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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677069

RESUMO

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Fototerapia/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Corantes/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Equipamentos e Provisões/virologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/química , Luz , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Teoria Quântica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443298

RESUMO

Naphthodianthrones such as fagopyrin and hypericin found mainly in buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) and St. John's wort (SJW) (Hypericum perforatum L.) are natural photosensitizers inside the cell. The effect of photosensitizers was studied under dark conditions on growth, morphogenesis and induction of death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fagopyrin and hypericin induced a biphasic and triphasic dose response in cellular growth, respectively, over a 10-fold concentration change. In fagopyrin-treated cells, disruptions in the normal cell cycle progression were evident by microscopy. DAPI staining revealed several cells that underwent premature mitosis without budding, a striking morphological abnormality. Flow Cytometric (FC) analysis using a concentration of 100 µM showed reduced cell viability by 41% in fagopyrin-treated cells and by 15% in hypericin-treated cells. FC revealed the development of a secondary population of G1 cells in photosensitizer-treated cultures characterized by small size and dense structures. Further, we show that fagopyrin and the closely related hypericin altered the shape and the associated fluorescence of biofilm-like structures. Colonies grown on solid medium containing photosensitizer had restricted growth, while cell-to-cell adherence within the colony was also affected. In conclusion, the photosensitizers under dark conditions affected culture growth, caused toxicity, and disrupted multicellular growth, albeit with different efficiencies.


Assuntos
Antracenos/farmacologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quinonas/farmacologia , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorescência , Morfogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Perileno/farmacologia , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomycetales/citologia , Saccharomycetales/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 192: 114734, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411569

RESUMO

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory mediator involved in various pathophysiological and inflammatory states. Accumulating line of evidence suggests a role for MIF in regulating bone metabolism and therefore a prime candidate for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we showed that Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B) suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast and bone resorption in vitro via the inhibition of NF-κB signaling activation and promoting proteasome-mediated degradation of MIF. Consequently, the induction of NFATc1 was impaired resulting in downregulation of NFATc1-responsive osteoclast genes. We also demonstrated that CSB6B treatment enhanced primary calvarial osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization in vitro via the suppression of NF-κB activation and upregulation of Runx expression. Using two murine models of osteolytic bone disorders, we further showed that administration of CSB6B protected mice against pathological inflammatoryc calvarial bone destruction induced by titanium particles mice as well as estrogen-deficiency induced bone loss as a result of ovariectomy. Together, as an MIF inhibitor, CSB6B can inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption function and enhance the mineralization of osteoblasts through the inhibition of NF-κB pathway. MIF is a prime target for therapeutic targeting for the treatment of osteolytic bone disorders and the MIF inhibitor CSB6B could be potential anti-osteoporosis drug.


Assuntos
Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Azul Tripano/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Alostérica/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Corantes/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
4.
Toxicology ; 460: 152872, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303732

RESUMO

The increasing number of tattooed persons urges the development of reliable test systems to assess tattoo associated risks. The alarming prevalence of 60 % phototoxic reactions in tattoos ask for a more comprehensive investigation of phototoxic reactions in tattooed skin. Here, we aimed to compare the cellular responses of human skin cells to ultraviolet (UV)A and UVB irradiation in doses of short to intermitted sun exposure (3-48 J/cm² and 0.05-5 J/cm², respectively) in the presence of tattoo pigments. Therefore, we used fibroblast monolayer culture (2D), our recently developed three dimensional full-thickness skin model with dermal-located tattoo pigments (TatSFT) and its dermal equivalents (TatSDE) that lack keratinocytes. We tested the most frequently used tattoo pigments carbon black, titanium dioxide (TiO2) anatase and rutile as well as Pigment Orange (P.O.)13 in ranges from 0.067 to 2.7 ng/cell in 2D. For TatSDE and TatSFT, concentrations were 1.3 ng/cell for TiO2, 0.67 ng/cell for P.O.13 and 0.067 ng/cell for carbon black. We assessed cell viability and cytokine release in all systems, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation in TatSFT. Phototoxicity of tattoo pigments was exclusively observed in 2D, where especially TiO2 anatase induced phototoxic effects in all concentrations (0.067-2.7 ng/cell). In contrast, fibroblasts were protected from UV irradiation in TatSDE by TiO2 and carbon black. Neither toxic nor protective effects were recorded in TatSFT. P.O.13 showed altered cytokine secretion in 2D (0.067-1.3 ng/cell) and TatSDE, despite the absence of significant effects on viability in all systems. All pigments reduced the number of CPDs in TatSFT compared to the pigment-free controls. In conclusion, our study shows that within a 3D arrangement, intradermal tattoo pigments may act photoprotective despite intrinsic phototoxic properties in 2D. Thus, dermal 3D equivalents should be considered to evaluate acute tattoo pigment toxicology.


Assuntos
Corantes/toxicidade , Dermatite Fototóxica , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Corantes/farmacologia , Dermatite Fototóxica/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Prepúcio do Pênis/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/toxicidade , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fuligem/farmacologia , Fuligem/toxicidade , Tatuagem/métodos , Titânio/farmacologia , Titânio/toxicidade
5.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068613

RESUMO

Nowadays, natural dyes are expected by the cosmetic and food industries. In contrast to synthetic dyes, colorants derived from natural sources are more environmentally friendly and safer for human health. In this work, plant extracts from Gomphrena globasa L., Clitoria ternatea L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Punica granatum L. and Papaver rhoeas L. as the natural and functional dyes for the cosmetics industry were assessed. Cytotoxicity on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines was determined as well as antioxidant and anti-aging properties by determining their ability to inhibit the activity of collagenase and elastase enzymes. In addition, the composition of the extracts was determined. The obtained extracts were also applied in face cream formulation and color analyses were performed. It has been shown that the obtained extracts were characterized by no cytotoxicity and a high antioxidant potential. The extracts also show strong ability to inhibit the activity of collagenase and moderate ability to inhibit elastase and provide effective and long-lasting hydration after their application on the skin. Application analyses showed that the extracts of P. rhoeas L., C. ternatea L. and C. tinctorius L. can be used as effective cosmetic dyes that allow for attainment of an intense and stable color during the storage of the product. The extracts of P. granatum L. and G. globasa L., despite their beneficial effects as active ingredients, did not work effectively as cosmetic dyes, because cosmetic emulsions with these extracts did not differ significantly in color from emulsions without the extract.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Cosméticos/farmacologia , Citoproteção , Dessecação , Flores/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colagenases/metabolismo , Cor , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Cinética , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Oxazinas/metabolismo , Elastase Pancreática/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Picratos/química , Plantas/química , Creme para a Pele/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Perda Insensível de Água/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantenos/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925891

RESUMO

Betalains are water-soluble pigments present in vacuoles of plants of the order Caryophyllales and in mushrooms of the genera Amanita, Hygrocybe and Hygrophorus. Betalamic acid is a constituent of all betalains. The type of betalamic acid substituent determines the class of betalains. The betacyanins (reddish to violet) contain a cyclo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (cyclo-DOPA) residue while the betaxanthins (yellow to orange) contain different amino acid or amine residues. The most common betacyanin is betanin (Beetroot Red), present in red beets Beta vulgaris, which is a glucoside of betanidin. The structure of this comprehensive review is as follows: Occurrence of Betalains; Structure of Betalains; Spectroscopic and Fluorescent Properties; Stability; Antioxidant Activity; Bioavailability, Health Benefits; Betalains as Food Colorants; Food Safety of Betalains; Other Applications of Betalains; and Environmental Role and Fate of Betalains.


Assuntos
Betalaínas/química , Betalaínas/farmacologia , Corantes/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Corantes de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos , Análise Espectral , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117836, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712173

RESUMO

pH-sensitive polymeric dyes were fabricated by grafting phenol red (PR) and rosolic acid (RA) onto chitosan (CS) by a facile method. Successful grafting was confirmed by 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, XRD, and elemental analysis. The polymeric dyes exhibited no cell toxicity. The colorimetric pH-sensing films were fabricated by blending the polymeric dyes with CS to establish their pH-dependent color properties. The film color changed in the pH range 4-10, which may indicate food spoilage or wound status. Covalently grafting of polymeric dyes in the films led to excellent color stability, leaching resistance, and reversibility. Hence, the synthesized polymeric dyes had potential as pH-indicative colorants for food and biomedical fields.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Corantes/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenolsulfonaftaleína/química
10.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(11): 2688-2696, 2021 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667292

RESUMO

Due to the hydrophobicity of the cyanine dye and the huge conjugated plane, the cyanine dye is prone to H-aggregation in aqueous solution, and the ultraviolet absorption is blue-shifted. Here, a hydrophilic quaternary stereo-specific cyanine (HQS-Cy) dye has been synthesized and polypeptide based nanoparticles have been prepared, which improve the water solubility of the cyanine in two aspects. First, at the molecular level, the sulfonic acid group increases the water solubility of the dye molecule while the dimethyl-ammonium functional group repels the molecule through the charge-charge interaction, destroying the planar characteristics of the cyanine structure, increasing the molecular distance between the dye molecules, and preventing the accumulation of cyanine. Secondly, at the nano-micelle level, the use of amphiphilic polypeptide blocks to encapsulate the dye increases the water solubility of the dye while also increasing its biocompatibility. The HQS-Cy@P NPs prepared by the above methods exhibit the maximum absorption at 985 nm and maximum fluorescence emission at 1050 nm in aqueous solution. HQS-Cy@P exhibits good photothermal stability and significant photothermal conversion efficiency of about 35.5%, and both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that it is an efficient system for NIR-II imaging-guided photothermal therapy of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carbocianinas/farmacologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Terapia Fototérmica , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carbocianinas/síntese química , Carbocianinas/química , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes/síntese química , Corantes/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Imagem Óptica , Solubilidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117612, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541643

RESUMO

Interest in environment-friendly textile processing techniques has been augmenting in recent years. Natural dyes are environment friendly, low toxic and less allergenic owing to the existence of large number of structurally diverse active compounds which makes natural colourants promising options for the development of antimicrobial and ultra-violet (UV) protective textiles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of biopolymer and dyeing treatment with natural dye on the functional properties (antibacterial and UV protection) of cotton fabric and the assessment was done using standard test method. It was found that the chitosan treated onion skin dyed cotton fabric showed 97.20 percent and 98.03 % reduction in the growth of E. coli and S. aureus bacteria respectively. The chitosan treated dyed cotton fabric showed the higher ultra-violet protection factor (UPF) value (84.80) as compared to alum treated dyed cotton fabric (66.70) depicting that the chitosan treated dyed cotton fabric provided more ultraviolet protection than the alum treated dyed fabric.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Fibra de Algodão , Cebolas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Biopolímeros/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Têxteis , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(2): 29, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605985

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate vortex vein engorgement and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) using ultra-widefield indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: This retrospective case control study included 51 patients with unilateral PCV, 7 patients with bilateral PCV, and 43 age-matched controls. The number of quadrants of vortex vein engorgement was evaluated in the middle phase of ICGA, which was classified as extended engorgement if the dilated choroidal vessels expanded to the macula. The area of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability was quantified stereographically from the late-phase ICGA and correlated with clinical and optical coherence tomography findings. Results: Affected eyes had a larger choroidal hyperpermeability area and a thicker subfoveal choroid than eyes in the control group or fellow eyes (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). More quadrants with extended vortex vein engorgement were observed in affected eyes than in fellow eyes (P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in the area of choroidal hyperpermeability, Haller layer thickness and greatest linear dimension according to the extended vortex vein engorgement in eyes with PCV (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). The area of choroidal hyperpermeability was significantly correlated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (P < 0.001, Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.471). Conclusions: Ultra-widefield ICGA results revealed that patients with PCV had vortex vein engorgement and an increased choroidal hyperpermeability area. The results from this study provide substantial information to clarify the pathogenesis and predict the prognosis in the patients with PCV.


Assuntos
Doenças da Coroide/diagnóstico , Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Pólipos/diagnóstico , Vasos Retinianos/anormalidades , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Corioide/patologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 2245-2255, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416320

RESUMO

Self-disinfecting textile materials employing combined photodynamic/photothermal effects enable the prevention of microbial infections, a property that has great potential in healthcare applications. However, smart textiles with stimulus responses to ambient temperature are marvelous materials for enhancing their photothermal applications with additional functions. It is still challenging to realize vivid and contrasting color changes as temperature indicators. Herein, through the in situ growth of PCN-224 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the electrospraying of a Ti3C2 MXene colloid, and the screen printing of a thermochromic dye, a smart photothermochromic self-disinfecting textile has been fabricated. An antibacterial inactivation study revealed 99.9999% inactivation toward gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 8099) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) bacteria in 30 min. A mechanism study revealed that light-driven singlet oxygen and heat are the main reasons for bacterial inactivation. Interestingly, the fabrics presented photothermal effects not only under a handheld 780 nm NIR laser but also under visible Xe lamp (λ ≥ 420 nm) illumination. The color of the fabrics (S-CF@PCN0.08) changed completely from dark green to dark red when the temperature exceeded 45 °C under Xe lamp illumination. Furthermore, the photothermochromic effect occurred in just 1 s under a 780 nm laser. Taken together, this smart photothermochromic self-disinfecting textile permits a new way to feedback the timely signal of temperature by color change and provides novel insights into the development of self-disinfecting textiles.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Corantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Têxteis/microbiologia , Titânio/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Corantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Luz , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura , Titânio/farmacologia
14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 541: 36-42, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465740

RESUMO

Methylene blue (MB) is a blue cationic thiazine dye and currently used in different medical settings. Notably, there have been several attempts to introduce MB for attenuating pain in the last decade. Some clinical studies reported remarkable results, which, however, have been much debated. In addition, accumulating evidence have revealed that MB diminishes voltage-gated sodium channel currents. Accordingly, in the present study, we conducted in vivo experiments, including in vivo single nerve recording and behavioral test, to investigate whether MB dampens neural firing rates and ultimately contributes to pain relief. As a result, neural firing rates significantly decreased and finally converged to zero after MB administration. This event lasted longer than that of lidocaine and was dose-dependently modulated. Furthermore, there was a marked improvement in pain behaviors. The withdrawal threshold and latency of hind paws significantly rose post-MB administration. Therefore, these results demonstrate that MB lessens pain by significantly weakening neural excitability, which implies a strong possibility that this dye may be developed as a pain-relieving medication in the future. This is the first in vivo study to elucidate the effect of MB on nerves and pain relief.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/psicologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Corantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Nervo Femoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Lidocaína/farmacologia , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 47(2): 269-275, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183928

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Positive margins after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) remain a major concern. In this study we investigate the feasibility and accuracy of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging (FI) for the in vivo assessment of surgical margins during BCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with BC admitted for BCS from October 2015 to April 2016 were proposed to be included in the present study (NCT02027818). ICG (0.25 mg/kg) was intravenously injected at induction anesthesia and ICG-FI of the surgical beds was correlated with final pathology results. RESULTS: Fifty patients consented to participate and thirty-five patients were retained for final analysis, 15 patients having been excluded for, respectively, incomplete video records data for signal to background ratio (SBR) calculation (11) and in situ tumors (4). The final pathological assessment of 35 breast specimens identified 5 (14.7%) positive margins. Intraoperative ICG-FI revealed hyperfluorescent signals in 15 (42.9%) patients and an absence of fluorescent signals in 20 (57.1%). Median SBR in patients with involved margins was 1.8 (SD 0.7) and was 1.25 (SD 0.6) in patients with clear margins (p = 0.05). The accuracy, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ICG-FI for breast surgical margin assessment were 71%, 60%, 29% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: ICG-FI of BC surgical beds has a high negative predictive value for surgical margin assessment during BCS. The absence of residual fluorescence in the surgical bed of patients with fluorescent tumors predicts negative margins at final pathology and allows the surgeon to avoid further intraoperative analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Mama/patologia , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Margens de Excisão , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Corantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 51(1): 16-27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633607

RESUMO

The spore laccase enzyme production by B. amyloliquefaciens was optimized. It was characterized and tested for its textile dye decolorization potential. LB medium was found to be the most promising growth medium with addition of glucose (1-2%), yeast extract (0.1%), FeCl3 (0.01 mM) and MnCl2 (0.001 mM). The optimum spore laccase production was at pH 8, 30 °C, 1:5 medium to air ratio, 2% inoculum size and 7 days incubation. The characterization study of the enzyme showed the maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 6-7.5. It was induced by Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+3, Zn+2, Cu+2 and Na+ at 1 mM concentration. Also, it was stable in the presence of methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform. In addition, it enhanced about 34% by 5 mM H2O2 and it was nearly stable at 10-20 mM H2O2. Furthermore, mediators such as ABTS, syrengaldazine and 2, 6 dimethyl phenol enhanced the spore laccase activity. The spore laccase enzyme efficiently decolorized direct red 81 and acid black 24 after 24 h. Phytotoxicity of the direct red 81 solution after decolorization by tested spore laccase was lower than that of the untreated dye solution. Finally, this study added a promising spore laccase candidate for ecofriendly and cost-effective dye wastewater bio-decolorization.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Esporos Bacterianos/enzimologia , Têxteis , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Descoloração da Água/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Corantes/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura , Temperatura Alta , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
17.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(6): 856-861, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620684

RESUMO

AIMS: Automatic identification of pachychoroid maybe used as an adjunctive method to confirm the condition and be of help in treatment for macular diseases. This study investigated the feasibility of classifying pachychoroid disease on ultra-widefield indocyanine green angiography (UWF ICGA) images using an automated machine-learning platform. METHODS: Two models were trained with a set including 783 UWF ICGA images of patients with pachychoroid (n=376) and non-pachychoroid (n=349) diseases using the AutoML Vision (Google). Pachychoroid was confirmed using quantitative and qualitative choroidal morphology on multimodal imaging by two retina specialists. Model 1 used the original and Model 2 used images of the left eye horizontally flipped to the orientation of the right eye to increase accuracy by equalising the mirror image of the right eye and left eye. The performances were compared with those of human experts. RESULTS: In total, 284, 279 and 220 images of central serous chorioretinopathy, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and neovascular age-related maculopathy were included. The precision and recall were 87.84% and 87.84% for Model 1 and 89.19% and 89.19% for Model 2, which were comparable to the results of the retinal specialists (90.91% and 95.24%) and superior to those of ophthalmic residents (68.18% and 92.50%). CONCLUSIONS: Auto machine-learning platform can be used in the classification of pachychoroid on UWF ICGA images after careful consideration for pachychoroid definition and limitation of the platform including unstable performance on the medical image.


Assuntos
Doenças da Coroide/diagnóstico , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Idoso , Corantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Cornea ; 40(3): 292-298, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732698

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how trypan blue staining affects Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) graft visibility and corneal endothelial cell (CEC) mitochondrial respiration. METHODS: DMEK grafts (n = 20) were stained with trypan blue 0.06% for 1, 3, 5, or 10 minutes. Each graft was injected into an artificial anterior chamber. Surgery was simulated with tapping and sweeping motions on the corneal surface and injections of balanced salt solution (BSS). Graft visibility was assessed at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Effects of trypan blue on mitochondrial respiration were assessed using primary CECs cultured from donor corneas (n = 43). Treatment wells exposed to trypan blue 0.06% (1, 5, or 30 minutes) and donor-matched control wells to methylene blue 1% (1 minute) or BSS (1, 5, or 30 minutes) were assayed for key respiration parameters. RESULTS: After 5 minutes of surgical manipulation, grafts stained for 5 minutes were significantly more visible than grafts stained for 1 or 3 minutes; there was no added benefit of staining for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes of surgical manipulation, grafts stained for 3 minutes were more visible than grafts stained for 1 minute, without additional benefits of staining ≥5 minutes. No visibility differences were observed after ≥20 minutes of surgical manipulation. CEC mitochondrial respiration did not change significantly following trypan blue exposure for all intervals tested compared to BSS. CONCLUSIONS: Staining DMEK grafts with trypan blue for 3 to 5 minutes optimizes visibility during surgical manipulation without mitochondrial impairment. Corneal surgeons learning DMEK will benefit from optimizing this critical step.


Assuntos
Corantes/farmacologia , Ceratoplastia Endotelial com Remoção da Lâmina Limitante Posterior , Endotélio Corneano/anatomia & histologia , Endotélio Corneano/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Azul Tripano/farmacologia , Perda de Células Endoteliais da Córnea/cirurgia , Endotélio Corneano/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Doadores de Tecidos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos
19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(6): 824-828, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829300

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the peripheral extent of choroidal circulation using ultra-widefield (UWF) indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in healthy eyes. METHODS: UWF ICGA images of 55 eyes of 36 healthy subjects were captured using the Optos California (Optos, Dunfermline, United Kingdom) in this prospective observational study. Images were analysed to locate the peripheral extent of the visible choroidal circulation, and the boundary was marked in ImageJ (v1.52). Each pixel annotated as the border of the choroidal circulation was projected individually to its anatomically correct location on the three-dimensional model eye, and spherical trigonometry was applied (using the Optos software) to calculate its respective radial distance from the centre of the optic disc in metric units (corrected by stereographic projection) for each quadrant. RESULTS: The mean area of the peripheral extent was estimated to be 893.2 mm2 (95% CI: 844.2 to 942.3 mm2). The mean distance (range) of this boundary from optic nerve centre was 18.22 mm (95% CI: 14.0 to 23.14 mm). Multiple regression analysis with age, gender, axial length or ethnicity showed no relationship. There was excellent inter-grader reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99, p<0.001) for distance and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.988 to 0.999, p<0.001) for area measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The peripheral choroidal boundary may be defined using UWF ICGA. Knowledge of the normal extent and its variability is essential to understand the impact of disease on the choroidal vasculature.


Assuntos
Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Corantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
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