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1.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 15(6): 336-340, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002954

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and potentially lethal pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). No specific antiviral treatment is currently available. The purpose of this review is to highlight the main repurposed drug treatments with in-vitro or in-vivo efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical trials suggested remdesivir, IFN-ß-1b and favipiravir have potential clinical and/or virological benefits on patients with COVID-19. Short course of stress dose of corticosteroids might be used as adjunctive treatment to patients who are late presenters with cytokine storm. Convalescent plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients with high neutralizing antibody might also be beneficial in the treatment of severe disease. SUMMARY: Early effective antiviral therapy in COVID-19 patients will suppress the SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Adjunctive therapy with corticosteroid and convalescent plasma might further ameliorate the cytokine response. Further randomized clinical trials of combination therapy are needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013911

RESUMO

The inflammatory response to and the subsequent development of Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is considered to underpin COVID-19 pathogenesis. With a developing world catastrophe, we need to examine our known therapeutic stocks, to assess suitability for prevention and/or treatment of this pro-inflammatory virus. Analyzing commonly available and inexpensive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory medications to assess their possible effectiveness in improving the host response to COVID-19, this paper recommends the following: (1) optimize current health-cease (reduce) smoking, ensure adequate hypertension and diabetes control, continue exercising; (2) start on an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor "statin" for its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, which may reduce the mortality associated with ARDS; and (3) consider using Diclofenac (or other COX-2 inhibition medications) for its anti-inflammatory and virus toxicity properties. For purposes of effectiveness, this needs to be in the early course of the disease (post infection and/or symptom presentation) and given in a high dose. The downsides to these recommended interventions are considered manageable at this stage of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/efeitos adversos , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Diclofenaco/uso terapêutico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22639, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most fatal type of tuberculosis in which corticosteroids are added with antitubercular therapy to prevent permanent brain damage. However, this treatment may produce paradoxical reactions. In such cases, thalidomide use might reduce central nervous system inflammation and improve the outcome. We present the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient with TBM who developed paradoxical reactions manifesting as multiple intracranial tuberculomas that were resistant to standard care (antitubercular drugs and corticosteroids) but responded well to thalidomide. PATIENT'S MAIN CONCERN AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: The patient was a 40-year-old Chinese female, who was admitted with a 10-day history of headaches, night sweats, and cough. She was healthy before contracting the infection and had no history of contact with tuberculosis patients. DIAGNOSES, INTERVENTION, AND OUTCOME: We diagnosed the patient with TBM complicated by the occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis. Positive results were obtained from Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the sputum and acid-fast bacilli sputum culture. Standard treatment was initiated with antitubercular drugs (daily isoniazid, rifampicin, ethionamide, and pyrazinamide) and corticosteroids (dexamethasone). However, 3 months later the magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed some new tuberculoma lesion. Thus, a specific therapy of antitubercular drugs and thalidomide was introduced. On completion of a 12-month course of antitubercular drugs with 2 months of thalidomide, the patient showed favorable outcomes without neurologic sequelae. Moreover, thalidomide appeared safe and well tolerated in the patient. CONCLUSION: In addition to the specific anti-tubercular and adjuvant corticosteroid therapies for TBM, thalidomide can be used as a "salvage" antitubercular drug in cases that are unresponsive to corticosteroids.


Assuntos
HIV/imunologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terapia de Salvação , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 409-415, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877099

RESUMO

Hip osteonecrosis. Hip osteonecrosis of the is a relatively common pathology, responsible for pain and functional disability mainly affecting young people. It corresponds to bone necrosis of the femoral head, secondary to ischemic and/or cytotoxic mechanisms. They can be unilateral, bilateral or multifocal, thus testifying to the systemic nature of their origin and the importance of the general factors involved in their occurrence. Many risk factors are to be looked for, such as corticosteroid therapy, alcohol abuse, dyslipidemia or sickle cell anemia. MRI is the examination that allows a positive diagnosis and should be offered in the face of any unexplained pain in the young subject, with a normal X-ray. In advanced forms with a collapse of the joint surface and then secondary arthritis, surgical treatment with arthroplasty is the main possible option. The hip prosthesis provides these patients with a comfortable life; but it is not without risk taking into account the pathology which is usually the cause of osteonecrosis: in fact, osteonecrosis of the hip is often associated with serious medical pathologies such as hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia in particular), taking corticosteroids in large doses in connection with organ transplantation or diseases such as lupus erythematosus, autoimmune diseases, hyperlipidemias and excessive alcohol intake. However, there are promising therapeutic advances, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells, which could in the future improve the poor joint prognosis of aseptic osteonecrosis. These conservative treatments are recommended at a stage without collapse of the articular surface.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Osteonecrose/cirurgia , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Osteonecrose/etiologia
7.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 378-389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959805

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study was implemented to provide guidance to decision-makers and clinicians by describing hospital care offered to women who gave birth with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National population-based prospective cohort study involving all women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who gave birth between February 25 and April 22, 2020 in any Italian hospital. RESULTS: The incidence rate of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in women who gave birth was 2.1 per 1000 maternities at a national level and 6.9/1000 in the Lombardy Region. Overall one third of the women developed a pneumonia and 49.7% assumed at least one drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Caesarean rate was 32.9%, no mothers nor newborns died. Six percent of the infants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 in women who gave birth are similar to those described for the general population, most women developing mild to moderate illness.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/congênito , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Maturidade dos Órgãos Fetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/embriologia , Pneumonia Viral/congênito , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238827, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of systemic corticosteroid as a therapeutic agent for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of corticosteroids in non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study, from 16th March, 2020 to 30th April, 2020; final follow-up on 10th May, 2020. 265 patients consecutively admitted to the non-ICU wards with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were screened for inclusion. 205 patients who developed AHRF (SpO2/FiO2 ≤ 440 or PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300) were only included in the final study. Direct admission to the Intensive care unit (ICU), patients developing composite primary outcome within 24 hours of admission, and patients who never became hypoxic during their stay in the hospital were excluded. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on corticosteroid. The primary outcome was a composite of ICU transfer, intubation, or in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were ICU transfer, intubation, in-hospital mortality, discharge, length of stay, and daily trend of SpO2/FiO2 (SF) ratio from the index date. Cox-proportional hazard regression was implemented to analyze the time to event outcomes. RESULT: Among 205 patients, 60 (29.27%) were treated with corticosteroid. The mean age was ~57 years, and ~75% were men. Thirteen patients (22.41%) developed a primary composite outcome in the corticosteroid cohort vs. 54 (37.5%) patients in the non-corticosteroid cohort (P = 0.039). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the development of the composite primary outcome was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.07-0.33; P <0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio for ICU transfer was 0.16 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.34; P < 0.001), intubation was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.70; P- 0.005), death was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.31; P- 0.172), composite of death or intubation was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.66; P- 0.002) and discharge was 3.65 (95% CI, 2.20 to 6.06; P<0.001). The corticosteroid cohort had increasing SpO2/FiO2 over time compared to the non-corticosteroid cohort who experience decreasing SpO2/FiO2 over time. CONCLUSION: Among non-ICU patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by AHRF, treatment with corticosteroid was associated with a significantly lower risk of the primary composite outcome of ICU transfer, intubation, or in-hospital death, composite of intubation or death and individual components of the primary outcome.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Lancet ; 396(10253): 786-798, 2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919518

RESUMO

Complicated community-acquired pneumonia in a previously well child is a severe illness characterised by combinations of local complications (eg, parapneumonic effusion, empyema, necrotising pneumonia, and lung abscess) and systemic complications (eg, bacteraemia, metastatic infection, multiorgan failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and, rarely, death). Complicated community-acquired pneumonia should be suspected in any child with pneumonia not responding to appropriate antibiotic treatment within 48-72 h. Common causative organisms are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Patients have initial imaging with chest radiography and ultrasound, which can also be used to assess the lung parenchyma, to identify pleural fluid; CT scanning is not usually indicated. Complicated pneumonia is treated with a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics, and then oral antibiotics. The initial choice of antibiotic is guided by local microbiological knowledge and by subsequent positive cultures and molecular testing, including on pleural fluid if a drainage procedure is done. Information from pleural space imaging and drainage should guide the decision on whether to administer intrapleural fibrinolytics. Most patients are treated by drainage and more extensive surgery is rarely needed; in any event, in low-income and middle-income countries, resources for extensive surgeries are scarce. The clinical course of complicated community-acquired pneumonia can be prolonged, especially when patients have necrotising pneumonia, but complete recovery is the usual outcome.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/terapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Drenagem , Humanos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1263-1277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907358

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing the disease COVID-19, spread from Wuhan throughout China and has infected people over 200 countries. Thus far, more than 3,400,000 cases and 240,000 deaths have occurred worldwide, and the coronavirus pandemic continues to grip the globe. While numbers of cases in China have been steadying, the number of infections outside China is increasing at a worrying pace. We face an urgent need to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is currently expanding to a global pandemic. Efforts have focused on testing antiviral drugs and vaccines, but there is currently no treatment specifically approved. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is grounded in empirical observations and the Chinese people use TCM to overcome these sorts of plagues many times in thousands of years of history. Currently, the Chinese National Health Commission recommended a TCM prescription of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang (QFPDT) in the latest version of the "Diagnosis and Treatment guidelines of COVID-19" which has been reported to provide reliable effects for COVID-19. While doubts about TCM still exist today, this review paper will describe the rationalities that QFPDT is likely to bring a safe and effective treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
11.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(25): 434-444, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that usually causes variable airway obstruction. It affects 5-10% of the German population. METHODS: This review is based on relevant publications retrieved by a selective search, as well as on national and international guidelines on the treatment of mild and moderate asthma in adults. RESULTS: The goal of treatment is to attain optimal asthma control with a minimal risk of exacerbations and mortality, loss of pulmonary function, and drug side effects. This can be achieved with a combination of pharmacotherapy and non-drug treatment including patient education, exercise, smoking cessation, and rehabilitation. Pharmacohterapy is based on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and bronchodilators. It is recommended that mild asthma should be treated only when needed, either with a fixed combination of ICS and formoterol or with short-acting bronchodilators. For moderate asthma, maintenance treatment is recommended, with an inhaled fixed combinations of ICS and long-acting beta-mimetics, possibly supplemented with longacting anticholinergic agents. Allergen immunotherapy, i.e., desensitization treatment, should be considered if the allergic component of asthma is well documented and the patient is not suffering from uncontrolled asthma. Asthma control should be monitored at regular intervals, and the treatment should be adapted accordingly. CONCLUSION: The treatment of asthma in adults should be individually tailored, with anti-inflammatory treatment as its main component.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fumarato de Formoterol , Humanos
12.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003222, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with corticosteroids is recommended for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients to slow the progression of weakness. However, chronic corticosteroid treatment causes significant morbidities. Vamorolone is a first-in-class anti-inflammatory investigational drug that has shown evidence of efficacy in DMD after 24 weeks of treatment at 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day. Here, open-label efficacy and safety experience of vamorolone was evaluated over a period of 18 months in trial participants with DMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter, open-label, 24-week trial (VBP15-003) with a 24-month long-term extension (VBP15-LTE) was conducted by the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) and evaluated drug-related effects of vamorolone on motor outcomes and corticosteroid-associated safety concerns. The study was carried out in Canada, US, UK, Australia, Sweden, and Israel, from 2016 to 2019. This report covers the initial 24-week trial and the first 12 months of the VBP15-LTE trial (total treatment period 18 months). DMD trial participants (males, 4 to <7 years at entry) treated with 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day vamorolone for the full 18-month period (n = 23) showed clinical improvement of all motor outcomes from baseline to month 18 (time to stand velocity, p = 0.012 [95% CI 0.010, 0.068 event/second]; run/walk 10 meters velocity, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.220, 0.491 meters/second]; climb 4 stairs velocity, p = 0.001 [95% CI 0.034, 0.105 event/second]; 6-minute walk test, p = 0.001 [95% CI 31.14, 93.38 meters]; North Star Ambulatory Assessment, p < 0.001 [95% CI 2.702, 6.662 points]). Outcomes in vamorolone-treated DMD patients (n = 46) were compared to group-matched participants in the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study (corticosteroid-naïve, n = 19; corticosteroid-treated, n = 68) over a similar 18-month period. Time to stand was not significantly different between vamorolone-treated and corticosteroid-naïve participants (p = 0.088; least squares [LS] mean 0.042 [95% CI -0.007, 0.091]), but vamorolone-treated participants showed significant improvement compared to group-matched corticosteroid-naïve participants for run/walk 10 meters velocity (p = 0.003; LS mean 0.286 [95% CI 0.104, 0.469]) and climb 4 stairs velocity (p = 0.027; LS mean 0.059 [95% CI 0.007, 0.111]). The vamorolone-related improvements were similar in magnitude to corticosteroid-related improvements. Corticosteroid-treated participants showed stunting of growth, whereas vamorolone-treated trial participants did not (p < 0.001; LS mean 15.86 [95% CI 8.51, 23.22]). Physician-reported incidences of adverse events (AEs) for Cushingoid appearance, hirsutism, weight gain, and behavior change were less for vamorolone than published incidences for prednisone and deflazacort. Key limitations to the study were the open-label design, and use of external comparators. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that vamorolone treatment was associated with improvements in some motor outcomes as compared with corticosteroid-naïve individuals over an 18-month treatment period. We found that fewer physician-reported AEs occurred with vamorolone than have been reported for treatment with prednisone and deflazacort, and that vamorolone treatment did not cause the stunting of growth seen with these corticosteroids. This Phase IIa study provides Class III evidence to support benefit of motor function in young boys with DMD treated with vamorolone 2.0 to 6.0 mg/kg/day, with a favorable safety profile. A Phase III RCT is underway to further investigate safety and efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, and the links to each trial are as follows (as provided in manuscript text): VBP15-002 [NCT02760264] VBP15-003 [NCT02760277] VBP15-LTE [NCT03038399].


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Pregnadienodiois/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Pregnadienodiois/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada/fisiologia
13.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 27-34, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994591

RESUMO

AIM: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) has a high mortality rate in HIV-negative immunocompromised patients, but is preventable with antimicrobial prophylaxis. We aimed to determine the incidence of PCP in three hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand that would have been potentially preventable if patients had been prescribed prophylaxis according to commonly proposed indications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of HIV-negative adults with PCP who were admitted to Middlemore, North Shore or Waitakere Hospitals between January 2011 and June 2017. We classified their PCP as potentially preventable if they had not been prescribed prophylaxis despite having a commonly proposed indication for this. RESULTS: Of the 108 patients with PCP, 33/108 (30.6%) had potentially preventable infection. Of these, 14/33 (42.4%) died within 30 days of diagnosis of PCP. Most potentially preventable infections occurred in patients with solid organ or haematologic malignancies who were receiving high-dose corticosteroids for >4 weeks. We estimate that 28 cases of PCP and 12 deaths could have been prevented over the study duration if prophylaxis was prescribed to those with commonly proposed indications. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial incidence of potentially preventable PCP and PCP-related mortality in the Auckland region. This could be reduced by greater clinician familiarity with commonly proposed indications for PCP prophylaxis, particularly for clinicians prescribing prolonged corticosteroid courses to patients with malignancies.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/etiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumocystis/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(9): 1163-1174, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925832

RESUMO

: This combined American Neurotology Society, American Otological Society, and American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Foundation document aims to provide guidance during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) on 1) "priority" of care for otologic and neurotologic patients in the office and operating room, and 2) optimal utilization of personal protective equipment. Given the paucity of evidence to inform otologic and neurotologic best practices during COVID-19, the recommendations herein are based on relevant peer-reviewed articles, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 guidelines, United States and international hospital policies, and expert opinion. The suggestions presented here are not meant to be definitive, and best practices will undoubtedly change with increasing knowledge and high-quality data related to COVID-19. Interpretation of this guidance document is dependent on local factors including prevalence of COVID-19 in the surgeons' local community. This is not intended to set a standard of care, and should not supersede the clinician's best judgement when managing specific clinical concerns and/or regional conditions.Access to otologic and neurotologic care during and after the COVID-19 pandemic is dependent upon adequate protection of physicians, audiologists, and ancillary support staff. Otolaryngologists and associated staff are at high risk for COVID-19 disease transmission based on close contact with mucosal surfaces of the upper aerodigestive tract during diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic procedures. While many otologic and neurotologic conditions are not imminently life threatening, they have a major impact on communication, daily functioning, and quality of life. In addition, progression of disease and delay in treatment can result in cranial nerve deficits, intracranial and life-threatening complications, and/or irreversible consequences. In this regard, many otologic and neurotologic conditions should rightfully be considered "urgent," and almost all require timely attention to permit optimal outcomes. It is reasonable to proceed with otologic and neurotologic clinic visits and operative cases based on input from expert opinion of otologic care providers, clinic/hospital administration, infection prevention and control specialists, and local and state public health leaders. Significant regional variations in COVID-19 prevalence exist; therefore, physicians working with local municipalities are best suited to make determinations on the appropriateness and timing of otologic and neurotologic care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neuro-Otologia/organização & administração , Otorrinolaringologistas , Otolaringologia/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1297-1302, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993338

RESUMO

AIMS: Although periarticular injection plays an important role in multimodal pain management following total hip arthroplasty (THA), there is no consensus on the optimal composition of the injection. In particular, it is not clear whether the addition of a corticosteroid improves the pain relief achieved nor whether it is associated with more complications than are observed without corticosteroid. The aim of this study was to quantify the safety and effectiveness of cortocosteroid use in periarticular injection during THA. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, two-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial involving patients scheduled for unilateral THA. A total of 187 patients were randomly assigned to receive periarticular injection containing either a corticosteroid (CS group) or without corticosteroid (no-CS group). Other perioperative interventions were identical for all patients. The primary outcome was postoperative pain at rest during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Pain score was recorded every three hours until 24 hours using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary outcome was assessed based on the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The CS group had a significantly lower AUC postoperatively at 0 to 24 hours compared to the no-CS group (AUC of VAS score at rest 550 ± 362 vs 392 ± 320, respectively; mean difference 158 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) 58 to 257; p = 0.0021). In point-by-point evaluation, the CS group had significantly lower VAS scores at 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 48 hours. There were no significant differences in complication rates, including surgical site infection, between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The addition of corticosteroid to periarticular injections reduces postoperative pain without increasing complication rate following THA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1297-1302.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
ESMO Open ; 5(5)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer seems to have an independent adverse prognostic effect on COVID-19-related mortality, but uncertainty exists regarding its effect across different patient subgroups. We report a population-based analysis of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 with prior or current solid cancer versus those without cancer. METHODS: We analysed data of adult patients registered until 24 May 2020 in the Belgian nationwide database of Sciensano. The primary objective was in-hospital mortality within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis among patients with solid cancer versus patients without cancer. Severe event occurrence, a composite of intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation and/or death, was a secondary objective. These endpoints were analysed across different patient subgroups. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between cancer and clinical characteristics (baseline analysis) and the effect of cancer on in-hospital mortality and on severe event occurrence, adjusting for clinical characteristics (in-hospital analysis). RESULTS: A total of 13 594 patients (of whom 1187 with solid cancer (8.7%)) were evaluable for the baseline analysis and 10 486 (892 with solid cancer (8.5%)) for the in-hospital analysis. Patients with cancer were older and presented with less symptoms/signs and lung imaging alterations. The 30-day in-hospital mortality was higher in patients with solid cancer compared with patients without cancer (31.7% vs 20.0%, respectively; adjusted OR (aOR) 1.34; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.58). The aOR was 3.84 (95% CI 1.94 to 7.59) among younger patients (<60 years) and 2.27 (95% CI 1.41 to 3.64) among patients without other comorbidities. Severe event occurrence was similar in both groups (36.7% vs 28.8%; aOR 1.10; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.29). CONCLUSIONS: This population-based analysis demonstrates that solid cancer is an independent adverse prognostic factor for in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19. This adverse effect was more pronounced among younger patients and those without other comorbidities. Patients with solid cancer should be prioritised in vaccination campaigns and in tailored containment measurements.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco
17.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(12)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with corticosteroids for COVID-19 and ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) is controversial and has generally not been recommended. CASE PRESENTATION: A woman in her sixties was admitted to hospital after ten days of flu-like symptoms. She was confirmed as Sars-CoV-2-positive and experienced a steady decrease in oxygen saturation (SaO2), despite being given increasing amounts of supplemental oxygen. On day three she was intubated and placed on a ventilator. She had a three-phased trajectory where ventilation was extremely challenging, prone positioning and permissive hypercapnia were necessary, and inflammation markers increased. There was no improvement in the third phase, and on day 19 on the ventilator, we decided to give her corticosteroids. Two days later she could be weaned from the ventilator. INTERPRETATION: In our patient with severe ARDS from COVID-19, we saw rapid improvement after she was given corticosteroids, and her case is a contribution to the discussion regarding use of corticosteroids for the most severely ill COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22159, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term use of corticosteroid ointment for external using or skin management products and cosmetics containing corticosteroid will produce a hormone-dependent effect on facial skin and destroy the barrier function of the skin. It is easy to cause repeated attacks of facial skin inflammation after drug withdrawal because corticosteroid hormones can cause the expression of inflammatory factors in the body, which has a serious impact on patients. The general treatment method is to stop using hormone drugs for psychotherapy and inform patients of the basic knowledge of hormone-dependent dermatitis and daily facial care, but the effect is not good. At present, non-steroidal ointment tacrolimus (a calcineurin inhibitor) is widely used in the treatment of hormone-dependent dermatitis. Tacrolimus ointment is effective for corticosteroid-dependent dermatitis, but adverse events can also occur. METHODS: We plan to searched all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fortacrolimus ointment therapy of hormone-dependent dermatitis in: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Springer and Web of Science, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China Science Journal Database (VIP database) and Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), without the limitation of publication status and language until September 1, 2020. The systematic review will also search will also search for identify publications, meeting minutes, and grey literature (including unpublished meeting articles). DISCUSSION: The systematic review mainly to access the safety and efficacy of tacrolimus ointment for hormone-dependent dermatitis (facial corticosteroid addiction dermatitis and facial steroid dermatitis). The results of our research will facilitate evidence-based management of patients with facial corticosteroid-dependent dermatitis and provide clinical advice on their treatment options. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020171813.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Erupção por Droga/tratamento farmacológico , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Administração Cutânea , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pomadas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22127, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899098

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sweet syndrome (SS) is an idiopathic autoimmune disease which has been associated with various extracutaneous manifestations. Otologic symptoms secondary to SS are characterized by bilateral, progressive, sensorineural hearing loss, which requires auditory rehabilitation with, for example, cochlear implantation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 43-year-old woman complaining of bilateral sudden hearing loss visited the Emergency Department of our University. Abrupt onset of fever peaking up to 40°C and vomiting accompanied the hearing loss and other associated symptoms were: tinnitus that sounded like a machine humming, mild dizziness, a painful rash (on the right upper eyelid, chest, back, forearms, and lower extremities), arthralgia in both the hip and knee joints, and vision loss in the right eye. The patient had no history of autoimmune diseases or surgery. DIAGNOSIS: Pure tone audiometry and biopsy on the skin lesion were performed. SS with bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with intravenous prednisolone and topical steroids. OUTCOMES: After a week of treatment, skin lesions had improved. And 3 months after treatment, the hearing test showed full recovery. CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the point that early diagnosis and timely treatment are essential for hearing recovery in patients with SS who have otologic symptoms.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Síndrome de Sweet/complicações , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Súbita/etiologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Sweet/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S319-S350, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the late 1940s, corticosteroids have been a mainstay class of agents in multiple interventional techniques and intra-articular injections. Exogenous glucocorticoids are structurally and pharmacologically similar to the endogenous hormones. As such, multiple actions of corticosteroids are exhibited, including those of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Epidural injections, with or without steroids, have been extensively used throughout the world. There are reports of epidural injections starting in 1901, with steroids being added to the local anesthetic since 1952, when steroids were administered into the sacral foramen. PURPOSE: Due to the extensive side effects of steroids in various injections, some have proposed limiting their use in epidurals and intraarticular injections. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the multiple side effects of the steroids have elevated the level of concern and recommendations have been made to utilize local anesthetic alone or the lowest dose of steroids. Fashioned from common expressions of the day, the term "steroid distancing" began to be used and proposed for intraarticular injections of the knee. Consequently, we sought to evaluate the evidence and feasibility of steroid distancing in interventional pain management. METHODS: This focused review of local anesthetics and steroids utilized in interventional pain management for epidural injections, peripheral nerve blocks, and intraarticular injections by multiple database searches. This is a focused narrative review and not a systematic review. Consequently, evidence synthesis was not performed traditionally, but was based on an overview of the available evidence. RESULTS: No significant difference was identified based on whether steroids are added to local anesthetic or not for epidural as well as facet joint injections. However, there was not enough evidence to compare these two groups for peripheral intraarticular injections. LIMITATIONS: The present review is limited by the paucity of literature with bupivacaine alone or bupivacaine with steroids local anesthetic alone or with steroids of intraarticular injections of knee, hip, shoulder and other joints, and intraarticular facet joint injections. CONCLUSION: This review shows an overall lack of significant difference between lidocaine alone and lidocaine with steroids in epidural injections. However, available evidence is limited for bupivacaine alone or with steroids. Evidence is also not available comparing local anesthetic alone with steroids for facet joint or peripheral joint intraarticular injections. Thus, it is concluded that local anesthetic with lidocaine may be utilized for epidural injections, with appropriate patient selection and steroids reserved for non-responsive patients with local anesthetic and with significant radiculitis.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Injeções Intra-Articulares/métodos
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