Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 826
Filtrar
1.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMO

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604730

RESUMO

The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the global health crisis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. No evidence is yet available for CoV infection into hosts upon zoonotic disease outbreak, although the CoV epidemy resembles influenza viruses, which use sialic acid (SA). Currently, information on SARS-CoV-2 and its receptors is limited. O-acetylated SAs interact with the lectin-like spike glycoprotein of SARS CoV-2 for the initial attachment of viruses to enter into the host cells. SARS-CoV-2 hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) acts as the classical glycan-binding lectin and receptor-degrading enzyme. Most ß-CoVs recognize 9-O-acetyl-SAs but switched to recognizing the 4-O-acetyl-SA form during evolution of CoVs. Type I HE is specific for the 9-O-Ac-SAs and type II HE is specific for 4-O-Ac-SAs. The SA-binding shift proceeds through quasi-synchronous adaptations of the SA-recognition sites of the lectin and esterase domains. The molecular switching of HE acquisition of 4-O-acetyl binding from 9-O-acetyl SA binding is caused by protein-carbohydrate interaction (PCI) or lectin-carbohydrate interaction (LCI). The HE gene was transmitted to a ß-CoV lineage A progenitor by horizontal gene transfer from a 9-O-Ac-SA-specific HEF, as in influenza virus C/D. HE acquisition, and expansion takes place by cross-species transmission over HE evolution. This reflects viral evolutionary adaptation to host SA-containing glycans. Therefore, CoV HE receptor switching precedes virus evolution driven by the SA-glycan diversity of the hosts. The PCI or LCI stereochemistry potentiates the SA-ligand switch by a simple conformational shift of the lectin and esterase domains. Therefore, examination of new emerging viruses can lead to better understanding of virus evolution toward transitional host tropism. A clear example of HE gene transfer is found in the BCoV HE, which prefers 7,9-di-O-Ac-SAs, which is also known to be a target of the bovine torovirus HE. A more exciting case of such a switching event occurs in the murine CoVs, with the example of the ß-CoV lineage A type binding with two different subtypes of the typical 9-O-Ac-SA (type I) and the exclusive 4-O-Ac-SA (type II) attachment factors. The protein structure data for type II HE also imply the virus switching to binding 4-O acetyl SA from 9-O acetyl SA. Principles of the protein-glycan interaction and PCI stereochemistry potentiate the SA-ligand switch via simple conformational shifts of the lectin and esterase domains. Thus, our understanding of natural adaptation can be specified to how carbohydrate/glycan-recognizing proteins/molecules contribute to virus evolution toward host tropism. Under the current circumstances where reliable antiviral therapeutics or vaccination tools are lacking, several trials are underway to examine viral agents. As expected, structural and non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are currently being targeted for viral therapeutic designation and development. However, the modern global society needs SARS-CoV-2 preventive and therapeutic drugs for infected patients. In this review, the structure and sialobiology of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed in order to encourage and activate public research on glycan-specific interaction-based drug creation in the near future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Acetilesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/genética , Esterases , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Hemaglutininas Virais/genética , Humanos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Pandemias , Polissacarídeos , Receptores Virais/química , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Torovirus , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553059

RESUMO

Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Vison , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Países Baixos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526937

RESUMO

The severe respiratory disease COVID-19 was initially reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and spread into many provinces from Wuhan. The corresponding pathogen was soon identified as a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 (formerly, 2019-nCoV). As of 2 May, 2020, over 3 million COVID-19 cases had been confirmed, and 235,290 deaths had been reported globally, and the numbers are still increasing. It is important to understand the phylogenetic relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and known coronaviruses, and to identify its hosts for preventing the next round of emergency outbreak. In this study, we employ an effective alignment-free approach, the Natural Vector method, to analyze the phylogeny and classify the coronaviruses based on genomic and protein data. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to, but distinct from the SARS-CoV branch. By analyzing the genetic distances from the SARS-CoV-2 strain to the coronaviruses residing in animal hosts, we establish that the most possible transmission path originates from bats to pangolins to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Mamíferos/classificação , Mamíferos/virologia , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
5.
Comput Biol Med ; 121: 103749, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568687

RESUMO

This paper continues a recent study of the spike protein sequence of the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2). It is also in part an introductory review to relevant computational techniques for tackling viral threats, using COVID-19 as an example. Q-UEL tools for facilitating access to knowledge and bioinformatics tools were again used for efficiency, but the focus in this paper is even more on the virus. Subsequence KRSFIEDLLFNKV of the S2' spike glycoprotein proteolytic cleavage site continues to appear important. Here it is shown to be recognizable in the common cold coronaviruses, avian coronaviruses and possibly as traces in the nidoviruses of reptiles and fish. Its function or functions thus seem important to the coronaviruses. It might represent SARS-CoV-2 Achilles' heel, less likely to acquire resistance by mutation, as has happened in some early SARS vaccine studies discussed in the previous paper. Preliminary conformational analysis of the receptor (ACE2) binding site of the spike protein is carried out suggesting that while it is somewhat conserved, it appears to be more variable than KRSFIEDLLFNKV. However compounds like emodin that inhibit SARS entry, apparently by binding ACE2, might also have functions at several different human protein binding sites. The enzyme 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is again argued to be a convenient model pharmacophore perhaps representing an ensemble of targets, and it is noted that it occurs both in lung and alimentary tract. Perhaps it benefits the virus to block an inflammatory response by inhibiting the dehydrogenase, but a fairly complex web involves several possible targets.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional , Coronavirus/química , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Peptidomiméticos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(18): e174, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383370

RESUMO

Initially, acute loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia) was not considered important symptoms for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To determine the prevalence of these symptoms and to evaluate their diagnostic significance, we (approximately 150 physicians of the Daegu Medical Association) prospectively collected data of cases of anosmia and ageusia from March 8, 2020, via telephone interview among 3,191 patients in Daegu, Korea. Acute anosmia or ageusia was observed in 15.3% (488/3,191) patients in the early stage of COVID-19 and in 15.7% (367/2,342) patients with asymptomatic-to-mild disease severity. Their prevalence was significantly more common among females and younger individuals (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Most patients with anosmia or ageusia recovered within 3 weeks. The median time to recovery was 7 days for both symptoms. Anosmia and ageusia seem to be part of important symptoms and clues for the diagnosis of COVID-19, particularly in the early stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Ageusia/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Olfato , Paladar
8.
A A Pract ; 14(7): e01227, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371823

RESUMO

A 17-year-old healthy girl underwent an uneventful esthetic septorhinoplasty. She was easily extubated and transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 96%. About 30 minutes after arrival in the PACU, she developed dyspnea with SpO2 of 84% and promptly received oxygen with bilevel positive airway pressure in conjunction with low-dose corticosteroid. The subsequent chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral patchy infiltrates similar to the radiologic findings of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a pharyngeal specimen confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Dispneia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Extubação , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Faringe/virologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 195-198, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420944

RESUMO

Summar y. The beginning of 2020 has seen the emergence of COVID-19, an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, an important pathogen for humans. SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus containing 29891 nucleotides encoding 9889 amino acids. The genome is arranged as 5p-replicase (orf1/ab)-structural proteins [Spike (S) -Envelope (E) - Membrane (M) -Nucleocapsid (N)] -3. Viruses are obligate intracellular infectious agents that use the host cellular machinery to ensure their own fitness and survival. MicroRNAs (miRNA9) systems are potent post-transcriptional gene expression regulators that are important modulators of viral infections, and could play an important role in the treatment of viral infections. This review focuses to the genomic structure of coronaviruses, the functions of genomic proteins, the effects of micro RNA (miRNA) on virus replication and its pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Replicação Viral
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18821, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japan implemented a large-scale quarantine on the Diamond Princess cruise ship in an attempt to control the spread of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in February 2020. OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe the medical activities initiated and difficulties in implementing quarantine on a cruise ship. METHODS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed for all 3711 people (2666 passengers and 1045 crew) on board. RESULTS: Of those tested, 696 (18.8%) tested positive for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), of which 410 (58.9%) were asymptomatic. We also confirmed that 54% of the asymptomatic patients with a positive RT-PCR result had lung opacities on chest computed tomography. There were many difficulties in implementing quarantine, such as creating a dividing traffic line between infectious and noninfectious passengers, finding hospitals and transportation providers willing to accept these patients, transporting individuals, language barriers, and supporting daily life. As of March 8, 2020, 31 patients (4.5% of patients with positive RT-PCR results) were hospitalized and required ventilator support or intensive care, and 7 patients (1.0% of patients with positive RT-PCR results) had died. CONCLUSIONS: There were several difficulties in implementing large-scale quarantine and obtaining medical support on the cruise ship. In the future, we need to prepare for patients' transfer and the admitting hospitals when disembarking the passengers. We recommend treating the crew the same way as the passengers to control the infection. We must also draw a plan for the future, to protect travelers and passengers from emerging infectious diseases on cruise ships.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Quarentena/métodos , Navios , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Viagem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 329, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although people of all ages are susceptible to the novel coronavirus infection, which is presently named "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19), there has been relatively few cases reported among children. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and the differences from adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We report one pediatric case of COVID-19. A 14-month-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a symptom of fever, and was diagnosed with a mild form of COVID-19. The child's mother and grandmother also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, the lymphocyte counts were normal. The chest computed tomography (CT) revealed scattered ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe close to the pleura and resorption after the treatment. The patient continued to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nasopharyngeal swabs and stool at 17 days after the disappearance of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The present pediatric case of COVID-19 was acquired through household transmission, and the symptoms were mild. Lymphocyte counts did not significantly decrease. The RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in stool and nasopharyngeal swabs remained positive for an extended period of time after the disappearance of symptoms. This suggests that attention should be given to the potential contagiousness of pediatric COVID-19 cases after clinical recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus , Fezes/virologia , Febre/etiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366025

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first occurred in Wuhan (China) in December of 2019, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate, and has spread around the world. To gain an understanding of the evolution of the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2, we herein analyzed the codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2. For this purpose, we compared the codon usage of SARS-CoV-2 with that of other viruses belonging to the subfamily of Orthocoronavirinae. We found that SARS-CoV-2 has a high AU content that strongly influences its codon usage, which appears to be better adapted to the human host. We also studied the evolutionary pressures that influence the codon usage of five conserved coronavirus genes encoding the viral replicase, spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. We found different patterns of both mutational bias and natural selection that affect the codon usage of these genes. Moreover, we show here that the two integral membrane proteins (matrix and envelope) tend to evolve slowly by accumulating nucleotide mutations on their corresponding genes. Conversely, genes encoding nucleocapsid (N), viral replicase and spike proteins (S), although they are regarded as are important targets for the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, tend to evolve faster in comparison to the two genes mentioned above. Overall, our results suggest that the higher divergence observed for the latter three genes could represent a significant barrier in the development of antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Códon , Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Composição de Bases , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Coronavirus/classificação , Genes Virais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mutação , Filogenia
15.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1653-1658, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399787

RESUMO

Although porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a significant pandemic threat in the swine population and has caused significant economic losses, information regarding the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV is scarce. Hence, the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV was assessed after challenge and rechallenge. After the first challenge, obvious diarrhea and viral shedding developed successively in all pigs in the four inoculation dose groups from 3 to 14 days postinfection (dpi), and all pigs recovered (no clinical symptoms or viral shedding) by 21 dpi. All pigs in the four groups exhibited significantly increased PDCoV-specific IgG, IgA and virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody (Ab) titers and IFN-γ levels in the serum after the first challenge. All pigs were completely protected against rechallenge at 21 dpi. The serum levels of PDCoV-specific IgG, IgA, and VN Abs increased further after rechallenge. Notably, the IFN-γ level declined continuously after 7 dpi. In addition, the levels of PDCoV-specific IgG, IgA and VN Abs in saliva increased significantly after rechallenge and correlated well with the serum Ab titers. Furthermore, the appearance of clinical symptoms of PDCoV infection in conventionally weaned pigs was delayed with reduced inoculation doses. In summary, the data presented here offer important reference information for future PDCoV animal infection and vaccine-induced immunoprotection experiments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/virologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
16.
Cell ; 181(4): 865-876.e12, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353252

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has highlighted the need for antiviral approaches that can target emerging viruses with no effective vaccines or pharmaceuticals. Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells. We designed and screened CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) targeting conserved viral regions and identified functional crRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2. This approach effectively reduced H1N1 IAV load in respiratory epithelial cells. Our bioinformatic analysis showed that a group of only six crRNAs can target more than 90% of all coronaviruses. With the development of a safe and effective system for respiratory tract delivery, PAC-MAN has the potential to become an important pan-coronavirus inhibition strategy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Simulação por Computador , Sequência Conservada , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Replicase/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
18.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(5): 412-417, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of heart transplant (HTx) recipients during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic remains unclear. We studied the characteristics of HTx recipients from December 20, 2019, to February 25, 2020, in an effort to understand their risk and outcomes. METHODS: All accessible HTx recipients were included in this single-center retrospective study. We collected information on the recipients using a web-based questionnaire as well as the hospital database. RESULTS: We followed 87 HTx recipients (72.4% were men, and the average age was 51 years). A total of 79 recipients resided in Hubei, and 57 recipients had a Wuhan-related history of travel or contact. Most took precautionary measures while in contact with suspicious crowds, and 96.6% of the families and communities undertook prevention and quarantine procedures. Four upper airway infections were reported, and 3 of them tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (the fourth recovered and was not tested). All cases were mild and successfully recovered after proper treatment. Laboratory results of 47 HTx cases within the last 2 months were extracted. Of these, 21.3% of recipients had pre-existing lymphopenia, and 87.2% of recipients had a therapeutic concentration of tacrolimus (5-12 ng/ml). Liver and kidney insufficiency was seen in 5 and 6 recipients, respectively. CONCLUSION: HTx recipients who practiced appropriate prevention measures had a low rate of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and transition to the associated disease COVID-19. These early data will require confirmation as the pandemic establishes around the world.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Coração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(4): 1271-1274, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458044

RESUMO

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, only few data regarding lung pathology induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is available, especially without medical intervention interfering with the natural evolution of the disease. We present here the first case of forensic autopsy of a COVID-19 fatality occurring in a young woman, in the community. Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. This death related to COVID-19 pathology highlights the heterogeneity and severity of central lung lesions after natural evolution of the disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Bocavirus/genética , Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Influenzavirus A/genética , Influenzavirus A/isolamento & purificação , Influenzavirus B/genética , Influenzavirus B/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos/patologia , Megacariócitos/patologia , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Neutrófilos/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida , Pandemias , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Suíça , Linfócitos T/patologia
20.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104391, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the past two decades, three novel coronaviruses (CoVs) have emerged to cause international human epidemics with severe morbidity. CoVs have also emerged to cause severe epidemics in animals. A better understanding of the natural hosts and genetic diversity of CoVs are needed to help mitigate these threats. OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate a molecular diagnostic tool for detection and identification of all currently recognized and potentially future emergent CoVs from the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS: We designed a semi-nested, reverse transcription RT-PCR assay based upon 38 published genome sequences of human and animal CoVs. We evaluated this assay with 14 human and animal CoVs and 11 other non-CoV respiratory viruses. Through sequencing the assay's target amplicon, the assay correctly identified each of the CoVs; no cross-reactivity with 11 common respiratory viruses was observed. The limits of detection ranged from 4 to 4 × 102 copies/reaction, depending on the CoV species tested. To assess the assay's clinical performance, we tested a large panel of previously studied specimens: 192 human respiratory specimens from pneumonia patients, 5 clinical specimens from COVID-19 patients, 81 poultry oral secretion specimens, 109 pig slurry specimens, and 31 aerosol samples from a live bird market. The amplicons of all RT-PCR-positive samples were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Our assay performed well with all tested specimens across all sample types. CONCLUSIONS: This assay can be used for detection and identification of all previously recognized CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2, and potentially any emergent CoVs in the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Aves , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA