Cd accumulating cultivar (Tianxingmi, H-Cd) in a hydroponic experimental system. In all treatments, H-Cd grew better than L-Cd and accumulated more Cd. As the Cd concentration increased, the H-Cd plants grew normally and their biomass increased, except in the 60 µM Cd treatment. The biomass of L-Cd decreased with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration in the roots, stems, and leaves of H-Cd was 950 mg/kg, 305 mg/kg, and 205 mg/kg, respectively, compared with 269 mg/kg, 62.9 mg/kg, and 74.8 mg/kg, respectively, in L-Cd. The Cd distribution differed between the two cultivars. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry analyses showed that Cd was distributed across the entire cross section of H-Cd roots but largely restricted to the epidermal cells and the exodermis of L-Cd roots. The main Cd storage sites were the root apoplast, cell walls, and intercellular spaces in H-Cd and the root epidermal cells and the exodermis in L-Cd. In H-Cd leaves, Cd accumulated mainly in vacuoles of epidermal cells and, at high external Cd concentrations, in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Amaranthus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Hidroponia/métodos
2.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 172: 565-572, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218982

RESUMO

A novel manganese dioxide nanorods-electrochemically graphene oxide nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (MnO2NRs-ErGO/GCE) was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Amaranth in foodstuffs. The morphology, structure and composition of MnO2NRs, ErGO, and MnO2/ErGO were characterized by SEM and XRD. The electrochemical behavior of Amaranth on the bare GCE, ErGO/GCE, and MnO2NRs-ErGO/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The voltammetric conditions (including pH, scan rate, accumulation potential as well as time) were optimized systematically. Due to large electrochemical active area and low charge transfer resistance, the MnO2NRs-ErGO/GCE exhibited a great enhancement effect on the oxidation of Amaranth, and significant increased the oxidation peak current ipa (approximately 38-fold increase compared to that of bare GCE). Under the optimum voltammetric conditions, the ipa varied linearly with Amaranth concentration in the range of 0.02 µM-10 µM, and 10 µM-400 µM with a low detection limit of 1.0 nM (S/N = 3). Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained in the analysis of real samples. Together with the merits of rapidness, cost-effectivity, high sensitivity and selectivity, the result suggests the proposed MnO2NRs-ErGO/GCE have broad application prospects on the sensitive detection of Amaranth in various real samples.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/economia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Grafite/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanotubos/química , Óxidos/química , Calibragem , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Difração de Raios X
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(29): 23331-23340, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840563

RESUMO

A novel sustainable hybrid system of photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) and Fenton process is an alternative wastewater treatment technology for energy-saving and efficient treatment of organic pollutants. The electrons generated from PFC photoanode are used to produce H2O2 in the Fenton reactor and react with the in situ generation of Fe2+ from sacrificial iron for hydroxyl radical formation. In this study, the effect of different initial Amaranth dye concentrations on degradation and electricity generation were investigated. ZnO/Zn photoanode was prepared by anodizing method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results revealed that the maximum power density (9.53 mW/m2) and current density (0.0178 mA/m2) were achieved at 10 mg/L of Amaranth. The correlation between dye degradation, voltage output, and kinetic photocatalytic degradation were also investigated and discussed.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ferro/química , Energia Solar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Catálise , Águas Residuárias/química
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 145: 8-15, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28689070

RESUMO

Dye dispersion and the interaction efficiency between azoreductases and dye molecules are rate-limiting steps for the decolorization of azo dyes. In this study, a biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas taiwanensis L1011, was isolated from crude oil. To increase the yield of the biosurfactant BS-L1011 from P. taiwanensis L1011, culture conditions were optimized including temperature, initial pH, carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio. A maximum yield of 1.12g/L of BS-L1011 was obtained using D-mannitol as carbon source and yeast extract/urea as compound nitrogen source with C/N ratio of 10/4, pH 7.0 and 28°C. BS-L1011 exhibited a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 10.5mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to 25.8±0.1 mN/m. BS-L1011 was stable over a wide range of temperatures, pH values and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant is reported for the first time to accelerate chemical decolorization of Congo red by sodium hypochlorite, and biological decolorization of Amaranth by Bacillus circulans BWL1061, thus showing a potential in the treatment of dyeing wastewater.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/análise , Corantes/análise , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Tensoativos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Corante Amaranto/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Vermelho Congo/análise , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/química , Petróleo/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Tensoativos/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química
5.
Talanta ; 168: 146-151, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28391834

RESUMO

In this work, poly(sodium p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-functionalized graphene supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd) composites were fabricated with simple ultrasonic bath method. The morphology and structure of PSS-GR-Pd composites were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. By combining the merits of the PSS-GR and Pd NPs, a new electrochemical sensor was erected to detect amaranth based on the PSS-GR-Pd nanocomposites. The electrochemical behavior of amaranth was investigated systematically in 0.1molL-1 phosphate buffer solution (PBS 2.0). At the optimum parameter, Ipa was found to be linearly dependent on the concentrations of amaranth (1×10-7-9×10-6molL-1). The detection limit was 7nM (S/N=3) and sensitivity was 5.85µAµM-1. Finally, this system was utilized for determining amaranth in soft drink using the standard addition method.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Nanocompostos/química , Paládio/química , Polieletrólitos/química , Corante Amaranto/química , Limite de Detecção
6.
J Environ Manage ; 165: 224-234, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26439860

RESUMO

A novel N-doped ZrO2 (N-ZrO2) photocatalyst is synthesized through thermal decomposition of zirconium hydroxide-urea complex and is characterized using various techniques, including XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM, TEM, UV-DRS, XPS, XANES, and BET. The N-ZrO2 possesses pure monoclinic structure with high crystallinity. By using the proposed facile route of synthesis, both interstitial and substitutional N doping with high dopant stability can be realized. The optical properties of the catalyst are significantly altered after N doping, giving an optical response in the visible and near infrared regions and an additional strong absorption peak in the UVA region. The N-ZrO2 showed a higher photocatalytic activity than pristine ZrO2 for the degradation of amaranth (AM) and methylene blue (MB) under visible or UV light irradiation, which could be attributed to the band gap narrowing, higher specific area, smaller crystalline size, and higher availability of surface hydroxyl groups. Due to its molecular structure and light absorption characteristics, MB is easier to degrade than AM. Overall removal efficiencies, including adsorption and photolysis, for AM and MB by N-ZrO2 at pH 7 with initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L, catalyst concentration of 1 g/L, and visible light irradiation of 144.7 W/m(2) are 67.2 and 96%, respectively. Using UVA light of only 3.5 W/m(2) under identical experimental conditions, complete removal of MB and AM is obtained. The photocatalytically treated solution of either AM or MB is nontoxic against Bacillus cereus, an agriculturally important soil microorganism.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Hidróxidos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Zircônio/química , Adsorção , Corante Amaranto/análise , Corante Amaranto/química , Corante Amaranto/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Corantes/análise , Azul de Metileno/análise , Azul de Metileno/química , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Fotólise , Titânio/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 174: 380-6, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529695

RESUMO

A rapid and effective method of aqueous two-phase systems based on ionic liquid microextraction for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic food colourants (tartrazine, sunset yellow, amaranth, ponceau 4R and brilliant blue) in food samples was established. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector of variable wavelength was used for the determinations. 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the extraction reagent. The extraction efficiency of the five colourants in the proposed system is influenced by the types of salts, concentrations of salt and [CnMIM]Br, as well as the extracting time. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction efficiencies for these five colourants were above 95%. The phase behaviours of aqueous two-phase system and extraction mechanism were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. This method was applied to the analysis of the five colourants in real food samples with the detection limit of 0.051-0.074 ng/mL. Good spiked recoveries from 93.2% to 98.9% were obtained.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Corante Amaranto/análise , Compostos Azo/análise , Benzenossulfonatos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Limite de Detecção , Naftalenossulfonatos , Sais/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tartrazina/análise , Água/química
8.
Food Chem ; 160: 11-5, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24799202

RESUMO

A sensitive and convenient electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the isomers of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth by an expanded graphite paste electrode (EGPE). The EGPE was prepared by mixing EG with solid paraffin. Compared with flake graphite paste and carbon paste electrodes, the EGPE showed higher electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidization of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth. Under optimal experimental conditions, the EGPE exhibited wide linear responses to Ponceau 4R and Amaranth ranging from 6×10(-8) to 4×10(-6) mol/L and 8×10(-8) to 4×10(-6)mol/L, respectively, and the detection limits for Ponceau 4R and Amaranth were 2 and 36 nmol/L, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The EGPE showed good reproducibility, stability and reusability. The proposed method was successfully applied in the detection of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth in grape juice samples.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Compostos Azo/análise , Corantes/análise , Naftalenossulfonatos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isomerismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Talanta ; 123: 101-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24725870

RESUMO

Based on magnetic field directed self-assembly (MDSA) of Fe3O4@rGO composites, a novel magnetic molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor (MIES) was fabricated and developed for the determination of the azo dye amaranth. Fe3O4@rGO composites were obtained by a one-step approach involving the initial intercalating of iron ions between the graphene oxide layers via the electrostatic interaction, followed by the reduction with hydrazine hydrate to deposit Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the reduced oxide graphene nanosheets. In molecular imprinting, the complex including the function monomer of aniline, the template of amaranth and Fe3O4@rGO was pre-assembled through π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, and then was self-assembled on the surface of magnetic glassy carbon electrode (MGCE) with the help of magnetic field induction before electropolymerization. The structures and morphologies of Fe3O4@rGO and the doped molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Raman spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Besides, the characterization by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) showed that Fe3O4@rGO composites promoted the electrical conductivity of the imprinted sensors when doped into the MIPs. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics were employed to evaluate the performances of MIES. The detection of amaranth was achieved via the redox probe K3[Fe(CN)6] by blocking the imprinted cavities, which avoided the interferences of oxidation products and analogs of amaranth. Furthermore, the prepared MIES exhibited good sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and efficiency for detecting amaranth in fruit drinks. The average recoveries were 93.15-100.81% with the RSD <3.0%.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Polímeros/química , Adsorção , Corante Amaranto/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Campos Magnéticos , Membranas Artificiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Impressão Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 764: 53-8, 2013 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23374214

RESUMO

Different-shaped aluminas were readily prepared via hydrothermal reaction. It was found that the morphology and the electrochemical sensing properties of alumina were heavily dependent on the reaction time. When extending the reaction time from 6 h to 24 h, the obtained alumina samples changed from amorphous bumps to regular microfibers in diameter of 200 nm, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that longer reaction time was beneficial for the formation of porous and uniform fiber-like structures. Electrochemical tests proved that alumina microfibers were more active for the oxidation of amaranth and exhibited much higher enhancement effect, compared with alumina bumps. On the surface of alumina microfibers, the oxidation peak currents of amaranth increased remarkably. The influences of pH value, amount of alumina microfibers, and accumulation time on the signal enhancement of amaranth were discussed. As a result, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the detection of amaranth. The linear range was from 1 to 150 nM, and the detection limit was 0.75 nM after 1-min accumulation. The analytical application in drink samples was investigated, and the results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Corante Amaranto/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22579334

RESUMO

A simple, low-cost, sensitive, and diversely applicable spectrophotometric method for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of several medicinal plants and food has been developed. The method is based on the bleaching of cerium (IV) by antioxidants and dye in slightly acid medium at room temperature. The unbleached dye, imparting pink color to the solution, is measured at λ(max) 530 nm which is directly proportional to the antioxidant concentration. The method is reproducible, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds were correlated with those found by reference method such as ABTS. The recommended method was applied for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of medicinal and food samples. The performance of the recommended method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test, which indicated the significance of proposed method over the reference method.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Cério/química , Análise de Alimentos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Absorção , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Calibragem , Cromanos/química , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Ácido Gálico/química , Fotodegradação , Quercetina/química
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 3(8): 2944-52, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21728327

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a powerful analytical tool has gained extensive attention. Despite of many efforts in the design of SERS substrates, it remains a grand challenge for creating a general substrate that can detect diverse target analytes. Herein, we report our attempt to address this issue by constructing a novel metal-graphene oxide nanostructured film as SERS substrate. Taking advantages of the high affinity of graphene oxide (GO) toward aromatic molecules and the SERS property of nanostructured metal, this structure exhibits great potential for diverse aromatic molecules sensing, which is demonstrated by using crystal violet (CV) with positive charge, amaranth with negative charge, and neutral phosphorus triphenyl (PPh(3)) as model molecules.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxidos/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Compostos de Terfenil/análise , Violeta Genciana/química , Prata/química
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(23): 12112-6, 2010 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21062012

RESUMO

Amaranth is widely added to food and can cause many adverse health effects when it is excessively consumed. Therefore, the monitoring of amaranth is quite important. Herein, an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive and rapid detection of amaranth was reported using multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) as the sensing film. Due to the large surface area and high accumulation efficiency, the MWNT sensor showed a strong enhancement effect on the oxidation of amaranth, and greatly increased the current signal. The detection conditions such as pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were optimized. The linear range is from 40 nM to 0.8 µM, and the limit of detection is 35 nM. Finally, the new sensor was successfully employed to detect amaranth in soft drinks, and the results were tested by high-performance liquid chromatography.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Bebidas/análise , Eletroquímica/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Eletroquímica/instrumentação , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1216(42): 7063-70, 2009 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19748097

RESUMO

A fast chromatographic methodology is presented for the analysis of three synthetic dyes in non-alcoholic beverages: amaranth (E123), sunset yellow FCF (E110) and tartrazine (E102). Seven soft drinks (purchased from a local supermarket) were homogenized, filtered and injected into the chromatographic system. Second order data were obtained by a rapid LC separation and DAD detection. A comparative study of the performance of two second order algorithms (MCR-ALS and U-PLS/RBL) applied to model the data, is presented. Interestingly, the data present time shift between different chromatograms and cannot be conveniently corrected to determine the above-mentioned dyes in beverage samples. This fact originates the lack of trilinearity that cannot be conveniently pre-processed and can hardly be modelled by using U-PLS/RBL algorithm. On the contrary, MCR-ALS has shown to be an excellent tool for modelling this kind of data allowing to reach acceptable figures of merit. Recovery values ranged between 97% and 105% when analyzing artificial and real samples were indicative of the good performance of the method. In contrast with the complete separation, which consumes 10 mL of methanol and 3 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate, the proposed fast chromatography method requires only 0.46 mL of methanol and 1.54 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate. Consequently, analysis time could be reduced up to 14.2% of the necessary time to perform the complete separation allowing saving both solvents and time, which are related to a reduction of both the costs per analysis and environmental impact.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Algoritmos , Corante Amaranto/análise , Compostos Azo/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/economia , Análise de Alimentos/economia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Químicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tartrazina/análise
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 47(2): 443-8, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19095036

RESUMO

The food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine were administered twice, at 24h intervals, by oral gavage to mice and assessed in the in vivo gut micronucleus test for genotoxic effects (frequency of micronucleated cells) and toxicity (apoptotic and mitotic cells). The concentrations of each compound and their main metabolites (sulfanilic acid and naphthionic acid) were measured in faeces during a 24-h period after single oral administrations of the food dyes to mice. Parent dye compounds and their main aromatic amine metabolites were detected in significant amounts in the environment of colonic cells. Acute oral exposure to food dye additives amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine did not induce genotoxic effect in the micronucleus gut assay in mice at doses up to 2000 mg/kg b.w. Food dyes administration increased the mitotic cells at all dose levels when compared to controls. These results suggest that the transient DNA damages previously observed in the colon of mice treated by amaranth and tartrazine by the in vivo comet assay [Sasaki, Y.F., Kawaguchi, S., Kamaya, A., Ohshita, M., Kabasawa, K., Iwama, K., Taniguchi, K., Tsuda, S., 2002. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat. Res. 519, 103-119] are unable to be fixed in stable genotoxic lesions and might be partly explained by local cytotoxicity of the dyes.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/toxicidade , Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Corantes/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Tartrazina/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Corante Amaranto/análise , Corante Amaranto/farmacocinética , Animais , Compostos Azo/análise , Compostos Azo/farmacocinética , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Corantes/análise , Corantes/farmacocinética , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fezes/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/classificação , Mutagênicos/farmacocinética , Tartrazina/análise , Tartrazina/farmacocinética
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 54(19): 7378-82, 2006 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16968108

RESUMO

Vaccinium myrtillus or bilberry fruit is a commonly used herbal product. The usual method of determining the anthocyanin content is a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay. Using this method, anthocyanin levels of two extracts were found to be 25% as claimed by the manufacturers. When high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, however, one extract was found to contain 9% anthocyanins probably not derived from V. myrtillus but from an adulterant. This adulterant was subsequently identified, using HPLC, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, as amaranth, that is, 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfo-1-naphthalenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt-a synthetic dark red sulfonic acid based naphthylazo dye. As described in this study, if deliberate adulteration occurs in an extract, a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is inadequate to accurately determine the levels of compounds such as anthocyanins. Detection of deliberate adulteration in commercial samples thus requires the use of alternative, more sophisticated, methods of analysis such as HPLC with photodiode array detection as a minimum.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
17.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 46(5): 228-33, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16305179

RESUMO

Suitable liquid chromatography/mass spetrometry (LC/MS) conditions were examined for Amaranth, Red 2G (R2G), Azo Rubine (Azo), Fast Red E (FRE) and Brilliant Blue FCF, which were detected in Akasu, a red vinegar made in Hong Kong from sake lees, on both thin layer chromatography (TLC) and photodiode array high-performance liquid chromatography (PDA-HPLC). Molecular-related ions for each dye were detected with excellent sensitivity by LC/MS using electro-spray ionization with negative ion mode, capillary voltage 3.00 kV, cone voltage 50 V and desolvation temperature 400 degrees C. LC/MS analysis of refined Akasu under these conditions enabled us to obtain clear mass spectra of R2G, Azo and FRE, which were present at trace levels in the Akasu. The results were consistent with those from TLC and PDA-HPLC. These experiments suggested that LC/MS analysis is applicable for confirmation of dyes in food.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Corantes/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Corante Amaranto/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
18.
J AOAC Int ; 88(3): 788-93, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16001853

RESUMO

Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) determinations of trace concentrations of the azo coloring agent Amaranth are described. The analytical methodology used was based on the adsorptive preconcentration of the dye on the hanging mercury drop electrode, followed by initiation of a negative sweep. In a pH 10 carbonate supporting electrolyte, Amaranth gave a well-defined and sensitive AdSV peak at -518 mV. The electroanalytical determination of this azo dye was found to be optimal in carbonate buffer (pH 10) under the following experimental conditions: accumulation time, 120 s; accumulation potential, 0.0 V; scan rate, 600 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 90 mV; and frequency, 50 Hz. Under these optimized conditions the AdSV peak current was proportional over the concentration range 1 x 10(-8)-1.1 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.999) with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-9) mol/L (1.03 ppb). This analytical approach possessed enhanced sensitivity, compared with conventional liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry and it was simple and fast. The precision of the method, expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 0.23%, whereas the accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was 104%. Possible interferences by several substances usually present as food additive azo dyes (E110, E102), gelatin, natural and artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also investigated. The developed electroanalyticals method was applied to the determination of Amaranth in soft drink samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by a reference spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) of these data showed that the results of the 2 methods compared favorably.


Assuntos
Corante Amaranto/análise , Corantes/farmacologia , Eletroquímica/métodos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Adsorção , Corante Amaranto/química , Calibragem , Corantes/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrodos , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Químicos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Vopr Pitan ; 69(1-2): 63-5, 2000.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10943012

RESUMO

On an example of definition of the forbidden red dye amaranth E123 in a mix with other red food dyes (azorubin E122 and ponso 4R E124) the method of quantitative processing think level chromatograms was developed. The method includes transfer of chromatogram in a digital kind by scanning and processing of the received image with the help of the program Adobe Photoshop 5.0. The average values of detection of dyes on the developed method make for azorubin, amaranth and ponso 4R accordingly 95.6, 97.1 and 99.4% with correlation coefficients 0.98, 0.98 and 0.99.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Corantes/análise , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Corante Amaranto/análise , Compostos Azo/análise , Modelos Teóricos
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 680(2): 541-7, 1994 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7981834

RESUMO

A method for the determination of synthetic tar dyes used as food additives using capillary electrophoresis with photodiode-array detection was investigated. The dyes Erythrosine (R-3), Phloxine (R-104), Rose Bengal (R-105), Acid Red (R-106), Amaranth (R-2), New Coccine (R-102) and Allura Red AC (R-40) were separated on a capillary column (50 cm x 75 microns I.D.) and identified from the absorbance spectra of each peak. The electrophoresis buffer used was a mixture of 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer and 25 mM sodium borate buffer (1:1) (pH 8.0) containing 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Substitution of beta-cyclodextrin for SDS in the electrolyte buffer was effective for the separation of R-2 and R-102. This modified method could be employed as an additional assay method for these two dyes.


Assuntos
Eletroforese/métodos , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Corante Amaranto/análise , Compostos Azo/análise , Tampões (Química) , Ação Capilar , Eritrosina/análise , Fluoresceínas/análise , Japão , Naftalenossulfonatos , Rodaminas/análise , Rosa Bengala/análise
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