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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5075, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033245

RESUMO

Nickel-iron composites are efficient in catalyzing oxygen evolution. Here, we develop a microorganism corrosion approach to construct nickel-iron hydroxides. The anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria, using sulfate as the electron acceptor, play a significant role in the formation of iron sulfide decorated nickel-iron hydroxides, which exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance for oxygen evolution. Experimental and theoretical investigations suggest that the synergistic effect between oxyhydroxides and sulfide species accounts for the high activity. This microorganism corrosion strategy not only provides efficient candidate electrocatalysts but also bridges traditional corrosion engineering and emerging electrochemical energy technologies.


Assuntos
Desulfotomaculum/metabolismo , Hidróxidos/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Corrosão , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Análise Espectral Raman , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 940-953, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031072

RESUMO

Ag-Cu ions in cooling water may inhibit the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and therefore provide solutions to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) problems, mainly caused by Desulfovibrio sp. To investigate this, the MIC behavior of Desulfovibrio sp. on 316L stainless steel in terms of growth and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production was investigated in the presence of Ag-Cu ions. Laboratory-scale systems were set up with final concentrations of 0.13 ppm Ag and 0.3 ppm Cu ions, as they are the frequently used doses for cooling waters, and operated over 720 hours. The corrosion rate was evaluated by gravimetric assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The growth of Desulfovibrio sp. was assessed by bacterial counting and EPS production. Ag-Cu ions in the biofilm were assessed by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and EDS-elemental mapping analyses. It was concluded that the ion concentrations used caused an increase in EPS production, especially of protein. The corrosion rate of the metal by Desulfovibrio sp. in the presence of ions was detected as being 29 times higher than that in the sterile medium with the ions after 720 hours. The results suggested that Desulfovibrio sp. exhibited more corrosive behavior in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of Ag-Cu ions.


Assuntos
Desulfovibrio , Aço Inoxidável , Corrosão , Íons , Prata
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(3): 503-512, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960795

RESUMO

Modelling air movement in sewer networks is needed in order to address the issues related to sewer odour complaints and sewer corrosions due to hydrogen sulphide in sewers. Most of the existing air flow models can only be applied in small sewer networks or the trunk lines of sewer systems. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose a theoretical approach to formulate a general governing equation set for modelling steady air movement in large sewer systems. This approach decomposes the sewer system of interest into its basic physical components as pipes and nodes, and builds local topology of each pipe and each node based on geographic information system data as the fundamentals of model formulation. It avoids manually identifying each branch of the sewer system, eliminates the effect of physically closed networks in sewer systems on the governing equations, and considers key sewer components and all known driving forces. The proposed approach was applied to a real sewer system with over 500 pipes. The results show that the proposed model is applicable in modelling air movement in a large sewer system and provides a general idea of sewer gases moving through the system and their emission.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Esgotos , Corrosão , Modelos Teóricos , Odorantes
4.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111080, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854886

RESUMO

Reclaiming water for cooling systems in oil refineries has been strongly encouraged over the past years for decreasing the large consumption of fresh water, thus contributing to the efficient use of this valuable resource. In a recent study [Journal of Environmental Management 261 (2020) 110229], some of the authors studied the retention of phenols in refinery wastewater through reverse osmosis (RO) and found rejections of up to 98% of phenols and 99% of both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). The permeates complied with the quality standards for make-up water in cooling processes. A missing aspect, important for the water to be used in the oil and gas industry, was the level of corrosivity of the new permeates. In this work the corrosion of mild carbon steel in the permeates and in the original cooling tower make-up water was studied by electrochemical techniques. The corrosion rate of steel in the permeates in aerated conditions was lower (between 0.053 ± 0.006 and 0.123 ± 0.011 mm year-1) than in the make-up water (0.167 ± 0.030 mm year-1), confirming their suitability for replacing make-up water in the cooling towers. The low corrosion of carbon steel was attributed to the low conductivity and absence of oxidizing species in the fluids, compared to fresh water.


Assuntos
Carbono , Aço , Corrosão , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água
5.
Water Res ; 182: 115961, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622125

RESUMO

Concrete corrosion, as a major issue in sewer management, has attracted considerable research. In comparison, the corrosion of reinforcing steel bar (rebar) is not well understood. Particularly, fundamental knowledge of rebar corrosion and its interactions with concrete corrosion/cracking is largely lacking. This study investigated rebar corrosion and concrete degradation using reinforced concrete coupons exposed in a pilot sewer system. The physical-chemical corrosion characteristics were investigated in local regions; the nature of rebar rusts was analyzed using the advanced mineral analytical techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD); further, the interactions between rebar corrosion and concrete corrosion/cracking were elucidated by characterizing the microstructure and element distribution in interfacial areas using Mineral Liberation Analysis (MLA). The rebar corrosion products were found to be iron oxides, oxyhydroxides, chlorides, sulfides and sulfates. The predominant rebar corrosion reactions varied with exposure time and the development of concrete corrosion. When concrete corrosion reached rebar surface, the cracking of the concrete cover was influenced by multiple effects, including the macro-cracking induced by the corrosion products expansion, and the micro-cracking accelerated by the dissolution, diffusion and deposition of Fe derived from rebar rusts at the concrete corrosion front. A conceptual model elucidating rebar corrosion and the complex interactions between rebar corrosion and concrete degradation is proposed to support the development of corrosion prevention and refurbishment strategies for reinforced concrete sewers.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Sulfetos , Corrosão , Modelos Teóricos , Aço
6.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 44(3): 205-209, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621426

RESUMO

Aiming at the medical practice problems of the surgical steel medical instruments, such as the crevice corrosion, the poor mechanical compatibility and the Ni, Cr plasma exudation, the laser deposition of Ti-6Al-4V alloy cladding layer at the local functional area as alternative coating was proposed and realized as a new process method. The accurate element content and good formability Ti-6Al-4V cladding powder was chosen, the low power and high duty cycle optimized laser process was adopt, the alternative coating of good fusion and low dilution was prepared. Through the elemental line scanning, the interface microstructure analysis and the experiments of basic mechanical properties, the basic properties of the cladding were characterized and verified. The experiments results showed that, the Ti, Al and V contents of the top coating were respectively about 88%, 4.9% and 3.9%, no sensitizing ions such as Cr and Ni were detected. Initial equiaxed α phase, flake ß phase dist were distributed in the coating and interface, the α' martensite was precipitated at the boundary of the flake ß phase, some refined granular ß phase dispersion pinned to the grain boundary of basket structure. The microhardness of cladding layer was 352.08~312.76 HV0.1. The friction coefficient of the cladding layer was about 0.22~0.65. A new technology and method reference for improving and upgrading the performance of surgical medical devices is provided by this research.


Assuntos
Aço , Corrosão , Teste de Materiais , Titânio
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 40075-40087, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656758

RESUMO

Corrosion has made petrochemical infrastructure becomes a significant hazard of the surrounding environment. It is an excellent approach to reduce the risk of environmental pollution by improving the accuracy of determining the leakage probability of the equipment system. In this work, a reliability-based methodology was proposed to assess the system leakage probability with multiple pipe segments under the common cause failure (CCF). Specifically, the existence of FD between the pipe segments was examined under the CCF so that a system leakage assessment model was developed considering the FD. Thereby a novelty corrosion-induced leakage risk management framework was developed. After leakage evaluation for an oil pipeline, it was found that the results obtained were too conservative if ignoring FD, which will develop a wasteful maintenance plan. Overall, the findings in this work may be an opportunity for managers to improve maintenance efficiency.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Corrosão , Probabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(32): 40537-40551, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666463

RESUMO

Recently, nanomaterials have been introduced as a new generation of inhibitors to control the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). In this study, copper nanoparticles doped carbon quantum dots (Cu/CQDs) nanohybrid was used as an inhibitor to reduce the MIC. FESEM, EDS, FTIR, and XRD were used to characterize the nanohybrid. The dose-response test was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Cu/CQDs against SRB. Design-Expert software was used to design the matrix of experiment and analyze the result. Cu/CQDs showed significant inhibitory effect against SRB compared to the copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and carbon quantum dots (CQDs), at 50 ppm. Moreover, corrosion behavior of X60 steel was evaluated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization techniques in the presence of SRB and Cu/CQDs. The fitted result of EIS showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) value increased in the presence of Cu/CQDs owing to the enhancement in the thickness of the electrical double layer, indicating that Cu/CQDs is able to provide significant corrosion protection to X60 steel in the presence of SRB. In addition, FESEM, EDS, and XRD were used to study the formed corrosion products and biofilm on the surface of X60 steel. Corrosion test results indicated that the addition of the Cu/CQDs reduced the surface damage of X60 steel in the presence of SRB. It is attributed to the carbon dots adsorption film formation, which possessed a significant protective ability to inhibit the corrosion of steel in the presence of SRB.


Assuntos
Cobre , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Corrosão , Aço
9.
Water Res ; 183: 116037, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629179

RESUMO

Iron corrosion in drinking water distribution systems causes water discoloration, water quality deterioration, hydraulic loss, and even pipe failures, which are usually influenced by pipe scale structure, water hydraulics, water chemistry, and other factors. This work evaluated the effects of chloride, sulfate, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on iron release from a 90-year-old cast iron pipe section at water pH 8.0 under stagnant conditions. Experimental results showed that the addition of 150 mg/L sulfate to water significantly increased the mean total iron concentrations to 1.13-2.68 mg/L, relative to 0.54-0.79 mg/L for the baseline water with only 10 mg C/L DIC. Similar results were observed under conditions when chloride was added, and when sulfate and chloride were added together. In contrast, the mean total iron concentrations were significantly reduced by 53-80% in waters with higher DIC of 50 mg C/L, as compared to similar waters with lower DIC of 10 mg C/L. The Larson Ratio could be a good indicator for iron release depending on the circumstances. Iron release was predicted by molecular radial diffusion modelling that accounted for water quality, scale characteristics, hydraulics, and other condition-related information. The results provided insightful information for water systems that have cast iron pipes and galvanized iron pipes and that might encounter changes in water treatment and water sources. More studies are needed to better understand the cast iron corrosion mechanisms under the examined water chemistries.


Assuntos
Ferro , Abastecimento de Água , Carbono , Corrosão , Sulfatos , Qualidade da Água
10.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127182, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534293

RESUMO

The impact of offshore constructions on the marine environment is unknown in many aspects. The application of Al- and Zn-based galvanic anodes as corrosion protection results in the continuous emission of inorganic matter (e.g. >80 kg Al-anode material per monopile foundation and year) into the marine environment. To identify tracers for emissions from offshore wind structures, anode materials (Al-based and Zn-based) were characterized for their elemental and isotopic composition. An acid digestion and analysis method for Al and Zn alloys was adapted and validated using the alloy CRMs ERM®-EB317 (AlZn6CuMgZr) and ERM®-EB602 (ZnAl4Cu1). Digests were measured for their elemental composition by ICP-MS/MS and for their Pb isotope ratios by MC ICP-MS. Ga and In were identified as potential tracers. Moreover, a combined tracer approach of the elements Al, Zn, Ga, Cd, In and Pb together with Pb isotope ratios is suggested for a reliable identification of offshore-wind-farm-induced emissions. In the Al anodes, the mass fractions were found to be >94.4% of Al, >26200 mg kg-1 of Zn, >78.5 mg kg-1 of Ga, >0.255 mg kg-1 of Cd, >143 mg kg-1 of In and >6.7 mg kg-1 of Pb. The Zn anodes showed mass fractions of >2160 mg kg-1 of Al, >94.5% of Zn, >1.31 mg kg-1 of Ga, >254 mg kg-1 of Cd, >0.019 mg kg-1 of In and >14.1 mg kg-1 of Pb. The n(208Pb)/n(206Pb) isotope ratios in Al anodes range from 2.0619 to 2.0723, whereas Zn anodes feature n(208Pb)/n(206Pb) isotope ratios ranging from 2.0927 to 2.1263.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ligas , Alumínio , Corrosão , Eletrodos , Isótopos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vento
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 34270-34288, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557048

RESUMO

In this study, Kola nut extract (KE) was evaluated for inhibiting ability towards low carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The surface of the corroded carbon steel was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Elemental composition of the corrosion products and/or adsorbed inhibitor film on the carbon steel surface was determined with the aid of an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) experiments were also performed to get information about the interaction of KE with the carbon steel surface. It was found that KE exhibited good corrosion protection property. From weight loss technique, corrosion rate was reduced from 0.387 to 0.054 mm/year by 700 ppm of KE at room temperature after 24 h immersion and this corresponded to inhibition efficiency (IE) of 86%. The IE however depreciated with rise in temperature. FTIR results reveal that KE interacted with the carbon steel surface through the O and N heteroatoms of its phytoconstituents. FTIR spectroscopy, UV-vis, SEM, AFM, and EDX data provided proof of KE adsorption on the steel surface as reason for the corrosion inhibition.


Assuntos
Cola , Aço , Carbono , Corrosão , Extratos Vegetais
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2311-2321, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564100

RESUMO

Methanolic extract of Artemisia pallens (MEAP) (Asteraceae) was explored as greenbiocorrosion inhibitor for mild steel 1010 in 1.5% sodium chloride environment. Bacillus megaterium SKR7 induces the development of biofilm on the metal surface and forms the pitting corrosion. MEAP was showed (25 ppm) optimum inhibition effect of biocorrosion and further corrosion rate was highly reduced (0.3335 mm/year) than the control system (0.009 mm/year). The electrochemical study has supported the results with a higher value of total resistance (34 Ω cm2) when compared to control systems. It reveals the formation of a protective layer on the metal surface and reduces the adsorption of biofilm. This was due to the antimicrobial effect of MEAP. Overall, the results recognized that MEAP used as a green corrosion inhibitor for MS 1010 with 83% inhibition efficiency.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Bacillus megaterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus megaterium/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Corrosão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aço , Metanol/química
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234981, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574186

RESUMO

The corrosion behavior of an AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated under a heterogeneous electrolyte layer by using electrochemical methods and surface analysis techniques. Dynamic polarization curves and morphological characterization were obtained at the center and near the edge zones under the electrolyte layer. The influence of the gas/liquid/solid three-phase boundary zone (TPB) on the corrosion behavior of the AZ91D magnesium alloy was discussed. The corrosion rate changed more significantly near the TPB zone than that at the other zones. The AZ91D alloy exhibited the characteristics of filiform corrosion together with shallow pitting corrosion. Different from the randomly distributed shallow pits, the filiform corrosion preferred to initiate near the TPB region and then progressively expanded adjacent to the edge of the electrolyte layer. The TPB zone played a vital role in determining the corrosion location, the corrosion morphologies and the corrosion rate of the magnesium alloy by influencing the mass transport process of carbon dioxide.


Assuntos
Ligas/química , Eletrólitos/química , Magnésio/química , Corrosão , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
14.
J Prosthet Dent ; 124(2): 239.e1-239.e8, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402439

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The corrosive effects of oral fluoride products on titanium have been reported, and chronic fluorosis, which causes hyperfluoemia, is one of the world's health problems. Nevertheless, the relationship between high serum fluoride and corrosion on the titanium surface, which might have adverse effects on titanium implant osseointegration, has not been elucidated. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the corrosion behavior of pure titanium exposed to high serum fluoride with different pH values based on surface analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pure titanium specimens, exposed to different electrolytes with 0.04 and 0.4 ppm NaF at pH 7.3 and 5.0 values, were examined for surface microstructure by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for surface element composition with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion behavior and metal ion release of specimens immersed in the Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) containing 0.04 and 0.4 ppm serum fluoride concentrations (NaF) at 7.3 and 5.0 pH values were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). RESULTS: Pitting holes were observed on pure titanium surfaces exposed to high serum fluoride. The surfaces became rougher with the increase of serum fluoride concentration, especially under acidic conditions. XPS analysis revealed a reduction of dominant titanium dioxide (TiO2) on the pure titanium surface under serum fluoride exposure, corresponding to an increase in the relative level of F. EIS data showed an active corrosion behavior of pure titanium exposed to high serum fluoride and gradually decreased corrosion resistance with increasing concentration of serum fluoride, which was more severe under acidic conditions. The release of titanium ions was also induced by high serum fluoride and acidic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: High serum fluoride had a negative influence on the corrosion behavior of pure titanium. The titanium oxide film barrier could be broken down in the fluoride ions condition, and the corrosion resistance of pure titanium decreased with the increasing concentration of serum fluoride. The increased corrosion susceptibility of pure titanium accelerated the release of titanium ions after exposure to high serum fluoride; this was more pronounced in an acidic environment.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Titânio , Corrosão , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Soft Matter ; 16(21): 4912-4918, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393946

RESUMO

Protein adsorption on polyelectrolyte (PE) surfaces has aroused intensive attraction, but there are still few investigations on tuning the protein adsorption at a solid surface by controllable layer structures and surface properties of PE adlayers. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding regarding the correlation between molecular conformation and anticorrosion performance of composite materials. With this in mind, we synthesized a series of PEs and constructed 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) adlayers on the PE surfaces, monitoring the whole adsorption process in situ. A highly charged cationic PE surface exhibits a low adhesion of DOPA molecules, leading to a loose structure, rough surface morphology, and strong solvation effects and, accordingly, this kind of multilayer provides a poor anticorrosion capacity. In comparison, amphiphilic and highly charged cationic PE surfaces are in favor of DOPA adsorption and the formation of compact and smooth multilayers due to cation-π and hydrophobic interactions between DOPA and PEs. Interestingly, one of the multilayers exhibits a remarkable enhancement of inhibition efficiency of about 460-fold compared with that of the bare substrate, which is much higher than that of other anticorrosion coatings reported previously. Our findings reveal the interaction mechanism between DOPA and PE surfaces to achieve the controllable adsorption of biomolecules, providing a promising way to optimize the layer structures to improve the anticorrosion capacity.


Assuntos
Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/química , Polieletrólitos/química , Adsorção , Corrosão , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
16.
Water Res ; 177: 115764, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305699

RESUMO

This study explored the ability of orthophosphate addition to limit lead release from lead service lines delivering high pH, low alkalinity water. We built pipe loop reactors with lead pipes harvested from Providence, RI, and we operated them with high pH and low alkalinity water of a composition similar to that in Providence. Orthophosphate addition decreased the release of both dissolved and particulate lead to the water. The most substantial decreases in total lead concentrations occurred after 15 weeks of orthophosphate addition, which was associated with the formation of calcium-lead-phosphorus (Ca-Pb-P) solids as part of the pipe scale. Pre-existing hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2(s)) in the scale of the lead pipe appeared to promote the formation of a Ca-Pb-P solid similar to phosphohedyphane (Ca2Pb3(PO4)3(Cl,F,OH)(s)). Continuous orthophosphate addition was also associated with the formation of a calcium phosphate solid with features like those of fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F(s)) on the outermost layer of the scale. Through promoting the formation of these new solids within and on top of the scales, orthophosphate addition limited release of dissolved and particulate lead. These results demonstrate the ability of orthophosphate to control lead release at higher pH conditions than those for which it has typically been used. In addition to the formation of phosphate solids, PbO2(s), which was not present on the as-received pipes, was formed due to the constant supply of free chlorine in the laboratory-scale experiment.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cloro , Corrosão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fosfatos , Abastecimento de Água
17.
Water Res ; 176: 115742, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244104

RESUMO

The corrosion and scaling phenomenon have crucial impact on drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), which might lead to pipe blockage or leakage, colored water and other chemical stability issues. In this study, a simulating pipe system with continuous water flow was prepared to investigate the characteristics of corrosion and scaling on ductile iron pipe transporting ground water with sodium-hypochlorite (NaOCl) disinfection. Electrochemical assays, such as polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra were applied to monitor the corrosion and scaling process. Results showed the morphology and components of scale were closely related with the electrochemical analysis results. The corrosion current density decreased continuously as corrosion and scaling proceeded. The process could be divided into three stages. During Stage I (0-20 days), the corrosion current intensity of low NaOCl dosage experiments (1, 2 mg/L) were higher than those of high NaOCl dosage experiments (5, 10 mg/L). The difference could be explained by different oxidation potentials, pH and CaCO3 deposition. During Stage II (20-80 days), higher proportions of Fe3O4 in scale in experiments with no or low NaOCl dosages restrained the corrosion process and presented smaller corrosion current. Subsequently, the ductile iron surface became passivated and the difference of various NaOCl dosages affecting corrosion and scaling process turned to be negligible during Stage III (80-90 days). A negative linear relationship between the proportion of stable scale component and the corrosion current density was established. Besides the direct corrosion reaction with iron substrate, NaOCl dosing was accompanied by an increase in pH and calcium carbonate precipitation potential values, which affected the early period corrosion and scaling phenomenon greatly.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Ferro , Corrosão , Desinfecção , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126230, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234616

RESUMO

The Swiss disposal concept foresees that carbon-14 (14C) is predominantly released from irradiated steel disposed of in a cement-based repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. To predict how 14C migrates in the cementitious environment of the repository near field and subsequently in the host rock, knowledge about the carbon speciation during anoxic steel corrosion in alkaline conditions is therefore essential. To this end, batch-type corrosion experiments with carbon-containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders subject to oxidative pre-treatments were carried out in NaOH solution at pH 11 and 12.5. Alkanes and alkenes (C1-C7) were identified in the gas phase and produced on the iron surface by a Fischer-Tropsch type mechanism. The kind of oxidative pre-treatment has an effect on the production rate of hydrocarbons (HCs). In the liquid phase, carboxylic acids were identified and produced during the oxidative pre-treatment of the ZVI powders. They are released instantaneously from the oxide layer upon contact with the alkaline solution. The kind of oxidative treatment and the exposure time to oxic conditions directly influence the amount of carboxylic acids accommodated in the oxide layer.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Ferro/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Corrosão , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxirredução , Aço/química
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138160, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224409

RESUMO

Biofilm formation is ubiquitous on the corroded inner surface of water distribution pipes. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by biofilm microorganisms are nonnegligible precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The aim was to study the catalysis of copper corrosion products (CCPs, CuO and Cu2+) on the formation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs (C-DBPs and N-DBPs) with EPS as a precursor. Results indicate that CCPs had a remarkable enhancement on the formation of DBPs, especially N-DBPs. The enhancement by Cu2+ was mainly via homogeneous catalysis initiating from its complexation with EPS, while that by CuO was primarily through heterogeneous catalysis initiating from the polarization of Cl atom in HOCl/OCl-. The enhancement was more evident as pH increased because an alkaline condition favored the electrostatic interactions of CCPs with EPS and HOCl/OCl-. The presence of Br- weakened the enhancement, which may be attributed to that HOBr/OBr- had a much higher reaction rate than HOCl/OCl- towards the low reactive moieties in EPS. Due to more phenolic or unsaturated/conjugated groups, EPS proteins had a higher catalytic formation of DBPs than EPS polysaccharides. Among the major amino acids in EPS proteins for DBPs formation, tyrosine had the highest enhancement on the formation of trihalomethanes, while histidine had the highest catalytic formation of halogenated acetic acids, acetonitriles and acetamides. The study helps to understand the formation of DBPs by the joint actions of EPS and CCPs in drinking water distribution systems.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Cobre , Corrosão , Desinfecção , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Halogenação , Nitrogênio/análise
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(10): 6142-6151, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338882

RESUMO

The occurrence of aluminum in scales on lead pipes is common. This study aimed to identify factors that influence Al accumulation on oxidized lead surfaces and to determine whether the presence of Al impacts Pb release from corrosion products to water. Al accumulation and Pb release were monitored both with and without the addition of phosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Pb coupons with corrosion scales were exposed to chlorinated water for up to 198 days to investigate Al accumulation and Pb release. Al accumulation was facilitated by Pb corrosion products, but its accumulation was inhibited by phosphate addition. During the study period, the formation of Al deposits did not affect Pb release when phosphate was absent. In an Al-free system, the addition of 1.0 mg/L phosphate (as P) lowered the dissolved Pb concentration below 1.0 µg/L. In a system containing 200 µg/L Al, the emergence of phosphate's effect on Pb control was delayed, and the dissolved Pb concentration decreased but stabilized at a higher value (10-12 µg/L) than in the Al-free system. Phosphohedyphane (Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl) was formed in all phosphate-containing systems, and PbO2 was formed independent of phosphate addition. The effect of Al on Pb release was probably related to its influence on the composition and morphology of Pb-containing minerals on coupon surfaces. The laboratory study has unavoidable limitations in its ability to simulate all conditions in real lead service lines, but this study still highlights the importance of considering the influence of Al when designing Pb corrosion control strategies.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alumínio/análise , Corrosão , Abastecimento de Água
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