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1.
Elife ; 92020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876563

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) are two highly infectious and lethal viruses causing major economic losses to pig production. Here, we report generation of double-gene-knockout (DKO) pigs harboring edited knockout alleles for known receptor proteins CD163 and pAPN and show that DKO pigs are completely resistant to genotype 2 PRRSV and TGEV. We found no differences in meat-production or reproductive-performance traits between wild-type and DKO pigs, but detected increased iron in DKO muscle. Additional infection challenge experiments showed that DKO pigs exhibited decreased susceptibility to porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), thus offering unprecedented in vivo evidence of pAPN as one of PDCoV receptors. Beyond showing that multiple gene edits can be combined in a livestock animal to achieve simultaneous resistance to two major viruses, our study introduces a valuable model for investigating infection mechanisms of porcine pathogenic viruses that exploit pAPN or CD163 for entry.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD13/deficiência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/deficiência , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Composição Corporal , Antígenos CD13/genética , Antígenos CD13/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/genética , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/virologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne , Fenótipo , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/imunologia , Ganho de Peso
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e21257, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an important health crisis worldwide. Several strategies were implemented to combat COVID-19, including wearing masks, hand hygiene, and social distancing. The impact of these strategies on COVID-19 and other viral infections remains largely unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the impact of implemented infectious control strategies on the incidences of influenza, enterovirus infection, and all-cause pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We utilized the electronic database of the Taiwan National Infectious Disease Statistics System and extracted incidences of COVID-19, influenza virus, enterovirus, and all-cause pneumonia. We compared the incidences of these diseases from week 45 of 2016 to week 21 of 2020 and performed linear regression analyses. RESULTS: The first case of COVID-19 in Taiwan was reported in late January 2020 (week 4). Infectious control strategies have been promoted since late January. The influenza virus usually peaks in winter and decreases around week 14. However, a significant decrease in influenza was observed after week 6 of 2020. Regression analyses produced the following results: 2017, R2=0.037; 2018, R2=0.021; 2019, R2=0.046; and 2020, R2=0.599. A dramatic decrease in all-cause pneumonia was also reported (R2 values for 2017-2020 were 0.435, 0.098, 0.352, and 0.82, respectively). Enterovirus had increased by week 18 in 2017-2019, but this was not observed in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Using this national epidemiological database, we found a significant decrease in cases of influenza, enterovirus, and all-cause pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Wearing masks, hand hygiene, and social distancing may contribute not only to the prevention of COVID-19 but also to the decline of other respiratory infectious diseases. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distância Social
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19996, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing body of literature examining social media in health contexts, including public health communication, promotion, and surveillance, limited insight has been provided into how the utility of social media may vary depending on the particular public health objectives governing an intervention. For example, the extent to which social media platforms contribute to enhancing public health awareness and prevention during epidemic disease transmission is currently unknown. Doubtlessly, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) represents a great challenge at the global level, aggressively affecting large cities and public gatherings and thereby having substantial impacts on many health care systems worldwide as a result of its rapid spread. Each country has its capacity and reacts according to its perception of threat, economy, health care policy, and the health care system structure. Furthermore, we noted a lack of research focusing on the role of social media campaigns in public health awareness and public protection against the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan as a developing country. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of social media platforms on public health protection against the COVID-19 pandemic via public health awareness and public health behavioral changes as mediating factors in Jordan. METHODS: A quantitative approach and several social media platforms were used to collect data via web questionnaires in Jordan, and a total of 2555 social media users were sampled. This study used structural equation modeling to analyze and verify the study variables. RESULTS: The main findings revealed that the use of social media platforms had a significant positive influence on public health protection against COVID-19 as a pandemic. Public health awareness and public health behavioral changes significantly acted as partial mediators in this relationship. Therefore, a better understanding of the effects of the use of social media interventions on public health protection against COVID-19 while taking public health awareness and behavioral changes into account as mediators should be helpful when developing any health promotion strategy plan. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the use of social media platforms can positively influence awareness of public health behavioral changes and public protection against COVID-19. Public health authorities may use social media platforms as an effective tool to increase public health awareness through dissemination of brief messages to targeted populations. However, more research is needed to validate how social media channels can be used to improve health knowledge and adoption of healthy behaviors in a cross-cultural context.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20073, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization considers coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to be a public emergency threatening global health. During the crisis, the public's need for web-based information and communication is a subject of focus. Digital inequality research has shown that internet access is not evenly distributed among the general population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a timely understanding of how different people use the internet to meet their information and communication needs and the outcomes they gain from their internet use in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also sought to reveal the extent to which gender, age, personality, health, literacy, education, economic and social resources, internet attitude, material access, internet access, and internet skills remain important factors in obtaining internet outcomes after people engage in the corresponding uses. METHODS: We used a web-based survey to draw upon a sample collected in the Netherlands. We obtained a dataset with 1733 respondents older than 18 years. RESULTS: Men are more likely to engage in COVID-19-related communication uses. Age is positively related to COVID-19-related information uses and negatively related to information and communication outcomes. Agreeableness is negatively related to both outcomes and to information uses. Neuroticism is positively related to both uses and to communication outcomes. Conscientiousness is not related to any of the uses or outcomes. Introversion is negatively related to communication outcomes. Finally, openness relates positively to all information uses and to both outcomes. Physical health has negative relationships with both outcomes. Health perception contributes positively to information uses and both outcomes. Traditional literacy has a positive relationship with information uses and both outcomes. Education has a positive relationship with information and communication uses. Economic and social resources played no roles. Internet attitude is positively related to information uses and outcomes but negatively related to communication uses and outcomes. Material access and internet access contributed to all uses and outcomes. Finally, several of the indicators and outcomes became insignificant after accounting for engagement in internet uses. CONCLUSIONS: Digital inequality is a major concern among national and international scholars and policy makers. This contribution aimed to provide a broader understanding in the case of a major health pandemic by using the ongoing COVID-19 crisis as a context for empirical work. Several groups of people were identified as vulnerable, such as older people, less educated people, and people with physical health problems, low literacy levels, or low levels of internet skills. Generally, people who are already relatively advantaged are more likely to use the information and communication opportunities provided by the internet to their benefit in a health pandemic, while less advantaged individuals are less likely to benefit. Therefore, the COVID-19 crisis is also enforcing existing inequalities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e21173, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compartmental models dominate epidemic modeling. Transmission parameters between compartments are typically estimated through stochastic parameterization processes that depends on detailed statistics of transmission characteristics, which are economically and resource-wise expensive to collect. OBJECTIVE: We aim to apply deep learning techniques as a lower data dependency alternative to estimate transmission parameters of a customized compartmental model, for the purpose of simulating the dynamics of the US coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic and projecting its further development. METHODS: We constructed a compartmental model and developed a multistep deep learning methodology to estimate the model's transmission parameters. We then fed the estimated transmission parameters to the model to predict development of the US COVID-19 epidemic for 35 and 42 days. Epidemics are considered suppressed when the basic reproduction number (R0) is less than 1. RESULTS: The deep learning-enhanced compartmental model predicts that R0 will fall to <1 around August 17-19, 2020, at which point the epidemic will effectively start to die out, and that the US "infected" population will peak around August 16-18, 2020, at 3,228,574 to 3,308,911 individual cases. The model also predicted that the number of accumulative confirmed cases will cross the 5 million mark around August 7, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Current compartmental models require stochastic parameterization to estimate the transmission parameters. These models' effectiveness depends upon detailed statistics on transmission characteristics. As an alternative, deep learning techniques are effective in estimating these stochastic parameters with greatly reduced dependency on data particularity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Aprendizado Profundo/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 748-749, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794465

RESUMO

The present communication emphasizes on a very pertinent issue of aerosol transmission, persistence and surface viability of novel SARS-CoV-2. Studies in this regard have been conducted on previously known human coronaviruses, and similarities have been drawn for novel SARS-CoV-2. The communication highlights that caution should be excercised while drawing inferences regarding the persistence and viability of the novel SARS-CoV-2 based on the knowledge of already known human coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Euro Surveill ; 25(32)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794447

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract peaks around symptom onset and infectious virus persists for 10 days in mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease (n = 324 samples analysed). RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values correlate strongly with cultivable virus. Probability of culturing virus declines to 8% in samples with Ct > 35 and to 6% 10 days after onset; it is similar in asymptomatic and symptomatic persons. Asymptomatic persons represent a source of transmissible virus.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Testes Sorológicos , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/genética
8.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 356, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now become the main health concern all over the world. Since effective antiviral treatments have not been developed until now, SARS-CoV-2 is severely affecting countries and territories around the world. METHODS: At the present review, articles in PubMed were searched with the following terms: mesenchymal stem cells, exosomes, coronavirus, and SARS-CoV-2, either alone or in a combination form. The most relevant selected functions were mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes and SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 could damage pulmonary cells and induce secretion of different types of inflammatory cytokines. In the following, these cytokines trigger inflammation that damages the lungs and results in lethal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The main characteristic of ARDS is the onset of inflammation in pulmonary, hyaline formation, pulmonary fibrosis, and edema. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) are believed to have anti-inflammatory effects and immune-modulating capacity as well as the ability to induce tissue regeneration, suggesting a significant therapeutic opportunity that could be used to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treatment. Besides, exosomes may serve as a biomarker, drug delivery system, and vaccine for the management of the patient with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: MSC-Exo may serve as a promising tool in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. However, further work needs to be carried out to confirm the efficacy of exosomes in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Exossomos/transplante , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833200

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Bovinos , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos , Vírion , Replicação Viral
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 135-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833210

RESUMO

Several techniques are currently available to quickly and accurately quantify the number of virus particles in a sample, taking advantage of advanced technologies improving old techniques or generating new ones, generally relying on partial detection methods or structural analysis. Therefore, characterization of virus infectivity in a sample is often essential, and classical virological methods are extremely powerful in providing accurate results even in an old-fashioned way. In this chapter, we describe in detail the techniques routinely used to estimate the number of viable infectious coronavirus particles in a given sample. All these techniques are serial dilution assays, also known as titrations or end-point dilution assays (EPDA).


Assuntos
Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Ensaio de Placa Viral/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Coronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Traqueia/citologia
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 167-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833212

RESUMO

The Escherichia coli and vaccinia virus-based reverse genetics systems have been widely applied for the manipulation and engineering of coronavirus genomes. These systems, however, present several limitations and are sometimes difficult to establish in a timely manner for (re-)emerging viruses. In this chapter, we present a new universal reverse genetics platform for the assembly and engineering of infectious full-length cDNAs using yeast-based transformation-associated recombination cloning. This novel assembly method not only results in stable coronavirus infectious full-length cDNAs cloned in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae but also fosters and accelerates the manipulation of their genomes. Such a platform is widely applicable for the scientific community, as it requires no specific equipment and can be performed in a standard laboratory setting. The protocol described can be easily adapted to virtually all known or emerging coronaviruses, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).


Assuntos
Coronavirus/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Genômica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Recombinação Homóloga , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 187-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833213

RESUMO

Biotin-based proximity labeling circumvents major pitfalls of classical biochemical approaches to identify protein-protein interactions. It consists of enzyme-catalyzed biotin tags ubiquitously apposed on proteins located in close proximity of the labeling enzyme, followed by affinity purification and identification of biotinylated proteins by mass spectrometry. Here we outline the methods by which the molecular microenvironment of the coronavirus replicase/transcriptase complex (RTC), i.e., proteins located within a close perimeter of the RTC, can be determined by different proximity labeling approaches using BirAR118G (BioID), TurboID, and APEX2. These factors represent a molecular signature of coronavirus RTCs and likely contribute to the viral life cycle, thereby constituting attractive targets for the development of antiviral intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Enzimas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Biotinilação , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/genética , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Imunofluorescência , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 205-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833214

RESUMO

We have developed a screening system using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify eukaryotic genes involved in the replication of mammalian viruses. Yeast come with various advantages, but in the context of coronavirus research and the system outlined here, they are simple and easy to work with and can be used at biosafety level 2. The system involves inducible expression of individual viral proteins and identification of detrimental phenotypes in the yeast. Yeast knockout and overexpression libraries can then be used for genome-wide screening of host proteins that provide a suppressor phenotype. From the yeast hits, a narrowed list of candidate genes can be produced to investigate for roles in viral replication. Since the system only requires expression of viral proteins, it can be used for any current or emerging virus, regardless of biocontainment requirements and ability to culture the virus. In this chapter, we will outline the protocols that can be used to take advantage of S. cerevisiae as a tool to advance understanding of how viruses interact with eukaryotic cells.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/fisiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Plasmídeos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação , Replicação Viral
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 241-261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833217

RESUMO

Coronavirus entry encompasses the initial steps of infection, from virion attachment to genome release. Advances in fluorescent labeling of viral and cellular components and confocal imaging enable broad spectrum studies on this process. Here, we describe methods for visualization of coronavirus entry into immortalized cell lines and 3D tissue culture models.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , Endocitose , Humanos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos/química , Internalização do Vírus
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e22033, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality; large numbers of patients require intensive care, which is placing strain on health care systems worldwide. There is an urgent need for a COVID-19 disease severity assessment that can assist in patient triage and resource allocation for patients at risk for severe disease. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to develop, validate, and scale a clinical decision support system and mobile app to assist in COVID-19 severity assessment, management, and care. METHODS: Model training data from 701 patients with COVID-19 were collected across practices within the Family Health Centers network at New York University Langone Health. A two-tiered model was developed. Tier 1 uses easily available, nonlaboratory data to help determine whether biomarker-based testing and/or hospitalization is necessary. Tier 2 predicts the probability of mortality using biomarker measurements (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer) and age. Both the Tier 1 and Tier 2 models were validated using two external datasets from hospitals in Wuhan, China, comprising 160 and 375 patients, respectively. RESULTS: All biomarkers were measured at significantly higher levels in patients who died vs those who were not hospitalized or discharged (P<.001). The Tier 1 and Tier 2 internal validations had areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.98), respectively. The Tier 1 and Tier 2 external validations had AUCs of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the validity of the clinical decision support system and mobile app, which are now ready to assist health care providers in making evidence-based decisions when managing COVID-19 patient care. The deployment of these new capabilities has potential for immediate impact in community clinics and sites, where application of these tools could lead to improvements in patient outcomes and cost containment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Redes Comunitárias/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e21360, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed an unprecedented challenge to governments worldwide. Effective government communication of COVID-19 information with the public is of crucial importance. OBJECTIVE: We investigate how the most-read state-owned newspaper in China, People's Daily, used an online social networking site, Sina Weibo, to communicate about COVID-19 and whether this could engage the public. The objective of this study is to develop an integrated framework to examine the content, message style, and interactive features of COVID-19-related posts and determine their effects on public engagement in the largest social media network in China. METHODS: Content analysis was employed to scrutinize 608 COVID-19 posts, and coding was performed on three main dimensions: content, message style, and interactive features. The content dimension was coded into six subdimensions: action, new evidence, reassurance, disease prevention, health care services, and uncertainty, and the style dimension was coded into the subdimensions of narrative and nonnarrative. As for interactive features, they were coded into links to external sources, use of hashtags, use of questions to solicit feedback, and use of multimedia. Public engagement was measured in the form of the number of shares, comments, and likes on the People's Daily's Sina Weibo account from January 20, 2020, to March 11, 2020, to reveal the association between different levels of public engagement and communication strategies. A one-way analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc Tukey test and negative binomial regression analysis were employed to generate the results. RESULTS: We found that although the content frames of action, new evidence, and reassurance delivered in a nonnarrative style were predominant in COVID-19 communication by the government, posts related to new evidence and a nonnarrative style were strong negative predictors of the number of shares. In terms of generating a high number of shares, it was found that disease prevention posts delivered in a narrative style were able to achieve this purpose. Additionally, an interaction effect was found between content and style. The use of a narrative style in disease prevention posts had a significant positive effect on generating comments and likes by the Chinese public, while links to external sources fostered sharing. CONCLUSIONS: These results have implications for governments, health organizations, medical professionals, the media, and researchers on their epidemic communication to engage the public. Selecting suitable communication strategies may foster active liking and sharing of posts on social media, which in turn, might raise the public's awareness of COVID-19 and motivate them to take preventive measures. The sharing of COVID-19 posts is particularly important because this action can reach out to a large audience, potentially helping to contain the spread of the virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3173281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855764

RESUMO

The outbreaks of viruses with wide spread and mortality in the world population have motivated the research for new therapeutic approaches. There are several viruses that cause a biochemical imbalance in the infected cell resulting in oxidative stress. These effects may be associated with the development of pathologies and worsening of symptoms. Therefore, this review is aimed at discussing natural compounds with both antioxidant and antiviral activities, specifically against coronavirus infection, in an attempt to contribute to global researches for discovering effective therapeutic agents in the treatment of coronavirus infection and its severe clinical complications. The contribution of the possible action of these compounds on metabolic modulation associated with antiviral properties, in addition to other mechanisms of action, is presented.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(8): 1701-1703, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753142

RESUMO

The possibility of seasonality of COVID-19 is being discussed; we show clinical microbiology laboratory data illustrating seasonality of coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43. The data shown are specific to the 4 studied coronaviruses and may or may not generalize to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Estações do Ano , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
19.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 230, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The province of Ontario, Canada, has instituted indefinite school closures (SC) as well as other social distancing measures to mitigate the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to evaluate the effect of SC on reducing attack rate and the need for critical care during COVID-19 outbreaks, while considering scenarios with concurrent implementation of self-isolation (SI) of symptomatic cases. METHODS: We developed an age-structured agent-based simulation model and parameterized it with the demographics of Ontario stratified by age and the latest estimates of COVID-19 epidemiologic characteristics. Disease transmission was simulated within and between different age groups by considering inter- and intra-group contact patterns. The effect of SC of varying durations on the overall attack rate, magnitude and peak time of the outbreak, and requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the population was estimated. Secondly, the effect of concurrent community-based voluntary SI of symptomatic COVID-19 cases was assessed. RESULTS: SC reduced attack rates in the range of 7.2-12.7% when the duration of SC increased from 3 to 16 weeks, when contacts among school children were restricted by 60-80%, and in the absence of SI by mildly symptomatic persons. Depending on the scenario, the overall reduction in ICU admissions attributed to SC throughout the outbreak ranged from 3.3 to 6.7%. When SI of mildly symptomatic persons was included and practiced by 20%, the reduction of attack rate and ICU admissions exceeded 6.3% and 9.1% (on average), respectively, in the corresponding scenarios. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that SC may have limited impact on reducing the burden of COVID-19 without measures to interrupt the chain of transmission during both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages. While highlighting the importance of SI, our findings indicate the need for better understanding of the epidemiologic characteristics of emerging diseases on the effectiveness of social distancing measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19673, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a serious infectious disease that causes severe respiratory illness. This pandemic represents a serious public health risk. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to control disease progression. Radiological examination plays a crucial role in the early identification and management of infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to identify the diagnostic value of different imaging modalities used for diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The keywords diagnostic imaging, radiology, respiratory infection, pneumonia, coronavirus infection and COVID-19 were used to identify radiology articles focusing on the diagnosis of COVID-19 and to determine the diagnostic value of various imaging modalities, including x-ray, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine for identification and management of infected patients. RESULTS: We identified 50 articles in the literature search. Studies that investigated the diagnostic roles and imaging features of patients with COVID-19, using either chest CT, lung ultrasound, chest x-ray, or positron emission topography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, were discussed. Of these imaging modalities, chest x-ray and CT scan are the most commonly used for diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients, with chest CT scan being more accurate and sensitive in identifying COVID-19 at early stages. Only a few studies have investigated the roles of ultrasound and PET/CT scan in diagnosing COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Chest CT scan remains the most sensitive imaging modality in initial diagnosis and management of suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19. Other diagnostic imaging modalities could add value in evaluating disease progression and monitoring critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias
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