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1.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(1): 22-33, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of adrenal insufficiency caused by chronic corticosteroid treatment.Summary: This case study describes a 71-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI). She had a long history of multiple medical problems that affected her quality of life. The pharmacist reviewed 18 years (2001-2018) of medical records, including her corticosteroid usage history. The patient had been receiving chronic medium-high dose inhaled corticosteroids for asthma, with intermittent oral prednisone for exacerbations. The pharmacist suspected a possible SAI or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (TAI) caused by hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis suppression induced by chronic corticosteroid use. After discussions with the patient's primary care physician and a screening adrenal function test, the patient was referred to an endocrinologist, and the diagnosis was confirmed. Low-dose hydrocortisone (<30 mg daily) was prescribed; the patient had improvements in mood, skin hyperpigmentation, and asthma symptoms, which eliminated the routine visits to the emergency room/clinic during the winter season.CONCLUSION: The case illustrated the benefits of utilizing a pharmacist's expertise. A consultant pharmacist can identify an underdiagnosed and rare condition, corticosteroid-induced adrenal insufficiency, through comprehensive medication review in a community medication therapy management service setting.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Qualidade de Vida
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 775-785, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667699

RESUMO

Treatment options for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited with no clarity on efficacy and safety profiles. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on patients ≥18 years reporting data on therapeutic interventions in SARS-CoV-2. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were rates of mechanical ventilation, viral clearance, adverse events, discharge, and progression to severe disease. Pooled rates and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Twenty-nine studies with 5207 patients were included. Pooled all-cause mortality in intervention arm was 12.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1%-17.4%). Mortality was significantly higher for studies using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for intervention (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.97-1.89). Adverse events were also higher in HCQ subgroup (OR: 3.88; 95% CI: 1.60-9.45). There was no difference in other secondary outcomes. There is a need for well-designed randomized clinical trials for further investigation of every therapeutic intervention for further insight into different therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , /patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Imunização Passiva , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , /patogenicidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20935, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262415

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has published guidance recommending systemic corticosteroids for the treatment of patients with severe or critical COVID-19 and no corticosteroids for those with nonsevere COVID-19. Although their recommendations for critical cases were based on the results from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), those for noncritical cases were based on the results from only one RCT, the Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) trial. In search of additional evidence of corticosteroids' effect on COVID-19, we systematically reviewed controlled observational studies, besides RCTs, that assessed the impact of corticosteroid treatment on any type of mortality and/or other outcomes in noncritical patients. Of the 4037 titles and abstracts screened, we ultimately included the RECOVERY trial and five controlled observational studies using propensity score matching, (accessed on September 8, 2020). Two of the controlled observational studies assessed the association between corticosteroid treatment and in-hospital mortality, without finding statistical significance. Four of the controlled observational studies assessed corticosteroids' effect on other outcomes, demonstrating that they were associated with reduced risk of intubation in patients requiring oxygen and with longer hospitalization and viral shedding in mild or moderate cases. These results support the WHO recommendations not to use corticosteroids for nonsevere COVID-19.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , /efeitos dos fármacos , /mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pontuação de Propensão , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23240, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although corticosteroid prophylaxis in adult cardiac surgery has been studied extensively for 40 years, its role remains controversial, and the optimal dose remains uncertain. The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the clinical benefits and risks of corticosteroid use in cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: We will search Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Clinical Trials, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant clinical trials published in any language before August 1, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interest which meet inclusion criteria published or unpublished will be included. We will divide the included studies into child and adult groups for analysis. If sufficient data are available, the included trials will be divided into 4 subgroups: ≤20 mg/kg (low dose), 20-40 mg/kg (slightly high dose), 40-100 mg/kg (high dose), and >100 mg/kg (ultra high dose) based on the equivalent hydrocortisone dose. INPLASY registration number: INPLASY2020100044. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This study will compare the efficacy of tprophylactic corticosteroids for adults and children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. Due to the nature of the disease and intervention methods, randomized controlled trials may be inadequate, and we will carefully consider inclusion in high-quality, non-randomized controlled trials, but this may result in high heterogeneity and affect the reliability of the results.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle
5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 290, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in relation to immunomodulatory medications are still unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents on COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: The study was conducted in the arthritis outpatient clinic at two large academic hospitals in the COVID-19 most endemic area of Northern Italy (Lombardy). We circulated a cross-sectional survey exploring the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 nasopharyngeal swab positivity and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (fever and/or cough and/or dyspnea), administered face-to-face or by phone to consecutive patients from 25 February to 20 April 2020. COVID-19 cases were defined as confirmed or highly suspicious according to the World Health Organization criteria. The impact of medications on COVID-19 development was evaluated. RESULTS: The study population included 2050 adults with chronic inflammatory arthritis receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and highly suspicious infection were recorded in 1.1% and 1.4% of the population, respectively. Treatment with glucocorticoids was independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted OR [95% CI] ranging from 1.23 [1.04-1.44] to 3.20 [1.97-5.18] depending on the definition used). Conversely, patients treated with ts/bDMARDs were at reduced risk (adjusted OR ranging from 0.46 [0.18-1.21] to 0.47 [0.46-0.48]). No independent effects of csDMARDs, age, sex, and comorbidities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, treatment with immunomodulatory medications appears safe. Conversely, glucocorticoids, even at low-dose, may confer increased risk of infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered. Not applicable.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(6): 750-756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341209

RESUMO

Pemphigus and its variants, viz., vulgaris, foliaceous, vegetans, Ig A pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and Senear-Usher syndrome are rare autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin and/or mucous membranes. The autoantibodies involved in the pathogenesis of pemphigus against desmoglein result in the breach of the skin and mucosal barrier, which acts as the first line of defence against pathogens. In this paper we underscore the importance of the integumentary system as a shield against the acquisition as well as transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virion. We have also made an attempt to delineate the various treatment modalities available and the viral-drug dynamics involved in choosing the optimum therapeutic modality.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Administração Oral , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Pênfigo/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 698, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corticoid therapy has been recommended in the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19, yet its efficacy is currently still under evaluation. We investigated the effect of corticosteroid treatment on 90-day mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in severe patients with COVID-19. METHODS: 294 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were recruited between December 30, 2019 and February 19, 2020. Logistic regression, Cox proportional-hazards model and marginal structural modeling (MSM) were applied to evaluate the associations between corticosteroid use and corresponding outcome variables. RESULTS: Out of the 294 critically ill patients affected by COVID-19, 183 (62.2%) received corticosteroids, with methylprednisolone as the most frequently administered corticosteroid (175 accounting for 96%). Of those treated with corticosteroids, 69.4% received corticosteroid prior to ICU admission. When adjustments and subgroup analysis were not performed, no significant associations between corticosteroids use and 90-day mortality or SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance were found. However, when stratified analysis based on corticosteroid initiation time was performed, there was a significant correlation between corticosteroid use (≤ 3 day after ICU admission) and 90-day mortality (logistic regression adjusted for baseline: OR 4.49, 95% CI 1.17-17.25, p = 0.025; Cox adjusted for baseline and time varying variables: HR 3.89, 95% CI 1.94-7.82, p < 0.001; MSM adjusted for baseline and time-dependent variants: OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16-4.65, p = 0.017). No association was found between corticosteroid use and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance even after stratification by initiation time of corticosteroids and adjustments for confounding factors (corticosteroids use ≤ 3 days initiation vs no corticosteroids use) using MSM were performed. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of corticosteroid use (≤ 3 days after ICU admission) was associated with an increased 90-day mortality. Early use of methylprednisolone in the ICU is therefore not recommended in patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , /mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6417-6428, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141117

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDCorticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODSPatients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTSOf 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0-3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSIONAdministration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDINGNone.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , /mortalidade , /mortalidade , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23204, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181702

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Steroid is known to cause generalized immunosuppression, thereby increasing the risk of new infection or recurrence of tuberculosis. However, corticosteroid as a culprit for exacerbation of miliary tuberculosis-from a cryptic to an overt form-has rarely been described in the literature. Moreover, miliary tuberculosis is hardly diagnosed in a living patient as a primary cause of ARDS even in TB-endemic regions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a steroid-induced progression of cryptic miliary tuberculosis to ARDS, provided with clear depiction of its radiologic evolution. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 36-year-old male was treated with corticosteroid under suspicion of adult onset still's disease for six-week history of fever. Within 2 weeks since the initiation of corticosteroid therapy, the patient experienced acute exacerbation of cryptic miliary tuberculosis, which evolved to an overt form, appearing as miliary nodules on both chest radiograph and HRCT. Then, his condition suddenly deteriorated to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in less than a day. DIAGNOSIS: The final diagnosis was miliary tuberculosis complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was placed on classic quadruple anti-TB treatment (isoniazide, ethambutol, rifampin, and pyrazinamide). OUTCOMES: His fever subsided in about 6 weeks and 3 consecutive sputum AFB smears collected on different days were confirmed negative. Diffuse infiltrates on his chest x-ray were completely resolved. LESSONS: The case described here draws a clinical and radiological picture of how an occult form of miliary TB evolved to an overt form with use of steroid, and then suddenly progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome in an immunocompetent young male. This raises awareness on the potential risk of using corticosteroid in patients with cryptic miliary TB. There is formidable challenge in the diagnosis of miliary TB, especially in the early stages. Atypical or even normal outcomes of clinical, microbiochemical, and radiologic evaluation should not be overlooked and dedicated diagnostic work-up should be performed. For equivocal cases, active surveillance with serial radiographs can be helpful.


Assuntos
Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Miliar/complicações , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , /fisiopatologia , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/complicações , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tuberculose Miliar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Miliar/fisiopatologia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013101, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely given to children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Their use is still controversial and the decision to administer the intervention can vary by centre and/or by individual doctors within that centre. OBJECTIVES: This review is designed to assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic corticosteroids in children between birth and 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science in June 2020. We also searched four clinical trials registers and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, including single and multiple doses, and all types of corticosteroids administered via any route and at any time-point in the perioperative period. We excluded studies if steroids were administered therapeutically. We included individually randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with two or more groups (e.g. multi-drug or dose comparisons with a control group) but not 'head-to-head' trials without a placebo or a group that did not receive corticosteroids. We included studies in children, from birth up to 18 years of age, including preterm infants, undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB. We also excluded studies in patients undergoing heart or lung transplantation, or both; studies in patients already receiving corticosteroids; in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and in patients given steroids at the time of cardiac surgery for indications other than cardiac surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the Covidence systematic review manager to extract and manage data for the review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by consultation with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We found 3748 studies, of which 888 were duplicate records. Two studies had the same clinical trial registration number, but reported different populations and interventions. We therefore included them as separate studies. We screened titles and abstracts of 2868 records and reviewed full text reports for 84 studies to determine eligibility. We extracted data for 13 studies. Pooled analyses are based on eight studies. We reported the remaining five studies narratively due to zero events for both intervention and placebo in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, the final meta-analysis included eight studies with a combined population of 478 participants. There was a low or unclear risk of bias across the domains. There was moderate certainty of evidence that corticosteroids do not change the risk of in-hospital mortality (five RCTs; 313 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.07) for children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. There was high certainty of evidence that corticosteroids reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (six RCTs; 421 participants; mean difference (MD) 11.37 hours lower, 95% CI -20.29 to -2.45) after the surgery. There was high-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay (six RCTs; 421 participants; MD 0.28 days lower, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.24) and moderate-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of the postoperative hospital stay (one RCT; 176 participants; mean length of stay 22 days; MD -0.70 days, 95% CI -2.62 to 1.22). There was moderate certainty of evidence for no effect of the intervention on all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (five RCTs; 313 participants; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.07) or cardiovascular mortality at the longest follow-up (three RCTs; 109 participants; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.46). There was low certainty of evidence that corticosteroids probably make little to no difference to children separating from CPB (one RCT; 40 participants; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.92). We were unable to report information regarding adverse events of the intervention due to the heterogeneity of reporting of outcomes. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for several reasons, including imprecision due to small sample sizes, a single study providing data for an individual outcome, the inclusion of both appreciable benefit and harm in the confidence interval, and publication bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids  probably do not change the risk of mortality for children having heart surgery using CPB at any time point. They probably reduce the duration of postoperative ventilation in this context, but have little or no effect on the total length of postoperative ICU stay or total postoperative hospital stay. There was inconsistency in the adverse event outcomes reported which, consequently, could not be pooled. It is therefore impossible to provide any implications and policy-makers will be unable to make any recommendations for practice without evidence about adverse effects. The review highlighted the need for well-conducted RCTs powered for clinical outcomes to confirm or refute the effect of corticosteroids versus placebo in children having cardiac surgery with CPB. A core outcome set for adverse event reporting in the paediatric major surgery and intensive care setting is required.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Viés , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Máquina Coração-Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/etiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013256, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medications used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have significantly improved patient outcomes and delayed time to surgery. However, some of these therapies are recognized to increase the general risk of infection and have an unclear impact on postoperative infection risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of perioperative IBD medications on the risk of postoperative infections within 30 days of surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane IBD Group's Specialized Register (29 October 2019), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2019), Embase (January 1985 to October 2019), the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception up to October 2019, and reference lists of articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies comparing participants treated with an IBD medication preoperatively or within 30 days postoperatively to those who were not taking that medication (either another active medication, placebo, or no treatment). We included published study reports and abstracts. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and extracted data. The primary outcome was postoperative infection within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included incisional infections and wound dehiscence, intra-abdominal infectious complications and extra-abdominal infections. Three review authors assessed risks of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We contacted authors for additional information when data were missing. For the primary and secondary outcomes, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the generic inverse variance method. When applicable, we analyzed adjusted and unadjusted data separately. We evaluated the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 68 observational cohort studies (total number of participants unknown because some studies did not report the number of participants). Of these, 48 studies reported including participants with Crohn's disease, 36 reported including participants with ulcerative colitis and five reported including participants with indeterminate colitis. All 42 studies that reported urgency of surgery included elective surgeries, with 31 (74%) of those also including emergency surgeries. Twenty-four studies had low risk of bias while the rest had very high risk. Based on pooling of adjusted data, we calculated ORs for postoperative total infection rates in participants who received corticosteroids (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.09; low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.76; low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.13; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.36; low-certainty evidence). We pooled unadjusted data to assess postoperative total infection rates for the use of aminosalicylates (5-ASA) (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.14; very low-certainty evidence). One secondary outcome examined was wound-related complications in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.72 to 2.74; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.89; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.68; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.77 to 3.50; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. Another secondary outcome examined the odds of postoperative intra-abdominal infections in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84; very low-certainty evidence), 5-ASA (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.33; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.12; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.82; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.20; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. Lastly we checked the odds for extra-abdominal infections in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.55; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.71; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.87; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.43 to 3.08; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for corticosteroids, 5-ASA, immunomodulators, anti-TNF medications and anti-integrin medications was of low or very low certainty. The impact of these medications on postoperative infectious complications is uncertain and we can draw no firm conclusions about their safety in the perioperative period. Decisions on preoperative IBD medications should be tailored to each person's unique circumstances. Future studies should focus on controlling for potential confounding factors to generate higher-quality evidence.


Assuntos
Infecções/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Ácidos Aminossalicílicos/efeitos adversos , Viés , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Integrinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/induzido quimicamente , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Radiology ; 297(3): 503-512, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079000

RESUMO

Current management of osteoarthritis (OA) is primarily focused on symptom control. Intra-articular corticosteroid (IACS) injections are often used for pain management of hip and knee OA in patients who have not responded to oral or topical analgesics. Recent case series suggested that negative structural outcomes including accelerated OA progression, subchondral insufficiency fracture, complications of pre-existing osteonecrosis, and rapid joint destruction (including bone loss) may be observed in patients who received IACS injections. This expert panel report reviews the current understanding of pain in OA, summarizes current international guidelines regarding indications for IACS injection, and considers preinterventional safety measures, including imaging. Potential profiles of those who would likely benefit from IACS injection and a suggestion for an updated patient consent form are presented. As of today, there is no established recommendation or consensus regarding imaging, clinical, or laboratory markers before an IACS injection to screen for OA-related imaging abnormalities. Repeating radiographs before each subsequent IACS injection remains controversial. The true cause and natural history of these complications are unclear and require further study. To determine the cause and natural history, large prospective studies evaluating the risk of accelerated OA or joint destruction after IACS injections are needed. However, given the relatively rare incidence of these adverse outcomes, any clinical trial would be challenging in design and a large number of patients would need to be included.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares
15.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 409-415, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877099

RESUMO

Hip osteonecrosis. Hip osteonecrosis of the is a relatively common pathology, responsible for pain and functional disability mainly affecting young people. It corresponds to bone necrosis of the femoral head, secondary to ischemic and/or cytotoxic mechanisms. They can be unilateral, bilateral or multifocal, thus testifying to the systemic nature of their origin and the importance of the general factors involved in their occurrence. Many risk factors are to be looked for, such as corticosteroid therapy, alcohol abuse, dyslipidemia or sickle cell anemia. MRI is the examination that allows a positive diagnosis and should be offered in the face of any unexplained pain in the young subject, with a normal X-ray. In advanced forms with a collapse of the joint surface and then secondary arthritis, surgical treatment with arthroplasty is the main possible option. The hip prosthesis provides these patients with a comfortable life; but it is not without risk taking into account the pathology which is usually the cause of osteonecrosis: in fact, osteonecrosis of the hip is often associated with serious medical pathologies such as hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia in particular), taking corticosteroids in large doses in connection with organ transplantation or diseases such as lupus erythematosus, autoimmune diseases, hyperlipidemias and excessive alcohol intake. However, there are promising therapeutic advances, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells, which could in the future improve the poor joint prognosis of aseptic osteonecrosis. These conservative treatments are recommended at a stage without collapse of the articular surface.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Osteonecrose/cirurgia , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Osteonecrose/etiologia
16.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S239-S270, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews have been conducted to summarize the evidence for administration of local anesthetic (lidocaine) alone or with steroids, with discordant opinions, more in favor of equal effect with local anesthetic alone or with steroids. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of lidocaine alone and lidocaine with steroids in managing spinal pain to assess superiority or equivalency. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of RCTs assessing the effectiveness of lidocaine alone compared with addition of steroids to lidocaine in managing spinal pain secondary to multiple causes (disc herniation, radiculitis, discogenic pain, spinal stenosis, and post-surgery syndrome). METHODS: This systematic review was performed utilizing Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) for literature search, Cochrane review criteria, and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) to assess the methodologic quality assessment and qualitative analysis utilizing best evidence synthesis principles, and quantitative analysis utilizing conventional and single-arm meta-analysis. PubMed, Cochrane Library, US National Guideline Clearinghouse, Google Scholar, and prior systematic reviews and reference lists were utilized in the literature search from 1966 through December 2019. The evidence was summarized utilizing principles of best evidence synthesis on a scale of 1 to 5. OUTCOME MEASURES: A hard endpoint for the primary outcome was defined as the proportion of patients with 50% pain relief and improvement in function. Secondary outcome measures, or soft endpoints, were pain relief and/or improvement in function. Effectiveness was determined as short-term if it was less than 6 months. Improvement that lasted longer than 6 months, was defined as long-term. RESULTS: Based on search criteria, 15 manuscripts were identified and considered for inclusion for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis with conventional meta-analysis, and single-arm meta-analysis. The results showed Level II, moderate evidence, for short-term and long-term improvement in pain and function with the application of epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroid in managing spinal pain of multiple origins. LIMITATIONS: Despite 15 RCTs, evidence may still be considered as less than optimal and further studies are recommended. CONCLUSION: Overall, the present meta-analysis shows moderate (Level II) evidence for epidural injections with lidocaine with or without steroids in managing spinal pain secondary to disc herniation, spinal stenosis, discogenic pain, and post-surgery syndrome based on relevant, high-quality RCTs. Results were similar for lidocaine, with or without steroids.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 706, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) among COPD patients using fluticasone/salmeterol or budesonide/formoterol, and to identify any differences between these two groups of patients. METHODS: The study enrolled COPD patients from Taiwan NHIRD who received treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol or budesonide/formoterol for > 90 days between 2004 and 2011. The incidence of active TB was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Among the intention-to-treat population prior to matching, the incidence rates of active TB were 0.94 and 0.61% in the fluticasone/salmeterol and budesonide/formoterol groups, respectively. After matching, the fluticasone/salmeterol group had significantly higher rates of active TB (adjusted HR, 1.41, 95% CI, 1.17-1.70) compared with the budesonide/formoterol group. The significant difference between these two groups remained after a competing risk analysis (HR, 1.45, 95% CI, 1.21-1.74). Following propensity score matching, the fluticasone/salmeterol group had significantly higher rates of active TB compared with the budesonide/formoterol group (adjusted HR, 1.45, 95% CI, 1.14-1.85). A similar trend was observed after a competing risk analysis (HR, 1.44, 95% CI, 1.19-1.75). A higher risk of active TB was observed in the fluticasone/salmeterol group compared with the budesonide/formoterol group across all subgroups, but some differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Fluticasone/salmeterol carried a higher risk of active TB compared with budesonide/formoterol among COPD patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a plausible complication in brain tumor patients. Frequent use of corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy, and oxidative stress for managing brain tumors may be associated with the development of ONFH. However, there is little knowledge on the prevalence and risk factors of ONFH from brain tumor. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of ONFH in patients with primary brain tumors. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included data from consecutive patients between December 2005 and August 2016 from a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. A total of 73 cases of ONFH were identified among 10,674 primary brain tumor patients. After excluding subjects (25 out of 73) with missing data, history of alcohol consumption or smoking, history of femoral bone trauma or surgery, comorbidities such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), sickle cell disease, cancer patients other than brain tumor, and previous diagnosis of contralateral ONFH, we performed a 1:2 propensity score-matched, case-control study (ONFH group, 48; control group, 96). Risk factors of ONFH in primary brain tumor were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of ONFH in patients with surgical resection of primary brain tumor was 683.9 per 100,000 persons (73 of 10,674). In this cohort, 55 of 74 patients (74.3%) underwent THA for ONFH treatment. We found that diabetes was an independent factor associated with an increased risk of ONFH in primary brain tumor patients (OR = 7.201, 95% CI, 1.349-38.453, p = 0.021). There was a significant difference in univariate analysis, including panhypopituitarism (OR = 4.394, 95% CI, 1.794-11.008, p = 0.002), supratentorial location of brain tumor (OR = 2.616, 95% CI, 1.245-5.499, p = 0.011), and chemotherapy (OR = 2.867, 95% CI, 1.018-8.069, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of ONFH after surgical resection of primary brain tumor was 0.68%. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for developing ONFH, whereas corticosteroid dose was not. Routine screening for brain tumor-associated ONFH is not recommended; however, a high index of clinical suspicion in these patients at risk may allow for early intervention and preservation of the joints.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/etiologia , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of possible patient harm and substantial costs, medication overuse is persistent. Patient reaction is one potential barrier to deprescribing, but little research has assessed this in specific instances of medication discontinuation. We sought to understand Veteran and provider experience when de-implementing guideline-discordant use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in those with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods analysis in a provider-randomized quality improvement project testing a proactive electronic-consultation from pulmonologists recommending ICS discontinuation when appropriate. PCPs at two Veterans Health Administration healthcare systems were included. We completed interviews with 16 unexposed providers and 6 intervention-exposed providers. We interviewed 9 patients within 3 months after their PCP proposed ICS discontinuation. We conducted inductive and deductive content analysis of qualitative data to explore an emergent theme of patient reaction. Forty-eight PCPs returned surveys (24 exposed and 24 unexposed, response rate: 35%). RESULTS: The unexposed providers anticipated their patients might resist ICS discontinuation because it seems counterintuitive to stop something that is working, patient's fear of worsening symptoms, or if the prescription was initiated by another provider. Intervention-exposed providers reported similar experiences in post-intervention interviews. Unexposed providers anticipated that patients may accept ICS discontinuation, citing tactical use of patient-centered care strategies. This was echoed by intervention-exposed providers who had successfully discontinued an ICS. Veterans reported acceding to their providers out of trust or deference to their advanced training, even after describing an ICS as a 'security blanket'. Our survey findings supported the subthemes from our interviews. Among providers who proposed discontinuation of an ICS, 76% reported that they were able to discontinue it or switch to another more appropriate medication. CONCLUSIONS: While PCPs anticipated that patients would resist discontinuing an ICS, interviews with patient and intervention-exposed PCPs along with surveys suggest that patients were receptive to this change.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Desprescrições , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 27-34, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994591

RESUMO

AIM: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) has a high mortality rate in HIV-negative immunocompromised patients, but is preventable with antimicrobial prophylaxis. We aimed to determine the incidence of PCP in three hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand that would have been potentially preventable if patients had been prescribed prophylaxis according to commonly proposed indications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of HIV-negative adults with PCP who were admitted to Middlemore, North Shore or Waitakere Hospitals between January 2011 and June 2017. We classified their PCP as potentially preventable if they had not been prescribed prophylaxis despite having a commonly proposed indication for this. RESULTS: Of the 108 patients with PCP, 33/108 (30.6%) had potentially preventable infection. Of these, 14/33 (42.4%) died within 30 days of diagnosis of PCP. Most potentially preventable infections occurred in patients with solid organ or haematologic malignancies who were receiving high-dose corticosteroids for >4 weeks. We estimate that 28 cases of PCP and 12 deaths could have been prevented over the study duration if prophylaxis was prescribed to those with commonly proposed indications. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial incidence of potentially preventable PCP and PCP-related mortality in the Auckland region. This could be reduced by greater clinician familiarity with commonly proposed indications for PCP prophylaxis, particularly for clinicians prescribing prolonged corticosteroid courses to patients with malignancies.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/etiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumocystis/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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