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1.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(1): 41-58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661875

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoV) are enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses that have the largest known RNA genomes and infect birds and mammals, causing various diseases. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first identified in the mid-1960s and have been known to cause enteric or respiratory infections. In the last two decades, three HCoVs have emerged, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which initiated the ongoing pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory illness that presents as a mild upper respiratory disease but may result in acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and can be fatal, especially when underlying comorbidities are present. Children account for a low percentage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, with seemingly less severe disease. Most pediatric patients present mild or moderate symptoms or are asymptomatic. However, some cases may be severe. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in pediatric patients must be studied in detail. This review describes general features of the molecular biology of CoVs and virus-host interactions that may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Animais , Criança , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , /isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105281, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530012

RESUMO

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose a framework for determining where surveillance might begin initially to maximize a detection in each host species at their interface. We illustrate the utility of the framework using data from the United States. We then discuss variables to consider in refining when and how to conduct surveillance. Recent advances in accounting for opportunistic sampling designs and in translating serology samples into infection times provide promising directions for extracting spatio-temporal estimates of disease risk from typical surveillance data. Such robust estimates of population-level disease risk allow surveillance plans to be updated in space and time based on new information (adaptive surveillance) thus optimizing allocation of surveillance resources to maximize the quality of risk assessment insight.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578973

RESUMO

A rapid, sensitive and simple point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid diagnostic test is needed to prevent spread of infectious diseases. Paper-based toehold reaction, a recently emerged colorimetric POC nucleic acid diagnostic test, has been widely used for pathogen detection and microbiome profiling. Here, we introduce an amplification method called reverse transcription loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) prior to the toehold reaction and modify it to enable more sensitive and faster colorimetric detection of RNA viruses. We show that incorporating the modified RT-LAMP to the toehold reaction detects as few as 120 copies of coronavirus RNA in 70 min. Cross-reactivity test against other coronaviruses indicates this toehold reaction with the modified RT-LAMP is highly specific to the target RNA. Overall, the paper-based toehold switch sensors with the modified RT-LAMP allow fast, sensitive, specific and colorimetric coronavirus detection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Testes Imediatos , RNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530620

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Gatos/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Prevalência , /isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419872

RESUMO

In December 2019 a new coronavirus (CoV) emerged as a human pathogen, SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on human coronavirus infections among individuals living with HIV. In this study we probed the role of pneumococcal coinfections with seasonal CoVs among children living with and without HIV hospitalized for pneumonia. We also described the prevalence and clinical manifestations of these infections. A total of 39,836 children who participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV9) were followed for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations until 2 years of age. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected at the time of hospitalization and were screened by PCR for four seasonal CoVs. The frequency of CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in children living with HIV (19.9%) than in those without HIV (7.6%, P < 0.001). Serial CoV infections were detected in children living with HIV. The case fatality risk among children with CoV-associated pneumonia was higher in those living with HIV (30.4%) than without HIV (2.9%, P = 0.001). C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels were elevated in 36.8% (≥40 mg/liter) and 64.7% (≥0.5 ng/ml), respectively, of the fatal cases living with HIV. Among children without HIV, there was a 64.0% (95% CI: 22.9% to 83.2%) lower incidence of CoV-associated pneumonia hospitalizations among PCV9 recipients compared to placebo recipients. These data suggest that Streptococcus pneumoniae infections might have a role in the development of pneumonia associated with endemic CoVs, that PCV may prevent pediatric CoV-associated hospitalization, and that children living with HIV with CoV infections develop more severe outcomes.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 may cause severe hospitalization, but little is known about the role of secondary bacterial infection in these severe cases, beyond the observation of high levels of reported inflammatory markers, associated with bacterial infection, such as procalcitonin. We did a secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized trial of PCV to examine its impact on human CoV infections before the pandemic. We found that both children living with and without HIV randomized to receive PCV had evidence of less hospitalization due to seasonal CoV, suggesting that pneumococcal coinfection may play a role in severe hospitalized CoV infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/patologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Coinfecção/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245547, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444422

RESUMO

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are members of the family Coronaviridae. Comparing the findings of the infections caused by these viruses would help reveal the novel characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and provide insight into the unique pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs infection in adult hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was performed at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in the Republic of Korea, between January 1, 2015, and July 31, 2020. A total of 109 consecutive patients who were over 18 years of age with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs were enrolled. Finally, 19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP were compared to 40 patients with endemic HCoV CAP. Flu-like symptoms such as cough, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and prolonged fever were more common in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas clinical findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia such as dyspnea, leukocytosis with left shift, and increased C-reactive protein were more common in endemic HCoV CAP. Bilateral peripherally distributed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were typical radiologic findings in SARS-CoV-2 CAP, whereas mixed patterns of GGOs, consolidations, micronodules, and pleural effusion were observed in endemic HCoV CAP. Coinfection was not observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, but was observed in more than half of the patients with endemic HCoV CAP. There were distinctive differences in the clinical and radiologic findings between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoV CAP. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism underlying this difference. Follow-up observations are needed to determine if the presentation of SARS-CoV-2 CAP changes with repeated infection.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , /patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/diagnóstico por imagem , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468694

RESUMO

Among the animal superfamily Musteloidea, which includes those commonly known as mustelids, naturally occurring and species-specific alphacoronavirus infections have been observed in both mink (Mustela vison / Neovison vison) and domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV), in particular, has been associated with a rare but fatal systemic disease. In recent months, it has become apparent that both minks and ferrets are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a betacoronavirus and the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several mink farms have experienced SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, and experimental models have demonstrated susceptibility of ferrets to SARS-CoV-2. The potential for pet ferrets to become infected with SARS-CoV-2, however, remains elusive. During the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic, it was also apparent that ferrets were susceptible to SARS-CoV and could be utilized in vaccine development. From a comparative standpoint, understanding the relationships between different infections and disease pathogenesis in the animal superfamily Musteloidea may help elucidate viral infection and transmission mechanisms, as well as treatment and prevention strategies for coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Caniformia/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/classificação , Animais , /virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Fazendas , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507932

RESUMO

Modelling the spread of coronavirus globally while learning trends at global and country levels remains crucial for tackling the pandemic. We introduce a novel variational-LSTM Autoencoder model to predict the spread of coronavirus for each country across the globe. This deep Spatio-temporal model does not only rely on historical data of the virus spread but also includes factors related to urban characteristics represented in locational and demographic data (such as population density, urban population, and fertility rate), an index that represents the governmental measures and response amid toward mitigating the outbreak (includes 13 measures such as: 1) school closing, 2) workplace closing, 3) cancelling public events, 4) close public transport, 5) public information campaigns, 6) restrictions on internal movements, 7) international travel controls, 8) fiscal measures, 9) monetary measures, 10) emergency investment in health care, 11) investment in vaccines, 12) virus testing framework, and 13) contact tracing). In addition, the introduced method learns to generate a graph to adjust the spatial dependences among different countries while forecasting the spread. We trained two models for short and long-term forecasts. The first one is trained to output one step in future with three previous timestamps of all features across the globe, whereas the second model is trained to output 10 steps in future. Overall, the trained models show high validation for forecasting the spread for each country for short and long-term forecasts, which makes the introduce method a useful tool to assist decision and policymaking for the different corners of the globe.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Previsões , Saúde Global , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , /isolamento & purificação
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24256, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429831

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Brochoalvelolar lavages (BALs) from patients suffering from hospitalized infections with SARS-CoV-2, other corona viruses (human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1), Influenza virus type A and B, Haemophilus influenzae and Pneumocystis jirovecii were compared cytopathologically.The aim of the study was to evaluate if the cellular profile detectable in BAL may be specific for the respective pathogens and could lead to diagnosis of COVID-19 even in the absence of PCR results.Differential cytology and flow cytometry datasets of 62 patients were observed and compared.We observed a significant association between individual cell pattern changes and the causing pathogen, but no general cell distribution pattern.The cytology pattern of the BAL fluid in COVID-19 is not specific enough to use it as a sole diagnostic criterion, although it may support clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação
11.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(1): 31-40, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392909

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal disorders caused by enteric viruses are frequently reported in dogs worldwide, with significant mortality rates in unvaccinated individuals. This study reports the identification and molecular characterization of Canine parvovirus (CPV-2), Canine coronavirus (CcoV), Canine astrovirus (AstV), and Canine calicivirus (CcaV) in a panel of dogs showing severe enteric clinical signs sampled in a typical Mediterranean environment (Sardinia, Italy). At least one of these viral species was detected in 92.3% samples. CPV-2 was the most frequently detected virus (87.2%), followed by AsTv (20.5%), CCoV-IIa (18%), and CCoV-I (10.3%). CCoV-IIb and CaCV were not detected in any sample. Single infection was detected in 24 samples (66.7%), mainly related to CPV-2 (91.7%). Coinfections were present in 33.3% samples with constant detection of CPV-2. Canine coronavirus was present only in coinfected animals. The VP2 sequence analysis of CPV-2 positive samples confirmed the presence of all variants, with CPV-2b most frequently detected. Phylogeny based on the CcoV-IIa spike protein (S) gene allowed to identify 2 different clades among Sardinian isolates but failed to distinguish enteric from pantropic viruses. Study on presence and prevalence of enteroviruses in dogs increase our knowledge about the circulation of these pathogens in the Mediterranean area and highlight the need for dedicated routine vaccine prophylaxis. Molecular analyses of enteric viruses are fundamental to avoid failure of vaccines caused by frequent mutations observed in these enteroviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Caliciviridae/genética , Caliciviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/genética , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
12.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497357

RESUMO

Four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are commonly associated with acute respiratory infection in humans. B cell responses to these "common cold" viruses remain incompletely understood. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of CoV-specific antibody repertoires in 231 children and 1168 adults using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing. Seroprevalence of antibodies against endemic HCoVs ranged between approximately 4% and 27% depending on the species and cohort. We identified at least 136 novel linear B cell epitopes. Antibody repertoires against endemic HCoVs were qualitatively different between children and adults in that anti-HCoV IgG specificities more frequently found among children targeted functionally important and structurally conserved regions of the spike, nucleocapsid, and matrix proteins. Moreover, antibody specificities targeting the highly conserved fusion peptide region and S2' cleavage site of the spike protein were broadly cross-reactive with peptides of epidemic human and nonhuman coronaviruses. In contrast, an acidic tandem repeat in the N-terminal region of the Nsp3 subdomain of the HCoV-HKU1 polyprotein was the predominant target of antibody responses in adult donors. Our findings shed light on the dominant species-specific and pan-CoV target sites of human antibody responses to coronavirus infection, thereby providing important insights for the development of prophylactic or therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and vaccine design.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Resfriado Comum/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resfriado Comum/sangue , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/imunologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos de Linfócito B/sangue , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e12-e17, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are a significant cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children; however, the role of HCoVs in ARI among hospitalized children in the Middle East is not well defined. METHODS: Children under 2 years admitted with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were enrolled from 2010 to 2013 in Amman, Jordan. Nasal/throat swabs were collected and stored for testing. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected through parent/guardian interviews and medical chart abstractions. Prior stored specimens were tested for HCoVs (HKU1, OC43, 229E and NL63) by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Of the 3168 children enrolled, 6.7% were HCoVs-positive. Among HCoV-positive children, the median age was 3.8 (1.9-8.4) months, 59% were male, 14% were premature, 11% had underlying medical conditions and 76% had viral-codetection. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, fever, wheezing and shortness of breath. HCoVs were detected year-round, peaking in winter-spring months. Overall, 56%, 22%, 13% and 6% were OC43, NL63, HKU1 and 229E, respectively. There was no difference in disease severity between the species, except higher intensive care unit admission frequency in NL63-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: HCoVs were detected in around 7% of children enrolled in our study. Despite HCoV detection in children with ARI with highest peaks in respiratory seasons, the actual burden and pathogenic role of HCoVs in ARI merits further evaluation given the high frequency of viral codetection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Ethn Health ; 26(1): 110-125, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus stigmatization may be disproportionately impacting ethnoracial minority groups in the US. We test three hypotheses: [H1] Asians in the US are more likely to report experiencing coronavirus stigmatization than non-Hispanic Whites; [H2] Coronavirus stigmatization is associated with psychological distress; [H3] Magnitude of association between coronavirus stigmatization and psychological distress is more pronounced among US-born Asians, compared to non-Hispanic Whites. DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from the 10-31 March 2020 wave of the Understanding America Survey, a nationally representative survey of adults in the US. Psychological distress was assessed with the PHQ-4. Measures of association were estimated using multiple logistic regression and survey sampling weights. Predicted probabilities were calculated using marginal standardization ( n = 6707). RESULTS: [H1] The adjusted predicted probability of experiencing any coronavirus stigma among foreign-born Asians (11.2%, 95% CI: 5.5-17.0%; E-value = 4.52), US-born Asians (10.9%, 95% CI: 5.8-16.0%; E-value = 4.23), Blacks (8.0%, 95% CI: 5.3-10.7%; E-value = 2.92), and Hispanic Whites (7.3%, 95% CI: 4.6-9.9%; E-value = 2.58) was significantly greater than non-Hispanic Whites (4.5%, 95% CI: 3.7-5.4%). [H2] Individuals reporting any coronavirus stigma experience were significantly more likely to exhibit psychological distress (19.9%, 95% CI: 14.6-25.2% vs 10.6%, 9.6-11.6%; E-value = 3.16). [H3] The overall magnitude of association between experience of any coronavirus stigma and psychological distress was not significantly between US-born Asians and non-Hispanic Whites, though we found gender to mask this effect. US-born Asian females who experienced coronavirus stigmatization were more likely to exhibit psychological distress than non-Hispanic white females who experienced coronavirus stigmatization (relative risk (RR): 10.21, 95% CI: 2.69-38.74 vs 1.24, 95% CI: 0.76-2.01; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive measures around care seeking, public awareness, and disaggregated data collection are needed to address ethnoracial coronavirus stigmatization and its impact on psychological health and well-being.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Coronavirus , Angústia Psicológica , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Idoso , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wheezing is a major problem in children, and respiratory viruses are often believed to be the causative agent. While molecular detection tools enable identification of respiratory viruses in wheezing children, it remains unclear if and how these viruses are associated with wheezing. The objective of this systematic review is to clarify the prevalence of different respiratory viruses in children with wheezing. METHODS: We performed an electronic in Pubmed and Global Index Medicus on 01 July 2019 and manual search. We performed search of studies that have detected common respiratory viruses in children ≤18 years with wheezing. We included only studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Study data were extracted and the quality of articles assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroup, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effects model. RESULTS: The systematic review included 33 studies. Rhinovirus, with a prevalence of 35.6% (95% CI 24.6-47.3, I2 98.4%), and respiratory syncytial virus, at 31.0% (95% CI 19.9-43.3, I2 96.4%), were the most common viruses detected. The prevalence of other respiratory viruses was as follows: human bocavirus 8.1% (95% CI 5.3-11.3, I2 84.6%), human adenovirus 7.7% (95% CI 2.6-15.0, I2 91.0%), influenza virus6.5% (95% CI 2.2-12.6, I2 92.4%), human metapneumovirus5.8% (95% CI 3.4-8.8, I2 89.0%), enterovirus 4.3% (95% CI 0.1-12.9, I2 96.2%), human parainfluenza virus 3.8% (95% CI 1.5-6.9, I2 79.1%), and human coronavirus 2.2% (95% CI 0.6-4.4, I2 79.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus may contribute to the etiology of wheezing in children. While the clinical implications of molecular detection of respiratory viruses remains an interesting question, this study helps to illuminate the potential of role respiratory viruses in pediatric wheezing. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018115128.


Assuntos
Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Bocavirus/genética , Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Bocavirus/patogenicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/genética , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
16.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316899

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern to public health, as highlighted by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Such diseases are of particular danger during mass gathering and mass influx events, as large crowds of people in close proximity to each other creates optimal opportunities for disease transmission. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are two countries that have witnessed mass gatherings due to the arrival of Syrian refugees and the annual Hajj season. The mass migration of people not only brings exotic diseases to these regions but also brings new diseases back to their own countries, e.g., the outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Many emerging pathogens originate in bats, and more than 30 bat species have been identified in these two countries. Some of those bat species are known to carry viruses that cause deadly diseases in other parts of the world, such as the rabies virus and coronaviruses. However, little is known about bats and the pathogens they carry in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Here, the importance of enhanced surveillance of bat-borne infections in Jordan and Saudi Arabia is emphasized, promoting the awareness of bat-borne diseases among the general public and building up infrastructure and capability to fill the gaps in public health preparedness to prevent future pandemics.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Jordânia , Arábia Saudita , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112643, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007615

RESUMO

Detection of antibodies to upper respiratory pathogens is critical to surveillance, assessment of the immune status of individuals, vaccine development, and basic biology. The urgent need for antibody detection tools has proven particularly acute in the COVID-19 era. We report a multiplex label-free antigen microarray on the Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry (AIR) platform for detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS, three circulating coronavirus strains (HKU1, 229E, OC43) and three strains of influenza. We find that the array is readily able to distinguish uninfected from convalescent COVID-19 subjects, and provides quantitative information about total Ig, as well as IgG- and IgM-specific responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas/instrumentação , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053145

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. Numerous studies have shown its typical and atypical CT findings. We report one COVID-19 patient who presented with a transient pneumothorax, spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP), as well as subcutaneous emphysema during hospitalization. Chest CT andclinical findings were discussed, and a literature review is presented. The probable cause of SP in COVID-19 was alveolar damage. Once pneumothorax and SP were present, the patient should be carefully monitored to prevent respiratory deterioration, especially when lung lesions are severe.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Subcutâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
20.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 624, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094371

RESUMO

A label-free electrochemical strategy is proposed combining equivalent substitution effect with AuNPs-assisted signal amplification. According to the differences of S1 protein in various infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, a target DNA sequence that can specifically recognize H120 RNA forming a DNA-RNA hybridized double-strand structure has been designed. Then, the residual single-stranded target DNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease. Therefore, the content of target DNA becomes equal to the content of virus RNA. After equivalent coronavirus, the target DNA is separated from DNA-RNA hybridized double strand by heating, which can partly hybridize with probe 2 modified on the electrode surface and probe 1 on AuNPs' surface. Thus, AuNPs are pulled to the surface of the electrode and the abundant DNA on AuNPs' surface could adsorb a large amount of hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (RuHex) molecules, which produce a remarkably amplified electrochemical response. The voltammetric signal of RuHex with a peak near - 0.28 V vs. Ag/AgCl is used as the signal output. The proposed method shows a detection range of 1.56e-9 to 1.56e-6 µM with the detection limit of 2.96e-10 µM for IBV H120 strain selective quantification detection, exhibiting good accuracy, stability, and simplicity, which shows a great potential for IBV detection in vaccine research and avian infectious bronchitis diagnosis. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/normas , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Galinhas , Coronavirus/genética , Sondas de DNA , Ouro , Hibridização In Situ , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie
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