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1.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 493-498, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264769

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of technology use for relationship maintenance on the longitudinal associations among self-isolation during the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic and romantic relationship quality among adolescents. Participants were 239 (120 female; M age = 16.69, standard deviation [SD] = 0.61; 60 percent Caucasian) 11th and 12th graders from three midwestern high schools. To qualify for this study, adolescents had to be in the same romantic relationship for the duration of the study, ∼7 months (M length of relationship = 10.03 months). Data were collected in October of 2019 (Time 1) and again 7 months later in May of 2020 (Time 2). Adolescents completed a romantic relationship questionnaire at Time 1 and again at Time 2, along with questionnaires on frequency of self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and use of technology for romantic relationship maintenance. Findings revealed that increases in self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic related positively to the use of technology for romantic relationship maintenance and negatively to Time 2 romantic relationship quality. High use of technology for romantic relationship maintenance buffered against the negative effects of self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' romantic relationship quality 7 months later, whereas low use strengthened the negative relationship between self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and romantic relationship quality. These findings suggest the importance of considering the implications of societal crisis or pandemics on adolescents' close relationships, particularly their romantic relationships.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Tecnologia
2.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 457-463, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264771

RESUMO

There is a growing research interest in cyber dating abuse (CDA). CDA includes abusive online behavior toward a current or former intimate partner, such as aggression, control, harassment, and humiliation. Despite the potential overlap and reciprocal relationship of CDA and intimate partner violence, there remains considerable paucity in research exploring predictors of this abusive online behavior. In the current study, we adopt the General Aggression Model framework and explore the role of gender, hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths to predict perpetration of CDA. Participants (N = 415, 51 percent women; Mage = 32.68 years) were recruited via social media advertisements and completed an anonymous, confidential online questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised the Conformity to Masculine Roles Norms Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression Scale, and a modified Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths were all significant positive predictors of perpetrating CDA. As gender was a significant predictor until the inclusion of these variables, a multiple mediation analysis was performed, indicating that both hegemonic masculinity and sexual aggression myths fully mediated the relationship between gender and perpetrating CDA. These results add to the growing body of research exploring how CDA emerges as a behavior and highlight possible implications for management and intervention.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Individualidade , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculinidade , Narcisismo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Corte/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 464-472, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152851

RESUMO

When a relationship ends, former partners must make decisions about their online, often public, connections and history, which involve a complex disentangling process. We examined post-breakup behaviors including monitoring, interacting, deleting posts/photos, deleting the former partner, deleting the partner's family/friends, stopping social media (SM) use, and keeping digital possessions. Participants (N = 256) who had experienced a breakup within the last year completed an online survey. Approximately 38 percent reported experiencing distress over the breakup sometimes or more often. Utilizing latent profile analysis, we identified four latent classes (or profiles) of breakup SM behaviors; we also examined associations between the class and breakup emotional distress. Most participants were clean breakers (61.3 percent), who did zero to very little monitoring, interacting, or deleting and were unlikely to delete their ex-partner, stop use, or keep digital possessions. Wistful reminiscers (12.9 percent) were similar to clean breakers in terms of engaging in very little of any deleting behaviors, stopping use, or keeping digital possessions; however, they engaged in frequent amounts of monitoring their ex-partner as well as interacting with their ex-partner and their ex-partner's family/friends. Ritual cleansers (15.6 percent) were similar to clean breakers in terms of engaging in very little to no monitoring and interacting; however, they engaged in deleting their SM history, their ex-partner's family/friends, and their ex-partner. Impulsives (10.2 percent) engaged in high amounts of all the SM behaviors. In terms of emotional distress, impulsives showed the highest levels of distress, followed by wistful reminiscers, ritual cleansers, and then clean breakers.


Assuntos
Corte/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Angústia Psicológica , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico , Emoções , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529217

RESUMO

In recent years, dating apps have changed the way people meet and communicate with potential romantic and/or sexual partners. There exists a stereotype considering that these apps are used only for casual sex, so those apps would not be an adequate resource to find a long-term relationship. The objective of this study was to analyze possible individual differences in the mating orientations (short-term vs. long-term) between users and non-users of dating apps. Participants were 902 single students from a mid-size Spanish university, of both sexes (63% female, and 37% male), aged between 18 and 26 years (M = 20.34, SD = 2.05), who completed a battery of online questionnaires. It was found that, whereas dating apps users had a higher short-term mating orientation than non-users (more frequent behavior, higher desire, and more positive attitude), there were no differences in the long-term orientation as a function of use/non-use. Considering this, dating apps are a resource with a strong presence of people interested on hooking-up while, simultaneously, not a bad (nor good) option for finding long-term love.


Assuntos
Corte/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Amor , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Pessoa Solteira/psicologia , Espanha , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 165, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547399

RESUMO

Cataplexy is triggered by laughter in humans and palatable food in mice. To further evaluate mice's cataplexy, we examined courtship behavior in orexin neuron-ablated mice (ORX-AB), one of the animal models of narcolepsy/cataplexy. Wild-type female mice were placed into the home cage of male ORX-AB and cataplexy-like behavior was observed along with ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), also known as the "love song". ORX-AB with a female encounter showed cataplexy-like behavior both during the dark and light periods, whereas ORX-AB with chocolate predominantly showed it during the dark period. During the light period observation, more than 85% of cataplexy-like bouts were preceded by USVs. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of USVs and cataplexy-like bouts. Cataplexy-like behavior in narcoleptic mice is a good behavioral measure to study the brain mechanisms behind positive emotion because they can be induced by different kinds of positive stimuli, including chocolate and female courtship.


Assuntos
Cataplexia/patologia , Corte , Neurônios/patologia , Excitação Sexual , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cataplexia/genética , Cataplexia/fisiopatologia , Cataplexia/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Genes Transgênicos Suicidas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Narcolepsia/genética , Narcolepsia/patologia , Narcolepsia/fisiopatologia , Narcolepsia/psicologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Orexinas/deficiência , Orexinas/genética , Orexinas/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244278, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395411

RESUMO

Do one's hierarchical preference for attachment support from a particular person over other people (attachment hierarchy) and his/her discomfort with closeness and uneasiness about being dependent on that particular person (attachment avoidance) inversely overlap? These two constructs have been distinctly conceptualized. Attachment hierarchy has been regarded as a normative characteristic of attachment relationships, while attachment avoidance has been considered to reflect an individual difference of relationship quality. Employing bifactor analyses, we demonstrated a unidimensional general factor of these two concepts in four studies exploring Czech young adults' relationships with mother, father, friends, and romantic partner (Study 1); U.S. young adults' relationships with a romantic partner (Study 2); Czech adolescents' relationships with mother, father, and friends (Study 3); and Japanese young adults' relationships with mother, father, and romantic partner (Study 4). These convergent results provide the replicable and generalizable evidence that one's attachment avoidance toward a particular person and her/his placement of that particular person in the attachment hierarchy are inversely overlapping.


Assuntos
Corte/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Adolescente , Adulto , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 185-192, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685965

RESUMO

Social bonding is fundamental to human society, and romantic interest involves an important type of bonding. Speed dating research paradigms offer both high external validity and experimental control for studying romantic interest in real-world settings. While previous studies focused on the effect of social and personality factors on romantic interest, the role of non-verbal interaction has been little studied in initial romantic interest, despite being commonly viewed as a crucial factor. The present study investigated whether romantic interest can be predicted by non-verbal dyadic interactive body sway, and enhanced by movement-promoting ('groovy') background music. Participants' body sway trajectories were recorded during speed dating. Directional (predictive) body sway coupling, but not body sway similarity, predicted interest in a long-term relationship above and beyond rated physical attractiveness. In addition, presence of groovy background music promoted interest in meeting a dating partner again. Overall, we demonstrate that romantic interest is reflected by non-verbal body sway in dyads in a real-world dating setting. This novel approach could potentially be applied to investigate non-verbal aspects of social bonding in other dynamic interpersonal interactions such as between infants and parents and in non-verbal populations including those with communication disorders.


Assuntos
Corte/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Música , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 495-509, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440927

RESUMO

We examined sex differences in preferences for sexual variety and novelty to determine whether the Coolidge effect plays a role in human sexuality. In two experimental studies that employed different manipulations, we found converging evidence that men showed a greater preference for variety in potential short-term mates than did women. In the first study, men (n = 281) were more likely than women (n = 353) to select a variety of mates when given the opportunity to distribute chances to have sex with different individuals in hypothetical situations. This sex difference was evident regardless of the targets' attractiveness and age. Further, men found it more appealing if their committed romantic/sexual partners frequently changed their physical appearance, while women reported that they modified their physical appearance more frequently than did men, potentially appealing to male desires for novelty. In the second study, when participants were given a hypothetical dating task using photographs of potential short-term mates, men (n = 40) were more likely than women (n = 56) to select a novel person to date. Collectively, these findings lend support to the idea that sex differences in preferences for sexual variety and novelty are a salient sex-specific evolved component of the repertoire of human mating strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Corte/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Pessoa Solteira/psicologia , Adulto , Coito/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Sexualidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 511-530, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839933

RESUMO

In this study, we review the psychometric literature on mating effort and find that extant instruments (1) have not been adequately evaluated in terms of internal structure and measurement invariance, and (2) disproportionately focus on mate retention and intrasexual competition tactics designed to repel competitors, relative to attraction and investment effort. To address these gaps in the literature, we carried out two studies to develop and validate a new Mating Effort Questionnaire (MEQ). In Study 1, we report a pilot study in which participants' responses to an item pool were submitted to exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2, we replicated the structure found in Study 1 using confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample. A three-factor solution yielded the best fit. The three factors reflected respondents' allocation of energy to attracting high mate value partners when already mated, seeking out romantic partners when single, and investing in their current romantic partner and relationships. Strong partial measurement invariance held across the sexes, implying that observed scores may be used to compare them. We also found evidence of concurrent validity via associations between the MEQ and constructs such as sociosexual orientation, K-factor, mate retention behaviors, and respondents' sexual behavior. These findings suggest that the MEQ is a valid and novel measure of individual differences in mating effort which is well suited to complement existing mating effort measures.


Assuntos
Corte/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Autoimagem
10.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(4): 533-540, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that bullying could be related to teen dating violence; there may be a psycho-developmental transition between bullying and other forms of violence during adolescence as an evolution of the aggressive pattern. This study attempts to identify the role of bullying as a risk factor for psychological violence in adolescents' dating relationships, and the relationship between these two aggressive behaviours. METHOD: The participants were 3,144 adolescents from Valencia (50.6% girls), enrolled in Primary Education (50.4%) and Secondary Education (49.6%). RESULTS: The results showed rates of involvement in bullying as high as 46.2%, while the rates of psychological dating aggression were 31.4%. The multinomial logistic regression analysis identified aggression in bullying as a predictive variable for psychological aggression during dating, while the predictors of victimization were also linked to those for victimization in bullying. After analysing the interactions, the results showed that particularly in boys, previous experience of indirect perpetration of bullying is a risk variable of later psychological dating aggression, and that this kind of experience in Primary School is a significant predictor variable for both aggression and victimization in dating. CONCLUSIONS: The results are discussed in terms of the psycho-developmental pattern of these aggressive behaviours


ANTECEDENTES: trabajos previos apuntan a una posible relación, como transición psico-evolutiva, entre el bullying y otras formas de violencia durante la adolescencia, en términos de evolución en la manifestación del mismo patrón de comportamiento agresivo. Este estudio trata de identificar el rol del bullying como factor de riesgo para la violencia psicológica en las relaciones sentimentales adolescentes y la relación que se da entre ambos comportamientos agresivos. MÉTODO: 3.144 jóvenes valencianos (50,6% chicas) de Educación Primaria (50,4%) y Secundaria Obligatoria (49,6%) participaron en el estudio. RESULTADOS: las tasas de implicación en bullying alcanzaban el 46,2% y las de violencia psicológica en el cortejo el 31,4%. Análisis de regresiones logísticas multinomiales identificaron como variable predictora de la perpetración psicológica en el cortejo la agresión previa en bullying, mientras que las predictoras de la victimización fueron las relacionadas con la victimización en bullying. El análisis de las interacciones muestra que la experiencia previa en perpetración indirecta de los chicos es una variable predictora de la perpetración psicológica, así como la experiencia en Primaria es una variable predictora significativa para ambas formas de implicación. CONCLUSIONES: estos resultados son discutidos en términos del carácter psicoevolutivo del comportamiento agresivo durante la adolescencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Modelos Logísticos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698346

RESUMO

Adolescent courtship is emerging as an important developmental process which impacts social balance and adjustment in the teenage years. Both the cultural context and different individual competencies seem to determine the success or failure of this process. However, there is little research focusing on the direct relationship between interpersonal skills and adolescent courtship, possibly due to the lack of suitable instruments to measure it. This study takes this process further by adapting a multifactorial measurement of Interpersonal Competence to the framework of adolescent courtship (Adolescent Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire for Courtship (AICQc)), and by analyzing these skills according to gender and age. A total of 1584 adolescents (48.9% girls and 51.1% boys) between the ages of 12 and 17 who were in compulsory secondary education participated in the study. Based on the factor model proposed by Buhrmester et al., the Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed the validity of the instrument and a high internal consistency for five independent domains of competence: (a) initiating relationships; (b) assertiveness and the ability to say no; (c) self-disclosure; (d) providing emotional support; and (e) resolving conflicts. Age, as measured by the school year, was found to be a key factor in this regard. The results are discussed in terms of assessing interpersonal competence for relationships. There has been little research into this type of interpersonal competence and it is a key factor in facing the important developmental task for first-time couples of choosing a partner and managing adolescent courtship.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Corte/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Psico USF ; 25(2): 235-245, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1135725

RESUMO

This study investigated patterns of perpetration and perceptions of teen dating violence (TDV) in a sample of 428 adolescents characterized as perpetrators (62.4% female, M=16.73 years of age, SD=1.20) from the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. There was also a comparison group of 132 non-perpetrators (51.5% female, M=16.54 years of age, SD=1.19). The research instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, 15 items about the perception of TDV and the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI). We found a rate of 76.43% for the perpetration of some type of TDV and the most frequent was verbal/emotional violence (91.1%). The data showed that adolescents (perpetrators and non-perpetrators) have difficulty recognizing abusive behaviors, legitimizing the use of violence in their romantic relationships. Considering dating violence is a predictor of adult marital violence, the need to raise awareness of the phenomenon and the possibility of preventing TDV is discussed in this study. (AU)


Este estudo investigou padrões de perpetração e percepções de violência nas relações afetivo-sexuais na adolescência (VRASA), em uma amostra de 428 adolescentes caracterizados como perpetradores (62,4% sexo feminino, M = 16,73 anos; DP = 1,20), da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS. Foi adotado um grupo de comparação, composto por 132 adolescentes não perpetradores (51,5% sexo feminino, M = 16,54 anos; DP = 1,19). Os instrumentos utilizados foram questionário sociodemográfico, itens sobre percepção de VRASA e o Inventário de Conflitos nas Relações de Namoro na Adolescência. Foi observada uma taxa de 76,43% para perpetração de algum tipo de VRASA, sendo a mais frequente a violência verbal/emocional (91,1%). Os dados mostram que adolescentes perpetradores e não perpetradores têm dificuldade em reconhecer comportamentos abusivos, legitimando o uso da violência em suas relações amorosas. Considerando que a violência no namoro é preditora da violência conjugal adulta, discute-se a necessidade de uma maior visibilidade do fenômeno, assim como possibilidades de prevenção de VRASA. (AU)


Este estudio investigó los modelos de perpetración y percepciones de violencia en las relaciones afectivo-sexuales en la adolescencia (VRASA), en una muestra de 428 adolescentes caracterizados como perpetradores (62,4% sexo femenino, M = 16,73 años, DP = 1,20), de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS. Fue adoptado un grupo para comparación, compuesto por 132 adolescentes no perpetradores (51,5% sexo femenino, M = 16,54 años, DP = 1,19). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron cuestionario sociodemográfico, ítems sobre percepción de VRASA y el Inventario de Conflictos en las Relaciones de Enamorar en la Adolescencia). Fue observada una tasa de 76,43% para la perpetración de algún tipo de VRASA, siendo la más frecuente la violencia verbal/emocional (91,1%). Los datos muestran que adolescentes perpetradores y no perpetradores tienen dificultad en reconocer comportamientos abusivos, legitimando el uso de la violencia en sus relaciones amorosas. Considerando que la violencia en el noviazgo es predictora de la violencia conyugal adulta, se discute la necesidad de una mayor visibilidad del fenómeno así como posibilidades de prevención de VRASA. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Corte/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Psico USF ; 25(2): 285-296, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, il
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1135717

RESUMO

The present study aimed to know the validity and reliability of the Cyber Dating Abuse Questionnaire - CDAQ in the Brazilian context. For this purpose, two empirical studies were designed. Study 1 (N = 215) tested the psychometric parameters of CDAQ, using exploratory factorial analysis. Study 2 (N = 248) sought to gather additional evidences of validity and accuracy of CDAQ using confirmatory factor analysis. The results pointed to the two-factorial structure as the most relevant, with good internal consistency indexes observed. In addition, CDAQ demonstrated convergent validity through meaningful associations with face-to-face abuse in love relationships (CTS2) and overall satisfaction in relationships. Furthermore, it is concluded that CDAQ presents itself as a valid and reliable measure, useful for investigating digital abuse in love relationships in the Brazilian population. (AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a validade e fidedignidade do Questionário de Abuso Digital nos Relacionamentos Amorosos - QADRA no contexto brasileiro. Para isso, foram delineados dois estudos empíricos. O estudo 1 (N = 215) testou os parâmetros psicométricos do QADRA por meio da análise fatorial exploratória. O estudo 2 (N = 248) buscou reunir evidências adicionais de validade e precisão da EAC por meio da análise fatorial confirmatória. Os resultados apontaram para a estrutura bifatorial como a mais pertinente, sendo observados bons índices de consistência interna. Além disso, o QADRA demonstrou validade convergente por meio de associações significativas com o abuso presencial nos relacionamentos amorosos (CTS2) e a satisfação global nos relacionamentos. Ademais, conclui-se que o QADRA apresenta-se como uma medida válida e fidedigna, útil para investigação do abuso digital nos relacionamentos amorosos na população brasileira. (AU)


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la validez y confiabilidad del Cuestionario de Abuso Digital en las Relaciones Amorosas - QADRA en el contexto brasileño. Para ello, se delinearon dos estudios empíricos. El estudio 1 (N = 215) probó los parámetros psicométricos del QADRA a través de análisis factorial exploratorio. El estudio 2 (N = 248) buscó reunir evidencias adicionales de validez y precisión de la EAC a través de análisis factorial confirmatorio. Los resultados apuntaron para una estructura bifactorial como la más pertinente, siendo observados buenos índices de consistencia interna. Además, el QADRA demostró validez convergente a través de asociaciones significativas con el abuso presencial en las relaciones amorosas (CTS2) y satisfacción global en las relaciones. Además, se concluye que el QADRA presenta una medida válida y fidedigna, útil en la investigación de abuso digital en relaciones amorosas de la población brasileña. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Internet , Corte/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241020

RESUMO

Multimodal signaling is nearly ubiquitous across animal taxa. While much research has focused on male signal production contributing to female mate-choice or preferences, females often give their own multimodal signals during intersexual communication events. Multimodal signal components are often classified based on whether they contain redundant information (e.g., the backup hypothesis) or non-redundant information (e.g., the multiple messages hypothesis) from the perspective of the receiver. We investigated the role of two different female vocalizations produced by the female house mouse (Mus musculus): the broadband, relatively low-frequency squeaks (broadband vocalizations or BBVs,), and the higher-frequency ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). These female vocalizations may convey differently valenced information to the male receivers. We paired these vocalizations with and without female urine to examine the influence of combining information across multiple modalities. We found evidence that female urine and vocalizations act as non-redundant multimodal cues as males responded with different behaviors and vocalization rates depending on the female signal presented. Additionally, male mice responded with greater courtship effort to the multimodal combination of female USVs paired with female urine than any other signal combination. These results suggest that the olfactory information contained in female urine provides the context by which males can then evaluate potentially ambiguous female vocalizations.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Corte/psicologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Copulação/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Micção/fisiologia
15.
J Sex Res ; 57(9): 1166-1179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338540

RESUMO

We investigated youth's self-reported socio-sexual competences (esteem, assertiveness, control, communication) within their most recent sexual partnerships, and explored disparities in these competences between romantic versus casual sexual partnerships, including age and gender differences therein. Data were used from 6,098 Dutch adolescents and young adults (12.1-26.1 years), who participated in a national study on sexual health. Results indicated that being in love and sexual activity frequency were significant confounders for the associations between sexual partnership typology and youth's socio-sexual competence levels. After controlling for confounding relationship characteristics and sociodemographics, no differences were found between sexual partnership types in youth's sexual esteem, assertiveness, and control. However, romantic sexual partnerships were characterized by more frequent sexual communication than casual sexual partnerships. This pattern was gender-consistent, but for young adults, this difference in sexual communication across sexual partnership types was larger than for adolescents. Our findings emphasize that considering the relationship context (e.g., romantic, casual) for the development, utilization, and evaluation of young people's socio-sexual competences - particularly sexual communication - is a vital task for parents, educators, clinicians, and researchers. Individual (person-centered) versus relational (dyad-centered) differences in youth's socio-sexual competences require further exploration, as does the link between socio-sexual competences and sexual health and satisfaction.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Países Baixos , Apego ao Objeto , Psicologia do Adolescente
16.
J Res Adolesc ; 30(3): 706-720, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129555

RESUMO

While several studies in adolescents have addressed issues related to romantic relationships and dating violence, there is a limited understanding of their interaction patterns. This study aims to document interactions in conflict situations by identifying profiles of adolescent romantic relationships. Qualitative analysis based on the dimensions of the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems was used to investigate the interaction task of 40 dyads. A typological analysis revealed four profiles: (1) rigid, (2) entangled, (3) hampered, and (4) balanced. Results highlight the diversity of romantic experiences and offer a better understanding of the intricacies of different interaction profiles. Dating violence prevention efforts and programs promoting harmonious and egalitarian romantic relationships could benefit from the insights of the identified profiles.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Negociação/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Scand J Psychol ; 61(4): 560-564, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103513

RESUMO

Engaging in risky behaviors is a sexual signalling strategy that men use to procure mates. The present study investigates men's preferences for engaging in risky behaviors (along with women's preferences for their male partner's risky behavior) within dating couples. We investigated associations between relationship length, self-perceived attractiveness, sociosexuality orientation, and preference for risky behaviors in a sample of 256 couples. Results indicated that men had stronger preferences for risky behaviors than their partner's ideal preference. Furthermore, relationship length was associated with a decline in women's preference for their partner's risk-taking, but not men's preference for their own risk-taking. Self-perceived attractiveness was negatively associated with risk preference, and sociosexuality orientation was not directly related to risk preference. Female preferences for less intense male risky behaviors could reflect the need of paternal investment which is required for offspring care. Decreased male sexual signalling could account for lower preferences of risky behaviors in females who are involved in longer lasting romantic relationships.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Corte/psicologia , Individualidade , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Res Adolesc ; 30(3): 669-686, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077538

RESUMO

Ethnicity-related dating preferences among Asian American adolescents and the links between preferences (i.e., for a same-ethnic dating partner) and ethnic identity centrality and regard, American identity centrality and regard, parent-adolescent closeness, and perceptions of discrimination were investigated. Data from 175 self-identified Asian American high school students were collected yearly for four consecutive years. Higher levels of ethnic identity centrality and regard and parent-adolescent closeness averaged across four years were associated with preferring a same-ethnic partner. Moreover, foreign-born adolescents were less likely to prefer a same-ethnic partner when they encountered a higher than average level of discrimination on any given year. Results highlight variability in the developmental and individual-level factors that shape how adolescents navigate their dating relationships.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Corte/psicologia , Identificação Social , Aculturação , Adolescente , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 623, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001689

RESUMO

Optical in vivo recordings from freely walking Drosophila are currently possible only for limited behaviors. Here, we expand the range of accessible behaviors with a retroreflective marker-based tracking and ratiometric brain imaging system, permitting brain activity imaging even in copulating male flies. We discover that P1 neurons, active during courtship, are inactive during copulation, whereas GABAergic mAL neurons remain active during copulation, suggesting a countervailing role of mAL in opposing P1 activity during mating.


Assuntos
Copulação/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corte/psicologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuroimagem/instrumentação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Córtex Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
J Adolesc ; 79: 39-48, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) are at high risk for sexual exploitation, yet there is a paucity of research on their romantic relationships. The objectives of this study were to examine the romantic understanding and experiences of youth with IDD. METHODS: Thirty-one adolescents (16-19 years; 21 males and 10 females) with IDD (12 participants with additional diagnosis of ASD) were recruited from a community health clinic. Individual interviews and questionnaires assessed cross-sectionally these youths': (1) romantic conceptualizations; (2) romantic awareness (knowledge of: romantic relationships, sexual behaviours, initiating relationships); (3) involvement; (4) social competence; and (5) expectations for autonomy. Parent perspectives on these topics were also captured through questionnaires. RESULTS: While 85% reported an immediate desire for a romantic relationship, only 35% were currently in a relationship. Qualitative findings indicated that 14% of youth were unable to differentiate between a romantic relationship and a friendship. Among those who could make this distinction, romantic relationships were conceptualized as serious, commitment for life, and primarily for companionship. Adolescents with ASD, compared to those without ASD, showed weaker social competence and lower romantic awareness. Parents were adolescents' primary source of information about relationships. Finally, parents and adolescents differed in their perception of the age at which they were ready to date. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our understanding of the romantic experiences of youth with IDD. Prevention efforts focused on education may be important to help ensure these youth develop safe and healthy relationships.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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