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1.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMO

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000715, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511245

RESUMO

Zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) infections, such as those responsible for the current severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, cause grave international public health concern. In infected cells, the CoV RNA-synthesizing machinery associates with modified endoplasmic reticulum membranes that are transformed into the viral replication organelle (RO). Although double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) appear to be a pan-CoV RO element, studies to date describe an assortment of additional CoV-induced membrane structures. Despite much speculation, it remains unclear which RO element(s) accommodate viral RNA synthesis. Here we provide detailed 2D and 3D analyses of CoV ROs and show that diverse CoVs essentially induce the same membrane modifications, including the small open double-membrane spherules (DMSs) previously thought to be restricted to gamma- and delta-CoV infections and proposed as sites of replication. Metabolic labeling of newly synthesized viral RNA followed by quantitative electron microscopy (EM) autoradiography revealed abundant viral RNA synthesis associated with DMVs in cells infected with the beta-CoVs Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV and the gamma-CoV infectious bronchitis virus. RNA synthesis could not be linked to DMSs or any other cellular or virus-induced structure. Our results provide a unifying model of the CoV RO and clearly establish DMVs as the central hub for viral RNA synthesis and a potential drug target in CoV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/virologia , Replicação Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Células Vero
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526937

RESUMO

The severe respiratory disease COVID-19 was initially reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and spread into many provinces from Wuhan. The corresponding pathogen was soon identified as a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 (formerly, 2019-nCoV). As of 2 May, 2020, over 3 million COVID-19 cases had been confirmed, and 235,290 deaths had been reported globally, and the numbers are still increasing. It is important to understand the phylogenetic relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and known coronaviruses, and to identify its hosts for preventing the next round of emergency outbreak. In this study, we employ an effective alignment-free approach, the Natural Vector method, to analyze the phylogeny and classify the coronaviruses based on genomic and protein data. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to, but distinct from the SARS-CoV branch. By analyzing the genetic distances from the SARS-CoV-2 strain to the coronaviruses residing in animal hosts, we establish that the most possible transmission path originates from bats to pangolins to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Mamíferos/classificação , Mamíferos/virologia , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
4.
Phys Med ; 75: 83-84, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559649

RESUMO

In the current pandemic times, medical physicists may not be aware that there is an interesting story on two significant discoveries related to the coronavirus. One is the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the other is the first electron microscopic observation and identification of the coronavirus. Both of them were disregarded by the reviewers and major journals declined to publish these discoveries. These days, PCR, for example, is a widespread method for analyzing DNA, having a profound effect on healthcare, especially now during the Covid-19 pandemic. Prejudice or perhaps ignorance prevail in every aspect of our society, and there is no exception in scientific research. We need to, however, learn from these two stories and be open-minded about novel discoveries and findings - as they may be just disruptive in the "right" way to lead to an unexpected breakthrough.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Preconceito/história , Comunicação Acadêmica/história , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Coronavirus , História do Século XX , Humanos , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica/história , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/história
5.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366025

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first occurred in Wuhan (China) in December of 2019, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate, and has spread around the world. To gain an understanding of the evolution of the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2, we herein analyzed the codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2. For this purpose, we compared the codon usage of SARS-CoV-2 with that of other viruses belonging to the subfamily of Orthocoronavirinae. We found that SARS-CoV-2 has a high AU content that strongly influences its codon usage, which appears to be better adapted to the human host. We also studied the evolutionary pressures that influence the codon usage of five conserved coronavirus genes encoding the viral replicase, spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. We found different patterns of both mutational bias and natural selection that affect the codon usage of these genes. Moreover, we show here that the two integral membrane proteins (matrix and envelope) tend to evolve slowly by accumulating nucleotide mutations on their corresponding genes. Conversely, genes encoding nucleocapsid (N), viral replicase and spike proteins (S), although they are regarded as are important targets for the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, tend to evolve faster in comparison to the two genes mentioned above. Overall, our results suggest that the higher divergence observed for the latter three genes could represent a significant barrier in the development of antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Códon , Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Composição de Bases , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Coronavirus/classificação , Genes Virais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mutação , Filogenia
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 127: 110230, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428835

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has once again aroused people's concern about coronavirus. Seven human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been discovered so far, including HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU115, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Existing studies show that the cardiovascular disease increased the incidence and severity of coronavirus infection. At the same time, myocardial injury caused by coronavirus infection is one of the main factors contributing to poor prognosis. In this review, the recent clinical findings about the relationship between coronaviruses and cardiovascular diseases and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed. This review aimed to provide assistance for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Comorbidade , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico
7.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471829

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recently identified as the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak that has generated a global health crisis. We use a combination of genomic analysis and sensitive profile-based sequence and structure analysis to understand the potential pathogenesis determinants of this virus. As a result, we identify several fast-evolving genomic regions that might be at the interface of virus-host interactions, corresponding to the receptor binding domain of the Spike protein, the three tandem Macro fold domains in ORF1a, and the uncharacterized protein ORF8. Further, we show that ORF8 and several other proteins from alpha- and beta-CoVs belong to novel families of immunoglobulin (Ig) proteins. Among them, ORF8 is distinguished by being rapidly evolving, possessing a unique insert, and having a hypervariable position among SARS-CoV-2 genomes in its predicted ligand-binding groove. We also uncover numerous Ig domain proteins from several unrelated metazoan viruses, which are distinct in sequence and structure but share comparable architectures to those of the CoV Ig domain proteins. Hence, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 and other previously unidentified CoV Ig domain proteins fall under the umbrella of a widespread strategy of deployment of Ig domain proteins in animal viruses as pathogenicity factors that modulate host immunity. The rapid evolution of the ORF8 Ig domain proteins points to a potential evolutionary arms race between viruses and hosts, likely arising from immune pressure, and suggests a role in transmission between distinct host species.IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic strongly emphasizes the need for a more complete understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of its causative agent SARS-CoV-2. Despite intense scrutiny, several proteins encoded by the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and other SARS-like coronaviruses remain enigmatic. Moreover, the high infectivity and severity of SARS-CoV-2 in certain individuals make wet-lab studies currently challenging. In this study, we used a series of computational strategies to identify several fast-evolving regions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins which are potentially under host immune pressure. Most notably, the hitherto-uncharacterized protein encoded by ORF8 is one of them. Using sensitive sequence and structural analysis methods, we show that ORF8 and several other proteins from alpha- and beta-coronavirus comprise novel families of immunoglobulin domain proteins, which might function as potential immune modulators to delay or attenuate the host immune response against the viruses.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Virais/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/química , Coronavirus/classificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Domínios de Imunoglobulina/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/química , Fatores de Virulência/química
8.
Avian Pathol ; 49(4): 313-316, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374218

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) mainly cause enteric and/or respiratory signs. Mammalian CoVs including COVID-19 (now officially named SARS-CoV-2) belong to either the Alphacoronavirus or Betacoronavirus genera. In birds, the majority of the known CoVs belong to the Gammacoronavirus genus, whilst a small number are classified as Deltacoronaviruses. Gammacoronaviruses continue to be reported in an increasing number of avian species, generally by detection of viral RNA. Apart from infectious bronchitis virus in chickens, the only avian species in which CoV has been definitively associated with disease are the turkey, pheasant and guinea fowl. Whilst there is strong evidence for recombination between gammacoronaviruses of different avian species, and between betacoronaviruses in different mammals, evidence of recombination between coronaviruses of different genera is lacking. Furthermore, the recombination of an alpha or betacoronavirus with a gammacoronavirus is extremely unlikely. For recombination to happen, the two viruses would need to be present in the same cell of the same animal at the same time, a highly unlikely scenario as they cannot replicate in the same host!


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/classificação , Gammacoronavirus/classificação , Animais , Aves , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Galliformes , Humanos , Perus
10.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10): 1686-1697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226286

RESUMO

Mutation and adaptation have driven the co-evolution of coronaviruses (CoVs) and their hosts, including human beings, for thousands of years. Before 2003, two human CoVs (HCoVs) were known to cause mild illness, such as common cold. The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have flipped the coin to reveal how devastating and life-threatening an HCoV infection could be. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in central China at the end of 2019 has thrusted CoVs into the spotlight again and surprised us with its high transmissibility but reduced pathogenicity compared to its sister SARS-CoV. HCoV infection is a zoonosis and understanding the zoonotic origins of HCoVs would serve us well. Most HCoVs originated from bats where they are non-pathogenic. The intermediate reservoir hosts of some HCoVs are also known. Identifying the animal hosts has direct implications in the prevention of human diseases. Investigating CoV-host interactions in animals might also derive important insight on CoV pathogenesis in humans. In this review, we present an overview of the existing knowledge about the seven HCoVs, with a focus on the history of their discovery as well as their zoonotic origins and interspecies transmission. Importantly, we compare and contrast the different HCoVs from a perspective of virus evolution and genome recombination. The current CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is discussed in this context. In addition, the requirements for successful host switches and the implications of virus evolution on disease severity are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , China , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(13)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265007

RESUMO

Whole genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from two patients, a Chinese tourist visiting Rome and an Italian, were compared with sequences from Europe and elsewhere. In a phylogenetic tree, the Italian patient's sequence clustered with sequences from Germany while the tourist's sequence clustered with other European sequences. Some additional European sequences in the tree segregated outside the two clusters containing the patients' sequences. This suggests multiple SARS-CoV-2 introductions in Europe or virus evolution during circulation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Viagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Epidemiologia Molecular , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Mutação Puntual , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230802, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271768

RESUMO

The recent emergence of bat-borne zoonotic viruses warrants vigilant surveillance in their natural hosts. Of particular concern is the family of coronaviruses, which includes the causative agents of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an epidemic of acute respiratory illness originating from Wuhan, China in December 2019. Viral detection, discovery, and surveillance activities were undertaken in Myanmar to identify viruses in animals at high risk contact interfaces with people. Free-ranging bats were captured, and rectal and oral swabs and guano samples collected for coronaviral screening using broadly reactive consensus conventional polymerase chain reaction. Sequences from positives were compared to known coronaviruses. Three novel alphacoronaviruses, three novel betacoronaviruses, and one known alphacoronavirus previously identified in other southeast Asian countries were detected for the first time in bats in Myanmar. Ongoing land use change remains a prominent driver of zoonotic disease emergence in Myanmar, bringing humans into ever closer contact with wildlife, and justifying continued surveillance and vigilance at broad scales.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Canal Anal/virologia , Animais , Coronavirus/genética , Fezes/virologia , Boca/virologia , Mianmar , Vigilância da População
13.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(2): 210-217, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314790

RESUMO

Coronaviruses contribute to the burden of respiratory diseases in children, frequently manifesting in upper respiratory symptoms considered to be part of the "common cold." Recent epidemics of novel coronaviruses recognized in the 21st century have highlighted issues of zoonotic origins of transmissible respiratory viruses and potential transmission, disease, and mortality related to these viruses. In this review, we discuss what is known about the virology, epidemiology, and disease associated with pediatric infection with the common community-acquired human coronaviruses, including species 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1, and the coronaviruses responsible for past world-wide epidemics due to severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Criança , Comorbidade , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pediatria , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
14.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(2 & 3): 226-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317409

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Bats are considered to be the natural reservoir for many viruses, of which some are potential human pathogens. In India, an association of Pteropus medius bats with the Nipah virus was reported in the past. It is suspected that the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also has its association with bats. To assess the presence of CoVs in bats, we performed identification and characterization of bat CoV (BtCoV) in P. medius and Rousettus species from representative States in India, collected during 2018 and 2019. Methods: Representative rectal swab (RS) and throat swab specimens of Pteropus and Rousettus spp. bats were screened for CoVs using a pan-CoV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. A single-step RT-PCR was performed on the RNA extracted from the bat specimens. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on a few representative bat specimens that were tested positive. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the partial sequences of RdRp gene sequences retrieved from both the bat species and complete viral genomes recovered from Rousettus spp. Results: Bat samples from the seven States were screened, and the RS specimens of eight Rousettus spp. and 21 Pteropus spp. were found positive for CoV RdRp gene. Among these, by Sanger sequencing, partial RdRp sequences could be retrieved from three Rousettus and eight Pteropus bat specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RdRp region demonstrated distinct subclustering of the BtCoV sequences retrieved from these Rousettus and Pteropus spp. bats. NGS led to the recovery of four sequences covering approximately 94.3 per cent of the whole genome of the BtCoVs from Rousettus bats. Three BtCoV sequences had 93.69 per cent identity to CoV BtRt-BetaCoV/GX2018. The fourth BtCoV sequence was 96.8 per cent identical to BtCoV HKU9-1. Interpretation & conclusions: This study was a step towards understanding the CoV circulation in Indian bats. Detection of potentially pathogenic CoVs in Indian bats stresses the need for enhanced screening for novel viruses in them. One Health approach with collaborative activities by the animal health and human health sectors in these surveillance activities shall be of use to public health. This would help in the development of diagnostic assays for novel viruses with outbreak potential and be useful in disease interventions. Proactive surveillance remains crucial for identifying the emerging novel viruses with epidemic potential and measures for risk mitigation.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Animais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Índia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
15.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(SI-1): 549-556, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293832

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause a broad spectrum of diseases in domestic and wild animals, poultry, and rodents, ranging from mild to severe enteric, respiratory, and systemic disease, and also cause the common cold or pneumonia in humans. Seven coronavirus species are known to cause human infection, 4 of which, HCoV 229E, HCoV NL63, HCoV HKU1 and HCoV OC43, typically cause cold symptoms in immunocompetent individuals. The others namely SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) were zoonotic in origin and cause severe respiratory illness and fatalities. On 31 December 2019, the existence of patients with pneumonia of an unknown aetiology was reported to WHO by the national authorities in China. This virus was officially identified by the coronavirus study group as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease was labelled coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). COVID-19's first cases were seen in Turkey on March 10, 2020 and was number 47,029 cases and 1006 deaths after 1 month. Infections with SARS-CoV-2 are now widespread, and as of 10 April 2020, 1,727,602 cases have been confirmed in more than 210 countries, with 105,728 deaths.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Humano 229E , Coronavirus Humano OC43 , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Vírus da SARS , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Turquia/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Montagem de Vírus , Internalização do Vírus
16.
Malays J Pathol ; 42(1): 3-11, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342926

RESUMO

were identified beginning with the discovery of SARS-CoV in 2002. With the recent detection of SARS-CoV-2, there are now seven human coronaviruses. Those that cause mild diseases are the 229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1, and the pathogenic species are SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Coronaviruses (order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, and subfamily Orthocoronavirinae) are spherical (125nm diameter), and enveloped with club-shaped spikes on the surface giving the appearance of a solar corona. Within the helically symmetrical nucleocapsid is the large positive sense, single stranded RNA. Of the four coronavirus genera (α,ß,γ,δ), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are classified under α-CoV (HCoV-229E and NL63) and ß-CoV (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, HCoVOC43 and HCoV-HKU1). SARS-CoV-2 is a ß-CoV and shows fairly close relatedness with two bat-derived CoV-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. Even so, its genome is similar to that of the typical CoVs. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV originated in bats, and it appears to be so for SARS-CoV-2 as well. The possibility of an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans has already been shown with civet cats acting as intermediate hosts for SARS-CoVs, and dromedary camels for MERS-CoV. Human-to-human transmission is primarily achieved through close contact of respiratory droplets, direct contact with the infected individuals, or by contact with contaminated objects and surfaces. The coronaviral genome contains four major structural proteins: the spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, all of which are encoded within the 3' end of the genome. The S protein mediates attachment of the virus to the host cell surface receptors resulting in fusion and subsequent viral entry. The M protein is the most abundant protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope. The E protein is the smallest of the major structural proteins and participates in viral assembly and budding. The N protein is the only one that binds to the RNA genome and is also involved in viral assembly and budding. Replication of coronaviruses begin with attachment and entry. Attachment of the virus to the host cell is initiated by interactions between the S protein and its specific receptor. Following receptor binding, the virus enters host cell cytosol via cleavage of S protein by a protease enzyme, followed by fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. The next step is the translation of the replicase gene from the virion genomic RNA and then translation and assembly of the viral replicase complexes. Following replication and subgenomic RNA synthesis, encapsidation occurs resulting in the formation of the mature virus. Following assembly, virions are transported to the cell surface in vesicles and released by exocytosis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Genoma Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Replicação Viral
17.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 188-194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302675

RESUMO

Several research lines are currently ongoing to address the multitude of facets of the pandemic COVID-19. In line with the One-Health concept, extending the target of the studies to the animals which humans are continuously interacting with may favor a better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 biology and pathogenetic mechanisms; thus, helping to adopt the most suitable containment measures. The last two decades have already faced severe manifestations of the coronavirus infection in both humans and animals, thus, circulating epitopes from previous outbreaks might confer partial protection from SARS-CoV-2 infections. In the present study, we provide an in-silico survey of the major nucleocapsid protein epitopes and compare them with the homologues of taxonomically-related coronaviruses with tropism for animal species that are closely inter-related with the human beings population all over the world. Protein sequence alignment provides evidence of high sequence homology for some of the investigated proteins. Moreover, structural epitope mapping by homology modelling revealed a potential immunogenic value also for specific sequences scoring a lower identity with SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid proteins. These evidence provide a molecular structural rationale for a potential role in conferring protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying potential candidates for the development of diagnostic tools and prophylactic-oriented strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Epitopos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 82: 104285, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169673

RESUMO

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, so far, there are still controversies about the source of the virus and its intermediate host. Here, we found the novel coronavirus was closely related to coronaviruses derived from five wild animals, including Paguma larvata, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Civet, Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Rhinolophus sinicus, and was in the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. However, genome and ORF1a homology show that the virus is not the same coronavirus as the coronavirus derived from these five animals, whereas the virus has the highest homology with Bat coronavirus isolate RaTG13.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Mamíferos/classificação , Mamíferos/virologia , Mutação , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
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